Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction

Issue 4,2018 Table of Contents

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  • 1  In vitro fertilization: Facts in medical sciences
    S. Bhargavi Subhalaxmi Swain Abhisek Mishra Arun Kumar Pradhan
    2018(4):145-150. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237050
    [Abstract](117) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.42 K](273)
    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the assisted reproductive technologies in the field of medical sciences. Fusion of collected egg from female and sperm from male done in a culture media under aseptic condition in laboratory is called as IVF. This technique is one of the gifts of science towards the human society and mainly those who are facing problem in reproduction due to having either male or female defective reproductive systems. In this present study, factors to consider during IVF, steps followed in this technology, need of IVF are discussed. Risk of multiple birth and phenotypic changes to the newborn due to IVF are also well reviewed. And different types of instruments used during this process are focused. Few ethical and legal issues arising during this IVF process are shown as well. We also emphasize that part of IVF.
    2  Association of in-vitro fertilization twin pregnancy with maternal and perinatal complications
    Grasmane Adele Purina-Liberte Katrina Rots Dmitrijs Miltina Inara Rezeberga Dace
    2018(4):151-154. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237051
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 291.54 K](187)
    Objective: To analyze maternal and perinatal complication rates inin-vitro fertilization (IVF) twins and spontaneous twin pregnancies. Methods: The information on obstetric and perinatal outcomes and complications covering 95 IVF twins and 165 spontaneous twin pregnancies was collected from the medical records of Riga Maternity Hospital. Statistical analysis and adjustment for confounders was performed using the SPSS v24.0 software. The continuous data were compared using the t-test and Mann-Whitney U test for parametrical and nonparametrical data accordingly. The nominal data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: The preterm labor risk, intrauterine growth restriction, fetus weight between IVF and spontaneous twins were not statistically significant (P>0.005). At the same time our study revealed a statistically significant association of gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension with IVF twin pregnancies (P=0.025 and P=0.003, respectively). Moreover, IVF twins had higher odds to be delivered by cesarean section (P=0.001). Conclusions: IVF twin pregnancies are associated with a higher risk of development of gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension than spontaneous twin pregnancies.
    3  Effects of Lepidium sativum supplementation on growth and gonadotropins secretion in ovariectomized, estrogen-implanted rabbits
    Oluwatosin V. Imade Wuraola A. Erinfolami Rasheed A. Ajadi Monsuru O. Abioja Samson A. Rahman Olusiji F. Smith Oladele S. Gazal
    2018(4):155-160. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237052
    [Abstract](52) [HTML](0) [PDF 349.90 K](176)
    Objective: To test the effects of dietary supplementation of Lepidium sativum (LS) seed powder on growth performance and gonadotropins secretion in ovariectomized, estradiolimplanted rabbits. Methods: Ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted Chinchilla rabbits were assigned into four experimental groups: LS seed powder was included into normal rabbit chow at 0% (control), 5% (low), 7% (mid) and 10% (high) w/w. Experimental feed and water were given ad-libitum for 3 weeks. Weekly body weights and daily feed intake of rabbits were recorded. Twenty-one days post-feeding, blood samples were collected at 15-minute interval for 3 h (PeriodⅠ) after which 2.5 μg gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was injected intravenously and the sampling continued for another hour (PeriodⅡ). Plasma was harvested and analyzed for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by radioimmunoassay. Results: Feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) increased in LS-supplemented rabbits. However, the increase in feed intake did not result in significant body weight gain. LS seed supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased mean plasma LH dose-dependently from the low- to the mid-LS level and then decreased LH at the high-LS level. LS supplementation increased (P<0.001) plasma FSH secretion. Injection of GnRH had no effect on plasma LH, however significantly (P<0.05) decreased overall plasma FSH secretion. Conclusions: LS seed supplementation stimulates feed intake and gonadotropins secretion in rabbits. Gonadotropins effect may be mediated through LS seeds phytosterols through the activation of estrogen receptors thereby producing agonistic effects resulting in LH and FSH secretion. The differential responses of gonadotropins to GnRH in LS-supplemented rabbits suggest differential regulation of the synthesis and secretion of these gonadotropins.
