Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction

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  • 1  Effect of Vitex agnus-castus plant extract on polycystic ovary syndrome complicationsin experimental rat model
    Amal H. Hamza Widad M. AlBishri Mona H. Alfaris
    2019(2):63-69. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254647
    [Abstract](491) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3396)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
    2  Molecular interaction of zp3 to zp3r reveals a cross-species fertilization mechanism
    Reni Kurniati Didik Huswo Utomo Sri Rahayu Widodo Sutiman Bambang Sumitro
    2017(3):116-120. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170304
    [Abstract](272) [HTML](0) [PDF 504.65 K](457)
    Abstract:
    Objective:To evaluate the role of ZP3R in the species-specific fertilization mechanism. Methods: ZP3/ZP3R protein sequences of Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Cavia porcellus were downloaded from UNIPROT. Percentage of amino acids that was calculated by using the SIAS program. Protein sequences modeled was established by using the Modeller 9.14 program and glycosylation of the ZP3 using GlyProt program. Docking simulation of the ZP3R-ZP3 was performed between the same species and different species with PatchDock program. Results: Comparison of the ZP3R and ZP3 structure between species showed that ZP3 in these three species was more similar than ZP3R. Docking simulations of protein showed that changes in the pattern of the ZP3-ZP3R domain for interaction on cross-species compared to the same species. Changes in the pattern of binding ZP3R-ZP3 made sperm-egg binding was not functional and could inhibit cross-fertilization. Conclusions: ZP3R-ZP3 interaction is species-specific, and the role of ZP3R is greater than ZP3 in determining the species-specific recognition stage and sperm-egg binding.
    3  Residual impact of 17α-methyltestosterone and histopathological changes in sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
    Dewi Nurmalita Suseno Epy Muhammad Luqman Mirni Lamid Akhmad Taufiq Mukti Muhammad Agus Suprayudi
    2020(1):37-43. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.275527
    [Abstract](182) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.20 M](530)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine sex reversal both by oral and by immersion using 17α-methyltestosterone on the methyltestosterone residual concentration and the organ histopathology of tilapia fish. Methods: This study used oral and immersion treatment methods for sex reversal of tilapia fish and used normal fish as the control and each treatment was repeated 4 times. 17α-methyltestosterone at dosages of 60 mg/kg feed and 0.5 mg/L were used for oral and immersion methods, respectively. In the first step, tilapia fry were reared at 100 L aquaria, with a density of 1 fish/L for 2 months. In the next step, male tilapias were reared at happa (net cage) of (2×1×1) m3 size in the controlled pond, with a density of 30 fish/happa for 3 months. The methyltestosterone residual concentrations were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests, while organ histopathology was analyzed by descriptive method. Results: Residual concentrations in the serum of methyltestosterone-treated fish were significantly lower than that in normal fish, especially in 4- and 5-month-old tilapias with averages of less than 5 µg/L, while in normal fish was more than 5 µg/L. In the flesh, methyltestosterone residual concentrations showed relatively no significant differences between the oral and immersion treatment groups and methyltestosterone-treated fish remained lower compared to normal fish, except in 5-month-old tilapia. Methyltestosterone-treated tilapia exhibited histopathological changes on gill, liver, kidneys, and intestine organs. Conclusions: Sex reversal either by oral or by immersion has methyltestosterone residual concentration, but does not exceed the limits (5 µg/L or 5 µg/kg) of synthetic steroid on the fish body, although methyltestosterone causes histopathological changes on gill, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
    4  Diabetes mellitus and male infertility
    Omolaoye Temidayo S du Plessis Stefan S
    2018(1):6-14. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.220978
    [Abstract](174) [HTML](0) [PDF 394.19 K](513)
    Abstract:
    Infertility is prevalent in about 10%-25% of couples in their reproductive age, analogous to 60-80 million infertile couples globally. Of these infertility cases, 10%-30% are exclusively attributed to a problem of the male. Several diseases have been implicated as contributors to deteriorating male fertility and diabetes mellitus (DM) is included. DM, a chronic noncommunicable disease, has been considered as one of the most appreciable health threats, as it affects 9% (422 million) of the world’s population as of 2014. It is characterised by hyperglycaemia, which can result from the inability of the pancreatic a-cells to secrete insulin or from the target tissue becoming insensitive to insulin. DM has been reported to influence male reproductive function through diverse pathways and mechanisms. The adverse effects of reactive oxygen species and successive development of oxidative stress that occur due to DM have been investigated and implicated by several studies. The products of non-enzymatic glycosylation are reported to be widely distributed in the reproductive tract of diabetic men. Additionally, DM has been implicated to impair the processes of male sexual acts. Data reported in this review were extracted from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus with diabetes and male infertility as the key search words. In light of the aforementioned, the aim of this review is to provide brief background information on DM as well highlight and explain the likely mechanisms of male fertility which DM impacts.
