Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction

Issue 2,2017 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review
    Prashant Tiwari Pratap Kumar Sahu
    2017(2):49-53. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170201
    [Abstract](98) [HTML](0) [PDF 275.48 K](389)
    The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.
    2  The effect of oral lead acetate exposure on bax expression and apoptosis index granulose cells antral follicle in female wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus)
    Dian Aby Restanty Setyawati Soeharto I Wayan Agung Indrawan
    2017(2):54-57. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170202
    [Abstract](119) [HTML](0) [PDF 372.71 K](449)
    Objective: To prove the effect of administered orally lead acetate exposure on Bax expression and the apoptosis index of granulosa cells on antral follicle female albino rats Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: Post-test only control group, using female albino rats Wistar strain aged 10-12 wk (reproductive age) weighing 100-200 g. Twenty-four animal samples were classified into one control group and three groups exposed to lead acetate in doses of 30, 100, and 300 ppm, respectively. Lead acetate was administered orally through a feeding tube over 30 d. Bax expression of granulosa cells on antral follicle was checked using immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis index were examined using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results: Lead increases apoptosis index on doses of 300 ppm. The increase of the Bax expression granulosa cell on antral follicle was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The exposure of lead acetate administrated orally can increase apoptosis index of granulosa cell on antral follicle although it doesn't affect Bax expression.
    3  Prevalence of various pathological conditions in female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
    Perumal Ponraj Sukkum Chang Nakulan V Rajesh Muthusamy Veeraselvam Kalpana Devi Rajesh
    2017(2):58-67. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170203
    [Abstract](115) [HTML](0) [PDF 321.02 K](1995)
    The present review article has described the prevalence of various pathological conditions of reproductive system of female buffaloes starting from ovary to vulva and vagina. Various pathological conditions were analyzed and tabulated as the total number of animal examined, number of the animals showed pathological lesions, percentage of animal showed various pathological lesions and percentage of individual pathological lesion in different parts of reproductive system of female buffaloes. The incidence of disorders of female genital organs of buffaloes has been reported by various authors at various percentages in different countries. The incidence of pathological conditions was recorded in clinically infertile cows after slaughtering or from apparently healthy buffaloes slaughtered for human consumption and/or based on postmortem examination. This review is comprehensively covering pathological conditions of female buffalo hitherto which was not previously described at one place. This review will provide a comprehensive knowledge about the prevalence of different pathological condition of different parts of reproductive tract of female buffaloes. The review has six numbers of tables described about the various pathological conditions from ovary to vulva and vagina in female buffaloes. The present review article will be very useful to the buffalo farmers, buffalo breeders and researchers are working in buffalo reproduction & breeding and pathology.
    4  Preservability of rabbit semen after chilled storage in tris based extender enriched with different concentrations of Propolis ethanolic extract (PEE)
    Islam El-Sayed El-Seadawy Walid Said El-Nattat Magda Mohamed El-Tohamy Samy Ali Hussein Aziza Yakot Abdelfattah El-Senosy Ahmed Said Hussein
    2017(2):68-76. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170204
    [Abstract](61) [HTML](0) [PDF 515.41 K](341)
    Objective: To maintain semen quality of male rabbits during chilled storage by enrichment the tris based diluent with different concentrations of propolis ethanolic extracts. Methods: Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant activity was determined in propolis ethanolic extract (PEE). The extract was analysed by HPLC for separation and identification of target metabolites. Semen was collected from 10 rabbit bucks, pooled, then divided into five aliquots (each of 500 μL) and diluted each in 5 mL Tris-citric acid-glucose-egg yolk extender (TCGY). The 1st aliquot served as control while PEE was added at concentration of 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 mg/5 mL tris extender in the aliquot 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Diluted semen samples were subjected to cooling at 4 for 72 h. Sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm abnormality, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were evaluated in chilled semen allover the chilling period. Results: The resluts revealed presence of a considerable amount of total phenolic compounds (98.67 mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (70.16 mg CE/g extract) which were parallel to an antioxidant activity assessed as ABTS, DPPH and FRAP (198.65, 180.18 and 306.17 mM TE/g extract respectively). The dominant phenolic acid was chlorogenic acids (3.959 mg/g extract). Other compounds were found in less amounts rosmarinic acid (3.959 mg/g extract), myrcetin (1.946 mg/g extract), kaempferol (1.089 mg/g extract) and apeginin-7glucoside (1.113 mg/g extract). Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the addition of 1.2 1.6 mg PEE in the chilled extended rabbit semen proved to be beneficial for maintaining semen characteristics compared to control and the addition of 0.8 and 2 mg PEE. Conclusions: The enrichment of rabbit semen tris-basic extender with 1.2-1.6 mg PEE/5 mL tris-extender (as the best and safe concentrations) maintain the sperm characteristics in good condition all over 72 h of chilling.