    4  Developmental competence of bovine oocytes with increasing concentrations of nano-copper and nano-zinc particles during in vitro maturation
    Bakar R Abdel-Halim Walaa A Moselhy Nermeen Atef Helmy
    2018(4):161-166. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237053
    [Abstract](110) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.72 K](226)
    Objective: To evaluate copper and zinc concentrations in plasma and follicular fluid from cattle ovaries, and estimate the impact of rational concentrations of copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs & ZnO-NPs) supplemented during in vitro maturation (IVM) against DNA damage of cumulus cells, glutathione content in oocytes and on consequent embryo development. Methods: Oocytes were obtained from 2 to 8 mm follicles by aspiration method for IVM. Replicates of experiments were performed on different days, with a separate batch of cumulus oocytes complex for each day. Results: The DNA damage of oocytes and cumulus cells significantly decreased with supplemental CuO-NPs or ZnO- NPs concentrations of 0.7 and 1.0 µg/mL in the IVM medium compared to medium without CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs (P < 0.01). Total glutathione concentrations in oocytes and cumulus cells significantly increased following supplementation with both 0.7 and 1.0 g/mL CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs in comparison with 0 and 0.4 µg/mL CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs supplemented groups (P < 0.01). Supplementation of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs during IVM medium at any concentration had no significant effect on cleavge rate. Both CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs significantly increased blastocyst rates when oocytes were matured with 0.7, 1.0 µg/mL CuO-NPs concentrations (P < 0.01). In contrast, addition of 1.5 µg/mL of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs to the maturation media resulted in detrimental effects on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes confirming toxicity induced by CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs in high concentrations. Conclusions: CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs-treated bovine oocytes during IVM show low level of DNA fragmentation and increased intracellular glutathione content of cumulus cells. In vitro embryo development is improved by supplementation of rational concentrations of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs to culture media. Toxicity induced by CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs is confirmed in high concentrations.
    5  productive ability of high-producing cows, and qualitative parameters of their offspring, under conditions of intensive milk production
    Khamidulla B. Baimishev Murat H. Baimishev Vasily S. Grigoryev Alexander P. Kokhanov Inna V. Uskova Ismagil N. Khakimov
    2018(4):167-171. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237054
    [Abstract](99) [HTML](0) [PDF 280.95 K](441)
    Objective: To study the methods of increasing the reproductive qualities and indices of viability in the offspring of Holstein cows under conditions of intensive milk production. Methods: Studies were conducted on 3 groups of Holstein cows with 30 heads in each group. Animals of the experimental groups had a different length physiological period. The study focused on experimental groups of animals: the reproductive indicators, the viability of newborn calves, and their growth rate. All the digital materials of the experimental data were processed by the method of variation statistics for the significance of the difference of the compared parameters using the Student’s criterion, adopted in biology and zootechnics. Results: Studies found that reduction of the duration of the service period, along with a simultaneous increase in the inter-lactation period to 80–90 days, increased the reproductive capacity of the cows, and enhances the viability of the offspring compared with their peers. Conclusions: The study revealed the optimal duration of the physiological periods in highproducing cows under conditions of intensive milk production technology.
