Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction
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    2020(2):55-63, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281074
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the association between statin therapy and the risk of erectile dysfunction by literature review. Methods: We conducted diversities of search strategies including electronic database searches of MEDLINE, Scopus, Pubmed and Web of Science using MeSH terms, keywords and title words during the search. Reference lists of identified and public articles were reviewed. In addition, only English articles were considered and case reports were not concerned in the review. The key features of recognized applicable search studies were considered and the conclusions were summarized in a narrative review. Results: Different studies gave a consensus that erectile dysfunction was regarded as an early sign of silent cardiovascular disorder and hidden atherosclerosis. Different studies reported that statins might induce erectile dysfunction through induction of peripheral neuropathy, cognitive deficits, and reduction of circulating testosterone. However, most of recent studies illustrated that statins led to a significant improvement in erectile function and sexual health in men with age over forty years. Atorvastatin advanced endothelial nitric oxide concentrations through activation and upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and rescued phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors non-responders since nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased penile blood flow and improved erectile function. Conclusions: According to the assorted view of preponderance, statins improved erectile dysfunction is more dominant than statins induced erectile dysfunction. Therefore, statins regardless of its property improve erectile dysfunction through amelioration of penile endothelial dysfunction, and penile neuronal reflexes that are inter-related during sexual excitation and penile erection.
    2020(2):64-69, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281075
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effects of routine iron supplementation on oxidative stress markers in pregnant women. Methods: This study enrolled 122 pregnant women aged between 20-38 years throughout three stages of pregnancy: beginning with pregnancy, until the twentieth week and up to the thirtieth week. They were divided into two groups: 61 pregnant women not supplemented with iron (the control group), and 61 pregnant women supplemented with iron (the iron group). Blood samples were collected and protein, iron, uric acid, total bilirubin level and oxidative stress status were estimated using molecular spectrophotometric method. Copper levels were estimated by using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Results: Iron, protein and copper concentrations were significantly increased (P<0.05) at 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy and hemoglobin level was significantly increased (P<0.05) at the beginning of pregnancy and until 20 weeks in the iron group compared to the control group. In addition, levels of serum uric acid, serum total bilirubin and malondialdehyde in serum and erythrocytes were significantly increased at 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy whereas the reduced glutathione level was significantly decreased in serum (30 weeks of pregnancy) and erythrocytes (20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy) in the iron group as compared to the control group. Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity was not significantly changed. There was a significant positive correlation between serum iron level and serum copper, malondialdehyde level in serum and erythrocytes in pregnant women supplemented with iron. Conclusions: Iron supplement at 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy plays a role in the development of oxidative stress which is the origin of several maternal-fetal complications.
    2020(2):70-76, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281076
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the effect of short-term gavage of ethanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica L root on the ovarian activity and estrus behavior of female mice. Methods: Eighteen virgin female ddY mice, 8 to 10 weeks of age, weighing 22–25 g with regular estrus cycle, were divided into three groups. Group 1 received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, whereas Groups 2 and 3 received the ethanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica L root at 90 and 115 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day by gavage for 20 days, respectively. All of the groups were checked before 9 a.m. daily for vaginal cytology to determine the estrus phase. On day 21, the mice were sacrificed to collect serum samples to quantify the concentrations of reproductive hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and to determine changes in the reproductive organs based on their reproductive organ weight, histomorphology, and histomorphometry of ovarium and uterus. Results: The reproductive organ weight in the treatment groups was similar compared with that in the control group. The 90 mg/kg b.w. treatment group showed an increase in corpus luteum number when compared with the control group, with few degenerated follicles and diminished oocytes. Moreover, the 115 mg/kg b.w. treatment group showed fewer primordial and primary follicles and an increase in corpus luteum number and a prolonged diestrus phase compared to the control and 90 mg/kg b.w. treatment groups. The histomorphology examination of the uterus showed that the thickness of myometrium and epithelium in the treated animals was similar to the control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone level in the 115 mg/kg b.w. treatment group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Short-term gavage of ethanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica L root reduces the follicle-stimulating hormone serum level and folliculogenesis.