    5  Preservability of bull spermatozoa in Tris-egg yolk extender enriched with different concentrations of butylated hydroxytoluene
    El-Sheshtawy RI El-Nattat WS El-Sisy GA
    2017(2):77-80. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170205
    [Abstract](75) [HTML](0) [PDF 296.09 K](962)
    Objective: To explore the effect of BHT on cattle spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk (TCFY) diluent considered as control (0 BHT) and different concentrations of BHT (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mM were prepared in ethanol in prewarmed (37°C) test tubes. The ethanol was allowed to evaporate so that, a thin crystallized layer of BHT was deposited on the inner surface of the tubes. Then extended semen was added into the tubes and incubated at 37°C for 5 min to allow uptake of BHT by spermatozoa. The tubes were cooled slowly (approximately for 2 h) up to 5 and equilibrated for 4 h. After equilibration, semen freezing process was carried out. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive sperm, intact sperm membrane (HOST) % and acrosome integrity) in both cooled and cryopreserved semen. Results: The result revealed that sperm motility of post-cooled spermatozoa improved (P<0.05) by the use of BHT concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mM) in Tris semen extender if compared to the control (85.00±1.09), (83.33± 0.63), (81.67± 0.63) and (78.33± 0.63), respectively. Alive sperm percent was significantly higher in all concentrations of BHT. Sperm abnormalities percent were significantly lower in concentrations of BHT 1 and 2 (11.2±0.2), (11.8±0.2)and (13.4±0.4), respectively. Sperm membrane integrity were significantly higher in BHT concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM). It is exhibited that improved sperm motility in post-thawed frozen semen in the concentrations of BHT (1, 2, 3 and 4 mM) if compared to the control. The sperm membrane integrity were significantly improved at all concentrations of BHT. Acrosome integrity was significantly higher at BHT concentration 1 mM (81.80±0.57) and (76.00±2.05), respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that some concentrations of BHT improved bull semen quality post-cooling and post-freezing.
    6  Impact of silymarin enriched semen extender on bull sperm preservability
    El-Sheshtawy RI El-Nattat WS
    2017(2):81-84. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170206
    [Abstract](116) [HTML](0) [PDF 270.97 K](434)
    Objective: To explore the effect of silymarin on bull spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk diluents, purified silymarin powder (obtained from the milk thistle silybum marianum), purchased from Unipharma, Al Obour city, Egypt, was soaked in Tris-citric acid-fructose diluent for 48 h at 10 making a stock solution (70 mg/ mL), from this stock solution we obtained concentrations of 0.18 mg/mL, 0.36 mg/mL, 0.54 mg/mL, 0.72 mg/mL, 0.90 mg/mL in addition to the control (0.00 mg/mL) reaching a final volume of 5 mL in each tube. Egg yolk was added to each tube to obtain silymarin enriched semen extender (SEE) with 20% egg yolk, cooled slowly up to 5 and equilibrated for 4 h. Semen was packed into 0.25 mL polyvinyl French straws (IMV, France). After equilibration periods, the straws were placed horizontally on a rack and frozen in a vapor 4 cm above liquid nitrogen for 10 min and were then dipped in liquid nitrogen. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive%, abnormality%, intact sperm membrane (HOST)% and conception rate) in both chilled and frozen semen. Results: Table 1 revealed that Sperm motility of the concentrations 2, 3 and 4 after 8 d of chilling were significantly (P<0.02) higher than control. Sperm motility of the concentration 2 (45.00%±2.89%) after 9 d of chilling was higher than control and the other concentrations. Addition of SEE in concentration 1 and 2 gave post thawing sperm motility as high as the control (47.50±2.81 and 45.00±2.58, respectively) while other concentration have lower effects on motility as compared to the control. Addition of silymarin improved post thawing alive% and was significantly higher (P<0.000 1) than the control. SEE decreased significantly (P<0.000 1) the % of post thawing abnormal sperm in concentration 3 and 4 (11.83±0.65 and 16.00±0.58, respectively). SEE improved significantly (P<0.018) the % of post thawing intact spermatozoa membranes (HOST%) in concentrations 2, 4 and 5 (71.17±0.83, 71.83±0.91 and 75.00±3.42, respectively) (Table 2). Conclusion: It could be concluded that silymarin as a natural additive to semen extenders improved preservability in both chilled and frozen bull semen.