    5  Developmental competence of bovine oocytes with increasing concentrations of nano-copper and nano-zinc particles during in vitro maturation
    Bakar R Abdel-Halim Walaa A Moselhy Nermeen Atef Helmy
    2018(4):161-166. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237053
    [Abstract](168) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.72 K](408)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate copper and zinc concentrations in plasma and follicular fluid from cattle ovaries, and estimate the impact of rational concentrations of copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs & ZnO-NPs) supplemented during in vitro maturation (IVM) against DNA damage of cumulus cells, glutathione content in oocytes and on consequent embryo development. Methods: Oocytes were obtained from 2 to 8 mm follicles by aspiration method for IVM. Replicates of experiments were performed on different days, with a separate batch of cumulus oocytes complex for each day. Results: The DNA damage of oocytes and cumulus cells significantly decreased with supplemental CuO-NPs or ZnO- NPs concentrations of 0.7 and 1.0 µg/mL in the IVM medium compared to medium without CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs (P < 0.01). Total glutathione concentrations in oocytes and cumulus cells significantly increased following supplementation with both 0.7 and 1.0 g/mL CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs in comparison with 0 and 0.4 µg/mL CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs supplemented groups (P < 0.01). Supplementation of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs during IVM medium at any concentration had no significant effect on cleavge rate. Both CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs significantly increased blastocyst rates when oocytes were matured with 0.7, 1.0 µg/mL CuO-NPs concentrations (P < 0.01). In contrast, addition of 1.5 µg/mL of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs to the maturation media resulted in detrimental effects on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes confirming toxicity induced by CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs in high concentrations. Conclusions: CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs-treated bovine oocytes during IVM show low level of DNA fragmentation and increased intracellular glutathione content of cumulus cells. In vitro embryo development is improved by supplementation of rational concentrations of CuO-NPs or ZnO-NPs to culture media. Toxicity induced by CuO-NPs and ZnO-NPs is confirmed in high concentrations.
    6  Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Current trends and futureperspectives
    Diego Rossetti Silvia Di Angelo Antonio David Lukanovi.,Tina Kunic Camilla Certelli Carmine Vascone Zaki Sleiman
    2019(3):93-101. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.259166
    [Abstract](164) [HTML](0) [PDF 704.37 K](1104)
    Abstract:
    Among resources of mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord appears to be a rising source capable of differentiating into all germ layers, reaching and repairing lesion areas, and promoting wound repair, and it has also the capacity to influence the immune response. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be an optimal resource compared with other mesenchymal stem cells sources because they require a noninvasive recovery. All these characteristics allow their use in heterogeneous applications. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate tissues, stimulate angiogenesis, modulate inflammatory pathway signals and recruit endogenous stem cell. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress mitogen-induced signals and modulate the activation and proliferation of several immune cells, modifying lymphocyte phenotypes activity. In culture, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cellss show the capacity to create several tissues such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the different compartments of umbilical cord and processed by using different techniques. Clinical applications of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells include graft-versus-host disease, autoimmune diseases such as Sj.gren's syndrome and diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, gynecological disorders like endometriosis. Recent studies have shown possible application on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and neuronal degenerative diseases. This review is focused on the resources, molecular profiles, propriety, in vitro characterizations, clinical applications and possible future usage of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
    7  productive ability of high-producing cows, and qualitative parameters of their offspring, under conditions of intensive milk production
    Khamidulla B. Baimishev Murat H. Baimishev Vasily S. Grigoryev Alexander P. Kokhanov Inna V. Uskova Ismagil N. Khakimov
    2018(4):167-171. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237054
    [Abstract](161) [HTML](0) [PDF 280.95 K](1099)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the methods of increasing the reproductive qualities and indices of viability in the offspring of Holstein cows under conditions of intensive milk production. Methods: Studies were conducted on 3 groups of Holstein cows with 30 heads in each group. Animals of the experimental groups had a different length physiological period. The study focused on experimental groups of animals: the reproductive indicators, the viability of newborn calves, and their growth rate. All the digital materials of the experimental data were processed by the method of variation statistics for the significance of the difference of the compared parameters using the Student’s criterion, adopted in biology and zootechnics. Results: Studies found that reduction of the duration of the service period, along with a simultaneous increase in the inter-lactation period to 80–90 days, increased the reproductive capacity of the cows, and enhances the viability of the offspring compared with their peers. Conclusions: The study revealed the optimal duration of the physiological periods in highproducing cows under conditions of intensive milk production technology.