    2020(2):77-82, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281077
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the protective effects of Mucuna (M.)pruriens against arsenic-induced testicular impairment in albino mice. Methods: Thirty-six male albino mice were divided into six groups, with 6 mice in each group. Group 1 received drinking water as the normal control. Groups 2 to 6 received sodium arsenite (40 mg/L) in drinking water. Group 3 received sodium arsenite (40 mg/L) and 300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of N-acetylcysteine. Group 4 received sodium arsenite (40 mg/L) and 500 mg/kg b.w. of M.pruriens. Group 5 received sodium arsenite (40 mg/L) and 1 000 mg/kg b.w. of M.pruriens. Group 6 received sodium arsenite (40 mg/L) and 2 000 mg/kg b.w. of M.pruriens. N-acetylcysteine and M.pruriens were administered orally once a day. Animals were subjected to the above treatments for 45 days. Animals were sacrificed with overdose of ketamine 24 h following drug administration. The testis was used for biochemical estimations (lipid peroxidation and glutathione), and the epididymis was used to determine the sperm count and morphology. Results: Sodium arsenite significantly decreased (P<0.01) the sperm count and glutathione levels of the testis. It significantly increased (P<0.01) the abnormal architecture of the spermatozoa and lipid peroxidation levels. Treatment with M.pruriens significantly increased the sperm count and the glutathione levels [500 mg/kg b.w. and 1 000 mg/kg b.w. (P<0.01)]. A significant decrease in sperm abnormality and lipid peroxidation levels [500 mg/kg b.w. and 1 000 mg/kg b.w. (P<0.01)] was also observed. Conclusions: The perturbed sperm parameters and antioxidant levels of the arsenic insulted testis are attenuated by 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1 000 mg/kg b.w. M.pruriens.
    2020(2):83-88, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281078
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the hormonal, histopathological toxicity and sperm quality of ciprofloxacin in male genital system in the rabbit model. Methods: Twenty adult New Zealand male rabbits were randomly divided into the treatment and control groups, and respectively received 30 mg/kg/day ciprofloxacin and normal saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Blood samples and testicular tissues were taken for testosterone by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method, and measurement of histopathologic and histomorphometric investigations was made on the 14th day of the experiment and 56 days after the last dose of ciprofloxacin. Additionally, epididymis sperm sample was collected for quality analysis. Results: On day 14 of the experiment, histopathologic examination revealed severe degenerative changes in the epithelium of seminiferous tubules and loss of all germ cells in most tubes in the treatment group. In the histomorphometric study, significant reductions in the seminiferous tubules diameter, epithelium height, and Johnsen’ score were observed. On day 56 after the last dose of ciprofloxacin, the seminiferous tubules revealed regeneration in the treatment group and no significant difference was observed in the spermatogenesis parameters except epithelial height parameter between the control group and the treatment group. All sperm quality parameters were significantly decreased on day 56 after the last dose of ciprofloxacin. Testosterone levels did not significantly change during the follow-ups period. Conclusions: There is potential reversible testicular toxicity for ciprofloxacin in the rabbit model in according to relative regeneration of spermatogenic epithelium after 56 days of last dose of ciprofloxacin. Sperm quality will be improved with a delay after complete regeneration of seminiferous tubules.
    2020(2):89-95, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281258
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the influence of N-acetylcysteine on the pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and protamine expression level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Methods:Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups, with 7 rats in each group. The control group left untreated; the streptozotocin group only received 50 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin intraperitoneally for 5 days to induce diabetes; the N-acetylcysteine group only received 200 mg/kg body weight N-acetylcysteine intraperitoneally, and the streptozotocin+N- acetylcysteine groups 1, 2 and 3 received 50 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally for 5 days to induce diabetes and then received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight doses of N-acetylcysteine intraperitoneally for 28 days, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, and real-time PCR was applied for measuring protamine expression level. Results: Compared to the control and N-acetylcysteine groups, a significant decrease in the body weight, testicular weight and levels of testosterone and protamine expression was observed in the streptozotocin group and the streptozotocin+N-acetylcysteine groups 1 and 2. On the contrary, the levels of LH and FSH increased significantly. In the streptozotocin+N-acetylcysteine group 3, the body weight, testicular weight and expression level of protamine were significantly higher than those of the streptozotocin group. In the streptozotocin+N-acetylcysteine groups, testosterone and LH levels were significantly higher than and lower than the streptozotocin group, respectively. In the streptozotocin+N- acetylcysteine groups 2 and 3, the level of FSH was significantly lower than that of the streptozotocin group and streptozotocin+N- acetylcysteine group 1. Furthermore, a significant increase in the expression level of protamine was observed in the streptozotocin+N- acetylcysteine groups 2 and 3 when compared to the streptozotocin group and streptozotocin+N-acetylcysteine group 1. Conclusions: N-acetylcysteine in an optimal dose of 400 mg/kg body weight has a protective influence on the pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and also on the expression level of protamine in diabetic male rats.