    7  Effect of using ascorbic acid and cysteamine supplementation on in-vitro development of buffalo embryos
    Al-shimaa Al-H H El-Naby KarimaGh M Mahmoud Gamal AM Sosa Mahmoud EA Abouel-Roos Youssef F Ahmed
    2017(2):85-88. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170207
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 303.18 K](316)
    Objective: To improve in vitro embryo production in buffalo by supplementation of L-ascorbic acid during maturation and development (experiment 1) and combination with another antioxidant as cysteamine (experiment 2). Methods: Two experiments were performed, the first one aimed to evaluate the different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 μM) of L-ascorbic acid on embryo developmental rate of buffalo oocytes. The L-ascorbic acid was added to the maturation and culture media. In the second experiment, oocytes were cultured in media with two type of antioxidant (ascorbic acid + cysteamine) or ascorbic acid only. Results: There was a significant increase in cleavage rate at 25, 50 μM than 100 μM and control group. But, the blastocyst rate was higher at 50 μM ascorbic acid than other concentrations (0, 25, 100 μM). Supplementation of ascorbic acid and cysteamine to maturation and cultured media improved embryo development than ascorbic acid alone. Conclusions: Using of 50 μM L-ascorbic acid during in vitro maturation and development improve the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes, this effect was increase with the presence of cysteamine.
    8  Pregnancy outcome of day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: A retrospective analysis
    Samaher Alfaraj Fatima Alzaher Sahar Alshwaiaer Anwar Ahmed
    2017(2):89-92. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170208
    [Abstract](111) [HTML](0) [PDF 345.37 K](397)
    Objective: To compare the pregnancy rate between day 3 and day 5 transfer regardless grades of embryos and number of transferred embryo. Methods: Retrospective cohort, a total of seven hundred and four patients met our inclusion criteria, with 411 had day 3 embryo transfer and 293 had day 5 embryo transfer. The patients who were older than 40 years old were excluded. Embryo transfer was carried out in all patients in both transfer groups. Results: Both clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate did not show any statistically significant difference between the day 3 and day five transfer groups. These were 44% vs. 45% with P=0.82 and 19% vs. 19% with P=0.99 respectively. An increase of miscarriage rate with day 5 embryo transferred compare with day 3 (12.0% vs. 4.4%, P=0.01), but no significant difference was found about biochemical pregnancy rate (P=0.52). Conclusions: Transferring embryo at day 5 may not provide any additional benefit over day 3 transfers to patients. In addition, it increases the risk of miscarriage. Further studies of this issue needed for confirming our findings.
    9  Cervical dilation and improvement of reproductive performance in fat-tailed ewes via cervical dilator treatments
    Reza Masoudi Ahmad Zare Shahneh Armin Towhidi Hamid Kohram Abbas Akbarisharif Mohsen Sharafi Mahdi Zhandi MAMM Shahab-El-Deen
    2017(2):93-96. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170209
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 299.29 K](1105)
    Objective: To determine the effect of different cervical dilators on cervical dilation and reproductive performance of fat-tailed ewes. Methods: In experiment 1 140 ewes were divided into seven groups with seven different treatments as following: 10 mL normal saline (control group), 100 IU oxytocin (OT group), 100 μg estradiol and 100 IU oxytocin (E2+OT group), 5 mL relaxin (R group), 2 mL sensiblex (SEN group), 200 μg misoprostol (MIS group) or 200 μg dinoprostone (DIN group). In experiment 2, artificial insemination was applied for evaluation of reproductive performance in experimental groups. Results: In experiment 1, the highest cervical dilation was observed in OT (90%) and E2+OT (100%) groups (P<0.05), while no significant differences was found among DIN, MIS, SEN and R groups (80%, 75%, 70% and 65%, respectively). In addition, the lowest cervical dilation was observed in control group. Experiment 2 found no significant differences among control, OT and E2+OT groups. The highest pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were observed in OT groups (60%, 60% and 70%, respectively) and E2+OT groups (65%, 60% and 70%, respectively) compared to SEN, R, MIS and DIN groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oxytocin treatment alone or with estradiol could be used as a suitable dilator for improving reproductive efficiency during artificial insemination in fat-tailed ewes.

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