    8  Improvement of Phaseolus vulgaris on breastfeeding in female rats
    Shiva Roshankhah Cyrus Jalili Mohammad Reza Salahshoor
    2019(2):70-74. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254648
    [Abstract](159) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1352)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate effect of Phaseolus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) on the breastfeeding in female rats. Methods: This experimental study was done from May 2018 to December 2018 in the Anatomical Department of Medical School in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Iran. In this study, after one-week adaptation and fertilization by male, 40 female rats within 20 days of pregnancy (on average, every mother had 10 newborns) were equally separated into four groups (animals were administrated after delivery of offspring). Group 1 was control group receiving normal saline interaperitoneally, and groups 2, 3, 4 were treatment groups receiving the dose of 20, 50, 100 mg/kg of P. vulgaris interaperitoneally respectively once a day for 60 days. The prolactin hormone was measured by radio immune assay, number and diameter of alveoli via histological and morphometrical examinations, and receptor prolactin gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results: P. vulgaris significantly improved alveoli’s number and diameter, prolactin hormone and receptor prolactin expression when compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusions: P. vulgaris is helpful to improve the breastfeeding parameters of rats’ mammary glands.
    9  Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses
    Mohammed KM Kamal EL-den MA Dahmoush AY
    2018(1):39-46. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.220984
    [Abstract](158) [HTML](0) [PDF 367.05 K](468)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses. Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A) goats with Damascus(D) was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females) produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1), weaning to 6 months (D2) and from birth to 6 months of age (D3) were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program. Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01) birth and weaning weights, but 1/2D1/2A group kids had a higher (P<0.01) body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01) and D3 (P<0.05) periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01) than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01) than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01) heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth and weaning weights were positive for both Damascus and Ardi goats. Conclusions: Genetic program for Ardi goats through upgrading with Damascus is possible to improve meat production.
    10  In vitro fertilization: Facts in medical sciences
    S. Bhargavi Subhalaxmi Swain Abhisek Mishra Arun Kumar Pradhan
    2018(4):145-150. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237050
    [Abstract](156) [HTML](0) [PDF 307.42 K](534)
    Abstract:
    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the assisted reproductive technologies in the field of medical sciences. Fusion of collected egg from female and sperm from male done in a culture media under aseptic condition in laboratory is called as IVF. This technique is one of the gifts of science towards the human society and mainly those who are facing problem in reproduction due to having either male or female defective reproductive systems. In this present study, factors to consider during IVF, steps followed in this technology, need of IVF are discussed. Risk of multiple birth and phenotypic changes to the newborn due to IVF are also well reviewed. And different types of instruments used during this process are focused. Few ethical and legal issues arising during this IVF process are shown as well. We also emphasize that part of IVF.
    11  Comparison of p38 MAPK, soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 level in severepreeclampsia and HELLP syndrome patients
    Efendi Lukas Maisuri T Chalid Upik A Miskad Syakib Bakri
    2019(2):83-87. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254650
    [Abstract](154) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1288)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 in the serum of patients with severe preeclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome and normal pregnancies. Methods: This study was an observational analytic cross-sectional study performed at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, in the period of 5th February 2016 to 20th January 2017. P38 MAPK, soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 levels of patients with normal pregnancies, severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were measured by enzymelinked immunoabsorbentassay technique, using kits of human soluble endoglin, endothelin-1 and p38 MAPK, Quantikine immunoassay: R&D System Inc. Results: Level of serum p38 MAPK in HELLP syndrome group was higher than in severe preeclampsia and normal pregnancy groups. Soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 levels in pregnancies with severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were higher than normal pregnancy but there was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). Levels of p38 MAPK, soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 also had a positive linear correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P<0.05). Conclusions: P38 MAPK in serum may be a marker for evidence of the severe hypoxia and its application may be considered for the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome.