    6  Consequences of unilateral cryptorchidism on semen and sperm characteristics in West African Dwarf Goats
    Chike F. Oguejiofor Izuchukwu S. Ochiogu Okechi L. Okoro Vitalis U. Ogbu
    2018(4):172-177. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237055
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.40 K](194)
    Objective: To evaluate the influence of unilateral cryptorchidism on semen and sperm characteristics in West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. Methods: Semen was collected using electroejaculator from five unilaterally cryptorchid (UC) and five normal (non-cryptorchid) WAD bucks and analyzed for gross, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Results: Gross semen evaluation showed no differences between the groups in semen color, viscosity and pH, whereas the normal bucks yielded semen with significantly higher specific gravity (P=0.043 6) and volume (P=0.038 8) than the UC group. Following semen microscopic evaluation, the percentage of sperm vitality (live sperm) was not significantly different between both groups. However, UC bucks yielded semen with significantly lower sperm motility (P=0.038 7), sperm concentration per mL (P=0.002 0) and total sperm count per ejaculate (P=0.007 4). The percentage total sperm abnormality was also higher (P<0.000 1) in the semen of UC goats. Abnormalities observed included sperm with cytoplasmic droplets, looped tails, coiled tails and tailless heads. Sperm morphometry showed no differences in the sperm head length and head width between the groups. Biochemical semen evaluation did not reveal any differences between the groups in the concentration of seminal plasma total protein, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level. Conclusions: Unilateral cryptorchidism significantly affected the quantity and quality of semen and spermatozoa in affected WAD bucks. Due to the hereditary attribute of the condition, it is recommended that animals with this condition should not be used in breeding to forestall increasing prevalence of cryptorchidism in goats.
    7  Effect of foot and mouth disease vaccination on seminal antioxidant profiles of mithun (Bos frontalis)
    P. Perumal
    2018(4):178-184. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237056
    [Abstract](59) [HTML](0) [PDF 393.63 K](194)
    Objective: To assess the deleterious effects of foot and mouth disease vaccination on antioxidant profiles as well as oxidative stress in the semen of breeding mithun bulls. Methods: A total of 160 semen samples were collected from 8 adult healthy mithun bulls with good body condition score (5-6), which were maintained at semen collection centre, ICAR-National Research Centre on Mithun, Medziphema, Nagaland, India, twice a week, 4 weeks before vaccination (pre-vaccination stage) and 12 weeks after vaccination (post-vaccination stage) to understand and know the influence of vaccine stress on seminal antioxidant as well as oxidative stress profiles in mithun. Vaccine was injected at the end of week 4 and semen samples were collected & analysed up to week 16 of the investigation period. Results: Data analysis showed that foot and mouth disease vaccination has significantly (P<0.05) altered the seminal antioxidant, biochemical and oxidative stress profiles up to week 10th of vaccine administration. However, the immunised bulls were recovered in physical health status, semen production and its antioxidant profiles gradually. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the semen sample collection as well as preservation should to be suspended up to week 10th of post immunization to get antioxidant and biochemical profiles in normal level in the semen to preserve normal conception rate in artificial breeding programme by using such semen in mithun species.
    8  Treatment of cows with clinical endometritis III as cows affected by pyometra-Non antibiotic treatment of severe clinical endometritis
    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi Asghar Mogheiseh Abdolah Mirzaei Saeed Nazifi Eisa Fallah
    2018(4):185-190. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237057
    [Abstract](77) [HTML](0) [PDF 317.84 K](216)
    Objective: To confirm the efficacy of non-antibiotic treatment with prostaglandin F2a(PGF2a) in dairy cows affected by severe clinical endometritis in (30±3) days in milk. Methods: Cows with clinical endometritis III (n=399) were aligned into three groups randomly. The first group (n=115) received PGF2a, the second group (n=84) received intrauterine infusion (IUI) of oxytetracycline 10% + PGF2a,αand the third group (n=200) received IUI. Cows were inseminated following estrus. The pregnancy status, parity, calving and artificial insemination season, ovaries with corpus luteum at the time of treatment, dystocia, body condition score and treatment groups were included in data analysis. Results: Total pregnancy rate was 40.1% after the first insemination and 94.2% after the third insemination. Overall pregnancy rate of treated cows with IUI+PGF2a(84.5%) was significantly lower than the treated cows with PGF2a(98.3%) or IUI (96%) (P<0.05). The first service pregnancy rate of inseminated cows in summer (14.3%) was lower in comparison with cows inseminated in spring (40.4%), fall (41.4%) and winter (51.7%) (P<0.05). Conclusions: PGF2a could treat severe clinical endometritis in dairy cows with corpus luteum in comparison with other treatments.
    9  Functions of follicular and marginal zone B cells in pregnancy
    Sulagna Dutta Pallav Sengupta
    2018(4):191-192. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237058
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.44 K](400)

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