    2020(2):96-103, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281079
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the cryoprotective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on buck frozen semen. Methods: Semen was collected from Boer (n=6) and Zaraibi (n=6) bucks by electroejaculator for 5 weeks. Semen aliquots were diluted at 38 ℃ in Tris-buffer with egg yolk 15.0% (vol/vol) (Tris- egg yolk extender) or soya lecithin 2.5% (weight/vol) (Tris-soya lecithin extender) supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene at 0.0 (as the control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM. Post-thawing motility (at 400× magnification), plasma (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome (Trypan blue/Giemsa dual staining) membranes, DNA (comet assay), and lipid peroxidation (by malondialdehyde concentration) were assessed. Results: Spermatozoa motility was enhanced by butylated hydroxytoluene in Tris-soya lecithin extender at 0.5 mM in the two breeds, and in Tris-egg yolk extender at 1.0 mM in Boer and at 2.0 mM in Zaraibi bucks for up to 3 h post-thawing. Plasma and acrosome membranes and DNA integrity of the two breeds were maximally high with butylated hydroxytoluene at 1.0- 2.0 mM in Tris-egg yolk extender and at 0.5-1.0 mM in Tris-soya lecithin extender. Lipid peroxidation was minimal with butylated hydroxytoluene at 1.0-2.0 mM in Tris-egg yolk and soya lecithin extenders in the two breeds. Butylated hydroxytoluene at 4.0 mM deteriorated spermatozoa motility, and plasma and acrosome membranes. Conclusions: The consequence of butylated hydroxytoluene on buck frozen-thawed spermatozoa varies with the levels of supplementation, buck breed, and phospholipid source in the extender. Semen parameters of Boer buck are better in their response to butylated hydroxytoluene than Zaraibi buck. Butylated hydroxytoluene at 1.0 and 2.0 mM in Tris-egg yolk extender, and at 0.5 mM in Tris-soya lecithin extender represents the best concentrations and profitably improves the semen quality of buck semen.
    2020(2):104-108, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.281080
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate normal spermatozoa morphometry and ultrastructure in estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Methods: Four adult male crocodiles aged between 12-15 years, with an average snout to tail length of (3.15±0.01) m were selected for this study. Manipulation of the phallus digitally from the base of the penis was performed on four adult male crocodiles to facilitate the flow of semen to the sulcus. Semen was collected from all individuals for spermatozoa morphometry and ultrastructure study. Morphometry analysis was performed from eosin-nigrosin stained spermatozoa sample. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to observe the surface ultrastructure of spermatozoa. Results: The morphology of crocodile spermatozoa was made up of acrosome, head, and tail which corresponded to (5.55±1.20) µm, (12.74±1.57) µm, and (70.67±4.40) µm, respectively. The total length of spermatozoa in estuarine crocodile was measured at (88.96±0.52) µm. The most common spermatozoa abnormalities found in the samples were cytoplasmic droplets. Conclusions: Normal morphology, morphometry of spermatozoa in estuarine crocodile which are vermiform shaped-head with a long tail along with questionably high cytoplasmic droplets count are described in this study.
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    2019(2):63-69, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254647
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
    2019(2):70-74, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254648
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate effect of Phaseolus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) on the breastfeeding in female rats. Methods: This experimental study was done from May 2018 to December 2018 in the Anatomical Department of Medical School in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in Iran. In this study, after one-week adaptation and fertilization by male, 40 female rats within 20 days of pregnancy (on average, every mother had 10 newborns) were equally separated into four groups (animals were administrated after delivery of offspring). Group 1 was control group receiving normal saline interaperitoneally, and groups 2, 3, 4 were treatment groups receiving the dose of 20, 50, 100 mg/kg of P. vulgaris interaperitoneally respectively once a day for 60 days. The prolactin hormone was measured by radio immune assay, number and diameter of alveoli via histological and morphometrical examinations, and receptor prolactin gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results: P. vulgaris significantly improved alveoli’s number and diameter, prolactin hormone and receptor prolactin expression when compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusions: P. vulgaris is helpful to improve the breastfeeding parameters of rats’ mammary glands.