    12  Effect of water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) on semen characteristics and oxidative status in serum of male New Zealand rabbits under heat stress
    Walaa H Khalifa Gamal A El-Sisy Walid S El-Nattat AAA Mourad Nagwa Maghraby
    2018(1):22-26. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.220981
    [Abstract](154) [HTML](0) [PDF 677.89 K](434)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To estimate the effects of the water extract of dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera) (DWE) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and serum antioxidants activities of New Zealand rabbits under heat stress. Methods: A total of 30 bucks of New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group 1 was treated as control group and fed on balanced commercial ration. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with 10 and 20 mL of dates extract substituting water in the early morning before watering and fed on balanced commercial ration. This schedule was performed daily for 5 days/week, for an experimental period of 5 weeks. Fertility parameters such as reaction time, potential of hydrogen ion (pH), mass motility, individual progressive motility %, percentage of live sperm and abnormal sperm (%) were measured. Blood serum testosterone level, serum glutathione reduced, nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were also determined. Results: The daily oral administration of 10 mL DWE significantly increased the pH, the mass motility and individual progressive motility % compared to the control group. Although, the consumption of 20 mL DWE significantly (P<0.000 1) increased the live sperm% and decreased the abnormal sperm % compared to the other two treatments. The administration of date extracts (10 and 20 mL) had significantly (P<0.000 1) decreased nitric oxide and glutathione reduced levels compared to the control. On the other hand, it increased significantly the lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid and testosterone level compared to the control. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of date palm (10-20 mL) could enhance the rabbit bucks fertility and its health performance.
    13  Effect of double cleavage stage versus sequential cleavage and blastocyst stage embryo transfer on clinical pregnancy rates
    G?zde Kaya Begüm Alyürük Ozge Senem Yucel Cicek Sule Yildirim K?pük Ahmet Yi?it ?akiro?lu Emek Do?er Serdar Filiz
    2020(3):124-128. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.284269
    [Abstract](153) [HTML](0) [PDF 677.79 K](448)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare clinical pregnancy rates following sequential day-3 and day-5 embryo transfer with double or sequential cleavage-stage transfers. Methods: This study enrolled 242 patients undergoing gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol and fresh embryo transfer. Basal follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, serum estradiol and anti-Müllerian hormone levels and controlled ovarian stimulation outcomes were noted. Of 242 women, 135 underwent double embryo transfer on day 2 or day 3 (the double group), 54 women underwent sequential embryo transfer on day 2 and day 3 (the D2/D3 group), and 53 underwent sequential embryo transfer on day 3 and day 5 (the D3/D5 group). Clinical pregnancy rates were compared among the groups. Results: Female age, body mass index, basal follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were similar among the groups (P>0.05). The D3/D5 group had a significantly higher number of metaphaseⅡoocytes, fertilized oocytes and good quality embryos on day 3 compared with the double group and the D2/D3 group (P<0.001). Clinical pregnancy rates in the double, D2/D3 and D3/D5 groups were 26.6% (36/135), 16.6% (9/54) and 37.7% (20/53), respectively. There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between the double group and the D2/D3 group (P=0.204) or the D3/D5 group (P=0.188). The D3/D5 group had significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates compared with the D2/D3 group (P=0.025). Conclusions: Sequential cleavage-stage transfer (D2/D3) or cleavage stage and blastocyst transfer (D3/D5) does not improve clinical pregnancy rates compared with double cleavage-stage embryo transfer. Although sequential transfer seems to be an effective option in certain patient populations, routine application of this technique might not be a suitable approach in an unselected population to improve assisted reproductive technology outcomes.
