Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction

Issue 6,2023 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Oxidative stress in male infertility and therapeutic approach: A mini-review
    Marwa Lahimer Henda Mustapha V é ronique Bach Hafida Khorsi-Cauet Moncef Benkhalifa Mounir Ajina Habib Ben Ali
    2023(6):249-255. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390299
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 700.15 K](117)
    Abstract:
    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a major cause of male infertility. Spermatozoa are highly sensitive cells due to the vulnerability of their membrane fatty acids and the diminished antioxidant defense. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) impact multiple signaling pathways involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, hormonal unbalance and semen quality decline. The origin of ROS is diverse, including generated normal cellular metabolism, environmental exposure, advanced paternal age and inflammation. Research has indicated that antioxidant supplementation can improve oxidative stress and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Moreover, it is widely known that antioxidant supplementation can enhance sperm quality and increase the pregnancy rate in couples undergoing fertility treatments. The current study highlights the deleterious effect of ROS and its impact on semen function. In addition, it contributes to the development of a clinical approach for the use of antioxidants in the management of male infertility.
    2  Myo-inositol versus metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolicprofiles in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlledtrial
    Nguyen Sa Viet Le Minh Tam Le Thanh Ngoc Cao
    2023(6):256-265. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390300
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 789.04 K](190)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of inositol and metformin on the clinical characteristics, and endocrine and metabolic profiles of infertile polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women from Vietnam. Methods: From June 2018 to August 2022, a randomized trial was undertaken at the Hue Center for Endocrinology and Reproduction on infertile women aged 18 to 40 years with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The clinical, endocrine, and metabolic features of these individuals were assessed before and after 3 months of treatment with 2 g of inositol or 1700 mg of metformin per day. Natural pregnancy rates, adverse effects, and tolerance of inositol were recorded. Results: The study included 171 infertile PCOS women who were eligible to participate and took part in the baseline assessment, of whom 132 women participated in data analysis after 3 months. After metformin treatment, 42.1% of women with oligomenorrhea experienced regular menstruation. Metformin significantly lowered body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and testosterone levels, but had no effect on other clinical characteristics, endocrine profiles, or metabolic profiles. 29.2% Of women reported experiencing side effects. 21% Of them attained pregnancy, which resulted in 17.1% of live births. In the inositol group, the rate of regular cycle increased by 18.2% and the total testosterone concentration significantly decreased. In overweight/obese women with PCOS, inositol significantly decreased weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences (P<0.05). 100% Of women tolerated inositol and continued treatment. 18.9% Of them became pregnant, leading to 17% of live births. Conclusions: Metformin and inositol can improve weight and waist circumference in overweight/obese infertile women with PCOS. Metformin is associated with a higher rate of regular menstruation, whereas inositol is associated with a lower rate of adverse effects. The spontaneous conception, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates between two groups are comparable.
    3  Embryonic, genetic and clinical outcomes of fresh versus vitrified oocyte: A retrospective cohort study
    Phuong Dao Thi Son Dang Truong Thuan Nguyen Duc Anh Pham Van Anh Do Tuan Van Hanh Nguyen
    2023(6):266-272. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390301
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 976.72 K](221)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare embryonic development, ploidy status and clinical outcomes between fresh and frozen-thawed oocytes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 83 fertilization cycles including both fresh and frozen oocytes from 79 patients at the HP Fertility Center of Hai Phong International Hospital of Obstetrics and Pediatrics in Vietnam. The patient underwent several ovarian stimulation cycles to accumulate a certain number of oocytes that would be vitrified. In the last oocyte retrieval, all patient’s oocytes including both frozen and fresh would be fertilized. The outcomes included the rates of oocyte survival, cleavage embryo, blastocyst, ploidy status, pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Results: The oocyte survival rate after thawing was 96.5%. No statistically significant difference was found when comparing fresh and frozen oocytes regarding fertilization rate (78.1% vs.75.5%, P=0.461), usable cleavage embryo rate (86.9% vs. 87.2%, P=0.916) but usable blastocyst rate was found higher statistically in the frozen oocyte group (44.4% vs. 54.0%, P=0.049). The percentages of euploid, aneuploid and mosaic embryos between the fresh group and the vitrified group had no significant differences (33.8% vs. 31.6%, P=0.682; 51.0% vs. 54.2%, P=0.569; 15.2% vs. 12.4%, P=0.787; respectively). The rates of pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy had no statistical difference (68.8% vs. 64.8%, P=0.764; 12.5% vs. 3.6%, P=0.258; 37.5% vs. 46.4%, P=0.565). 17 Mature oocytes are the minimum to have at least one euploid embryo. Conclusions: Oocyte vitrification does not affect embryonic, genetic and clinical results. The number of mature oocytes should be considered for fertilization in some cases.