    2019(2):75-82, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254649
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of different fractions from the aqueous methanolic root bark of Adansonia digitata (Linn) on the estrous cycle of female Wistar rats and to elucidate their phytochemical content. Methods: Crude aqueous methanol extract of Adansonia digitata (Linn) root bark was fractionated by column chromatography using various ratios of hexane, acetyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. Fractions with similar trails on a thin layer chromatography were pooled into four fractions. Each fraction was then screened for its phytochemical content. Forty mature Wistar female rats weighing (135±28) g with regular estrous cycles were given each fraction at two dose levels while a control group received distilled water of equal volume. Treatments were given per os for 15 days starting from the day of estrus. Vaginal smears were observed daily for the duration of each cycle, frequency of occurrence of each stage of the estrous cycle and number of cycles for 15 days before and during treatment. At the end of treatment, rats were humanely sacrificed. Ovaries and uteri were weighed and processed for histopathology. Results: Hexane acetyl acetate and acetyl acetate methanol fractions at 150 mg/kg body weight and 300 mg/kg body weight prolonged the occurrence of proestrus and diestrus and produced atretic cyst-like ovaries at 300 mg/kg body weight. Acetyl acetate methanol treated rats also had low relative ovarian weights when compared to the control. Conclusions: Sterols and triterpenes in hexane acetyl acetate and acetyl acetate methanol fractions of the root bark may be responsible for the disruption of estrous cycle in female Wistar rats and may have a contraceptive effect.
    2019(2):83-87, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254650
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 in the serum of patients with severe preeclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome and normal pregnancies. Methods: This study was an observational analytic cross-sectional study performed at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, in the period of 5th February 2016 to 20th January 2017. P38 MAPK, soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 levels of patients with normal pregnancies, severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were measured by enzymelinked immunoabsorbentassay technique, using kits of human soluble endoglin, endothelin-1 and p38 MAPK, Quantikine immunoassay: R&D System Inc. Results: Level of serum p38 MAPK in HELLP syndrome group was higher than in severe preeclampsia and normal pregnancy groups. Soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 levels in pregnancies with severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome were higher than normal pregnancy but there was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). Levels of p38 MAPK, soluble endoglin and endothelin-1 also had a positive linear correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P<0.05). Conclusions: P38 MAPK in serum may be a marker for evidence of the severe hypoxia and its application may be considered for the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome.
    2019(2):45-55, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254645
    Abstract:
    Pyometra is one of the most important and common disorders in canine. The disease results in life threatening condition associated with septicemia and toxemia. The condition commonly occurs during luteal phase of estrous cycle, generally 4 weeks to 4 months of estrous cycle. The age, parity, breeds, administration of hormones are some predisposing factors of the condition. However, interaction between potentially pathogenic bacteria and hormonally primed uterus is believed to result in pyometra. The disease is initiated in the form of cystic endometrial hyperplasia, which later progresses into purulent uterine content fo llowing bacterial infection resulting in pyometra. The disturbance in antioxidant and prooxidant balance succeeding bacterial infection results in oxidative stress. The resultant stress further induces endometrial degeneration, immunosuppression and additionally aggravates the condition. An important clinical sign is malodorous, sanguineous or mucopurulent vaginal discharge with general symptoms such as vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, depression, anorexia and occasionally fever. Till date, ultrasonography is the best diagnostic method while radiology and serological test are also helpful. Recently, the estimation of inflammatory mediators (acute phase proteins and prostaglandin metabolites) has appeared as marker for diagnosis of the pyometra. Determination of levels of inflammatory mediators has emerged as an important diagnostic method because it can be helpful in prognosis of the condition. The pyometra can be best treated by surgical manipulation (ovariohysterectomy);however, hormonal treatment can be given in less severe cases which aimed at reducing the effect of progesterone on the reproductive tract. Together, provision of antioxidants could be helpful in disease recovery along with the determined treatment. In this review, incidence,predisposing factors, etio-pathogenesis, oxidative stress associated with condition, diagnostic methods and treatment are discussed.