    14  Cervical dilation and improvement of reproductive performance in fat-tailed ewes via cervical dilator treatments
    Reza Masoudi Ahmad Zare Shahneh Armin Towhidi Hamid Kohram Abbas Akbarisharif Mohsen Sharafi Mahdi Zhandi MAMM Shahab-El-Deen
    2017(2):93-96. DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170209
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 299.29 K](1105)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effect of different cervical dilators on cervical dilation and reproductive performance of fat-tailed ewes. Methods: In experiment 1 140 ewes were divided into seven groups with seven different treatments as following: 10 mL normal saline (control group), 100 IU oxytocin (OT group), 100 μg estradiol and 100 IU oxytocin (E2+OT group), 5 mL relaxin (R group), 2 mL sensiblex (SEN group), 200 μg misoprostol (MIS group) or 200 μg dinoprostone (DIN group). In experiment 2, artificial insemination was applied for evaluation of reproductive performance in experimental groups. Results: In experiment 1, the highest cervical dilation was observed in OT (90%) and E2+OT (100%) groups (P<0.05), while no significant differences was found among DIN, MIS, SEN and R groups (80%, 75%, 70% and 65%, respectively). In addition, the lowest cervical dilation was observed in control group. Experiment 2 found no significant differences among control, OT and E2+OT groups. The highest pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were observed in OT groups (60%, 60% and 70%, respectively) and E2+OT groups (65%, 60% and 70%, respectively) compared to SEN, R, MIS and DIN groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oxytocin treatment alone or with estradiol could be used as a suitable dilator for improving reproductive efficiency during artificial insemination in fat-tailed ewes.
    15  Oestrous cycle of Wistar rats altered by sterol and triterpenes rich fraction of Adansoniadigitata (Linn) root bark - A scientific rationale for contraceptive use
    Chibuogwu Ijeoma Chika Nwannenna Agnes Ifeyinwa Ubah Simon Azubuike Ogwu David
    2019(2):75-82. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254649
    [Abstract](141) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1289)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of different fractions from the aqueous methanolic root bark of Adansonia digitata (Linn) on the estrous cycle of female Wistar rats and to elucidate their phytochemical content. Methods: Crude aqueous methanol extract of Adansonia digitata (Linn) root bark was fractionated by column chromatography using various ratios of hexane, acetyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. Fractions with similar trails on a thin layer chromatography were pooled into four fractions. Each fraction was then screened for its phytochemical content. Forty mature Wistar female rats weighing (135±28) g with regular estrous cycles were given each fraction at two dose levels while a control group received distilled water of equal volume. Treatments were given per os for 15 days starting from the day of estrus. Vaginal smears were observed daily for the duration of each cycle, frequency of occurrence of each stage of the estrous cycle and number of cycles for 15 days before and during treatment. At the end of treatment, rats were humanely sacrificed. Ovaries and uteri were weighed and processed for histopathology. Results: Hexane acetyl acetate and acetyl acetate methanol fractions at 150 mg/kg body weight and 300 mg/kg body weight prolonged the occurrence of proestrus and diestrus and produced atretic cyst-like ovaries at 300 mg/kg body weight. Acetyl acetate methanol treated rats also had low relative ovarian weights when compared to the control. Conclusions: Sterols and triterpenes in hexane acetyl acetate and acetyl acetate methanol fractions of the root bark may be responsible for the disruption of estrous cycle in female Wistar rats and may have a contraceptive effect.
    16  Effect of Vitex agnus-castus plant extract on polycystic ovary syndrome complications in experimental rat model
    Amal H. Hamza Widad M. AlBishri Mona H. Alfaris
    2019(2):63-69. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254647
    [Abstract](140) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.32 K](1095)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
    17  Uterine prolapse in buffaloes: A review
    GN Purohit Atul Shanker Arora Tilok Gocher Mitesh Gaur Chandra Shekher Saraswat Pankaj Mishra
    2018(6):241-247. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.246341
    [Abstract](140) [HTML](0) [PDF 668.74 K](463)
    Abstract:
    Uterine prolapse Prognosis Risk factors Therapy Uterine prolapse is an emergency postpartum problem occurring within 24 h of parturition and resulting in death or serious complications in unattended cases. Poor myometrial contractions during the post-partum period and traction during difficult births are two postulated etiologies and low serum calcium appear to be a significant risk factor for uterine prolapse in buffaloes. Shortly after eversion the uterus gets inflamed and edematous and shock may ensue in cases with excessive bleeding. Prompt replacement of prolapsed uterus with sufficient care assures good prognosis. The etiology, risk factors, clinical findings and approaches for therapy of uterine prolapse in buffaloes are mentioned in this review.