    4  Cryopreserved ovine spermatogonial stem cells maintain stemness and colony forming ability in vitro
    R. Kumar Pramod Deepthi Varughese A. Javed Jameel Bhisma Narayan Panda Soma Goswami Abhijit Mitra
    2023, 12(6):273-280. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390302
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.08 M](90)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the effect of cryopreservation on stemness and proliferation potential of sheep spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in vitro. Methods: Sheep testicular cells were isolated and putative SSCs were enriched by the laminin-based differential plating method. Putative SSCs were co-cultured with the Sertoli cell feeder prepared by the Datura Stramonium Agglutinin (DSA-lectin)-based method. The cultured putative SSCs were cryopreserved in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium-10% fetal bovine serum mixture (DMEM- 10% FBS) media containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone or 10% DMSO plus 200 mM trehalose. Cryopreserved putative SSCs were evaluated for their proliferation potential using in vitro culture and stemness by immunocytochemistry. Finally, the transfection ability of cryopreserved putative SSCs was analyzed. Results: We isolated 91% viable testicular cells from sheep testes. The majority of the laminin enriched cells expressed the SSC related marker, ITGA6. Co-culture of sheep putative SSCs with Sertoli cell feeder resulted in the generation of stable colonies, and the expression of SSC marker was maintained after several passages. A significantly higher number of viable putative SSCs was recovered from SSCs cryopreserved in media containing 10% DMSO and 200 mM trehalose compared to 10% DMSO alone (P<0.01). Cryopreserved putative SSCs formed colonies and showed SSC marker expression similar to the non-cryopreserved putative SSCs. The appearance of green fluorescent colonies over the Sertoli cell feeder indicated that cryopreserved sheep SSCs were successfully transfected. Conclusions: Cryopreserved putative SSCs can retain their stemness, colony forming ability, and transfection efficiency in vitro. Our research may help in the effective preservation of germplasm and the generation of transgenic ovine species.
    5  Expression of VEGF165 and VEGF165b during ovarian follicular development
    Chinnarat Changsangfa Bongkoch Turathum Morakot Sroyraya Khwanthana Grataitong
    2023, 12(6):281-287. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390303
    [Abstract](1) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.39 M](88)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165a, VEGF165b, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) in the development of bovine follicles. Methods: We cultured follicular cells that were collected from small, medium, and large sized bovine follicles with estrogen and measured the expression of VEGF, VEGFR2 and VEGF165b by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Results: The expression of VEGF165 increased in all follicle sizes and the expression of VEGF165b was increased in the small and large follicles after culturing in an estrogen containing medium. The expression of VEGFR2 was increased in the medium and large follicles after culturing with estrogen for 96 h. VEGF165 was activated at 100 ng/mL estrogen in the large follicles for 96 h. In addition, VEGFR2 was upregulated in the medium and large follicles after treated with 100 ng/mL estrogen for 96 h. Conclusions: This evidence suggests that the expression of VEGF165 and VEGFR is associated with estrogen stimulation during the development of bovine follicles and in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This reveals an advantage during oocyte maturation in vitro. Objective: To investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165a, VEGF165b, and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) in the development of bovine follicles. Methods: We cultured follicular cells that were collected from small, medium, and large sized bovine follicles with estrogen and measured the expression of VEGF, VEGFR2 and VEGF165b by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Results: The expression of VEGF165 increased in all follicle sizes and the expression of VEGF165b was increased in the small and large follicles after culturing in an estrogen containing medium. The expression of VEGFR2 was increased in the medium and large follicles after culturing with estrogen for 96 h. VEGF165 was activated at 100 ng/mL estrogen in the large follicles for 96 h. In addition, VEGFR2 was upregulated in the medium and large follicles after treated with 100 ng/mL estrogen for 96 h. Conclusions: This evidence suggests that the expression of VEGF165 and VEGFR is associated with estrogen stimulation during the development of bovine follicles and in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This reveals an advantage during oocyte maturation in vitro.
    6  Seasonal stress on semen quality profiles, seminal biochemical and oxidative stressattributes in endangered Teressa goat of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
    P. Perumal Jai Sunder A. K. De D. Bhattacharya A. K. Nahak R. Vikram E. B. Chakurkar
    2023(6):288-298. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.390304
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 828.67 K](96)
    Abstract:
    b>Objective: To measure seasonal effects on semen quality profiles, seminal biochemical and oxidative stress attributes in fresh and liquid stored semen in monsoon and dry seasons. Methods: A total of 10 Teressa bucks (3-4 years) were selected from breeding farm, ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Semen samples (n=25 per season) were collected through artificial vagina method and preserved at refrigerated temperature (5 ℃ ) for 48 h using Tris citrate glucose based extender. We detected semen quality parameters [volume, mass activity, pH, sperm concentration, total motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, and plasma membrane, acrosomal and nuclear integrities], biochemical profiles [aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and total cholesterol], and oxidative stress markers [total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] during monsoon and dry seasons. Results: Semen quality parameters significantly differed between seasons (P<0.05) and among storage periods (P<0.05). Volume, pH, mass activity, motility, viability, acrosomal, plasma membrane and nuclear integrities, and TAC were significantly higher (P<0.05). Sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, MDA, AST, ALT and total cholesterol were significantly lower in fresh semen of monsoon than dry season (P<0.05). Motility, viability, acrosomal, plasma membrane and nuclear integrities, and TAC were significantly decreased (P<0.05) while sperm abnormality, AST, ALT, total cholesterol and MDA were significantly increased as liquid semen storage period advanced (P<0.05). Conclusions: Monsoon season has higher beneficial effects on semen quality profiles and liquid stored semen remained usable for upto 48 h. Good quality ejaculates with higher TAC and lower MDA can be cryopreserved and will be used for artificial insemination.

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