    18  Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins as a potential marker for diagnosis of early
    Nandini Sharma Shiva Pratap Singh Alok Bharadwaj Ramachandran Natesan
    2020(6):255-260. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.298772
    [Abstract](139) [HTML](0) [PDF 638.43 K](263)
    Abstract:
    Early diagnosis of pregnancy plays an important role to minimize reproductive losses in farm animals. There are several methods for pregnancy diagnosis like profiling of reproductive hormones (such as progesterone and estrone sulfate), but sometimes they provide false-positive results. Embryo specific pregnancy markers, which delineate the presence and viability of the embryo, are considered as perfect for pregnancy determination. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins are distinguished as the best indicator for the determination of early pregnancy, fetal number, and birth weight of kids. Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins are structurally correlated to aspartic proteinase and are communicated in the external epithelial cell layer of the placenta. They have been found to share about half amino acid sequence identity with pepsinogen, pepsin, cathepsin D and E. Dislike different individuals from aspartic proteinase family, numerous pregnancy-associated glycoproteins appear to be latent compound as a result of amino acid substitutions in and around the catalytic site. This review is to discuss the scope and prospects of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins as a pregnancy marker in farm animals, more specifically in goats.
    19  Missed estradiol determination resulting in oocyte retrieval and embryo development following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation at early pregnancy: Case report
    Maryam Eftekhar Azam Agha-Rahimi Mohammad Ali Khalili Marjan Omidi
    2018(3):143-144. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.233577
    [Abstract](138) [HTML](0) [PDF 249.46 K](466)
    Abstract:
    This paper is a case report on the success of oocyte retrieval and good quality embryo development following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation at early pregnancy. A 30-year-old patient underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist long protocol. On the day of oocyte collection, a 5-week gestational sac was observed by exact sonography monitoring. However, via ultrasound guided follicle puncture, 7 oocytes were collected. After intarcytoplasmic sperm injection, 3 developed good quality embryos were cryopreserved. Moreover, the natural pregnancy was continued and finally a healthy live birth was achieved. Despite physiological hormonal changes during pregnancy, the follicular growth occurred and followed by oocyte retrieval and embryo development, subsequently.
    20  The methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) improves sexual parameters in high fat diet-induced obese sexually sluggish rats
    Patrick Brice Deeh Defo Modeste Wankeu-Nya Esther Ngadjui Georges Romeo Bonsou Fozin Franois Xavier Kemka Albert Kamanyi Pierre Kamtchouing Pierre Watcho
    2017(5):202-211. DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.215930
    [Abstract](133) [HTML](0) [PDF 801.03 K](401)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the methanolic extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (G. tesmannii)on sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level in obese rats. Methods: A total of 193 male Wistar rats were fed either with palm oil diet (n=185) or standard diet (n=8) for 16 wk. At the end of this feeding period, 90 obese rats were selected and randomly divided into 18 groups of five rats each and treated with distilled water (10 mL/kg), vitamin E (75 mg/ kg), clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg) or methanolic extract of G. tessmannii (55, 110 or 220 mg/ kg) for 7, 21 or 56 d. At the end of each treatment period, sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level were evaluated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA for repeated measures followed by post-hoc Tukey HSD (P<0.05) for multiple comparisons. Results: Feeding of rats for 16 wk with palm oil diet significantly damaged sperm parameters. The methanolic extract of G. tesmannii improved sperm viability, motility and normality after 21 or 56 d of treatment. The sperm normality increased significantly in rats treated with the methanolic extract of G. tesmannii for 7 (110 mg/kg, P<0.01) and 56 d (110 and 220 mg/kg, P<0.05) compared to control group. Triglycerids, total cholesterol, low and very low density lipoproteins cholesterol levels were lower in rats treated with the plant extract for 56 d. G. tesmannii also significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol and testosterone levels in the plasma after 56 d of treatment. Conclusions: The methanolic extract ofG. tesmanniican improve sperm parameters, lipid profile and testosterone level in obese rats. These findings may justify the folkloric use of G. tesmannii as a reproductive performance enhancer.

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