    2019(2):88-92, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254651
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the secondary sex ratio (SSR) of assisted reproduction technology babies within a fertility clinic in Melbourne, Australia. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 3 369 babies who were born following single embryo transfer between 2011 and 2016. Variables examined included embryo creation date, maternal and paternal ages, maternal body mass index (BMI), type of infertility, sperm parameters, fertilization method, type of embryo and stage of transfer. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on the data set using STRATA V9.2. Results: More males were found to be born to embryos created in summer (adjusted odds ratio=1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.95; P=0.01). Lower BMI of mother (30 kg/m2) and younger age of parents (35 years) were associated with an increase in SSR (50.1% vs. 47.1%; 50.6% vs. 48.8%; 50.0% vs. 48.9%) respectively. Decreased SSR value was associated with primary subfertility, using in-vitro fertilization procedure and fresh embryo compared to those with secondary subfertility, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure and thawed embryo (49.3% vs. 50.6%; 47.1% vs. 50.8%; 49.4% vs. 50.1%) respectively. Conclusions: The fertilization methods, type of embryo, stage of embryo transfer, parameters of the sperm and status of subfertility do not significantly affect the SSR. SSR is affected by the seasonality, maternal age, and BMI.
    2019(2):56-62, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254646
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the effects of co-administration of Gynura procumbens (GP) and kelulut honey (KH) on male fertility and libido in diabetes-induced rats. Methods: A total 42 males Sprague Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were randomly and equally divided into six different groups. All groups except a normal control group were induced with 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) intravenously to induce diabetes. A positive control group was treated with an antidiabetic drug, metformin (500 mg/kg) whereas a negative control group remained untreated throughout the experiment. Meanwhile, another three treatments on diabetic rat groups were performed and categorised as Group 1 (450 mg/kg GP + 300 mg/kg KH), Group 2 (450 mg/kg GP + 600 mg/kg KH) and Group 3 (450 mg/kg GP + 1 200 mg/kg KH). Treatments were given for seven consecutive days through oral gavage and all rats were euthanized on day 8th for fasting blood glucose analysis, sperm quality, spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour and implantation sites analysis. Results: Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced after treatment of GP and KH, compared to negative and positive controls. The treated groups showed significant increment in sperm quality compared to all control groups. Testes histology illustrated significant damages on leydig and sertoli cells for both negative and positive controls. On the contrary, co-administration of GP and KH displayed regeneration of leydig and sertoli cells in the testes. Additionally, the number of implantation sites significantly increased in females copulated with treated groups, compared to controls. Besides, the libido analysis displayed improvement of libido in treated groups, compared to all controls. Throughout the study, insignificant variances were recorded between the treated groups, indicating that treatment in Group 1 was sufficient to trigger significant improvement on fasting blood glucose level, fertility, and libido in diabetic male rats. Conclusions: Co-administration of GP and KH has great potential to serve as a pro-fertility agent amongst diabetic patients.
    2019(2):88-92, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254651
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the secondary sex ratio (SSR) of assisted reproduction technology babieswithin a fertility clinic in Melbourne, Australia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 3 369 babies who were born following single embryo transfer between 2011 and 2016. Variables examined included embryo creation date, maternal and paternal ages, maternal body mass index (BMI), type of infertility,sperm parameters, fertilization method, type of embryo and stage of transfer. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on the data set using STRATA V9.2. Results: More males were found to be born to embryos created in summer (adjusted odds ratio=1.46, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.95; P=0.01). Lower BMI of mother (30 kg/m2)and younger age of parents (35 years) were associated with an increase in SSR (50.1% vs.47.1%; 50.6% vs. 48.8%; 50.0% vs. 48.9%) respectively. Decreased SSR value was associated with primary subfertility, using in-vitro fertilization procedure and fresh embryo compared to those with secondary subfertility, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure and thawed embryo (49.3% vs. 50.6%; 47.1% vs. 50.8%; 49.4% vs. 50.1%) respectively.Conclusions: The fertilization methods, type of embryo, stage of embryo transfer, parameters of the sperm and status of subfertility do not significantly affect the SSR. SSR is affected by the seasonality, maternal age, and BMI.
    2017(2):58-67, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170203
    Abstract:
    The present review article has described the prevalence of various pathological conditions of reproductive system of female buffaloes starting from ovary to vulva and vagina. Various pathological conditions were analyzed and tabulated as the total number of animal examined, number of the animals showed pathological lesions, percentage of animal showed various pathological lesions and percentage of individual pathological lesion in different parts of reproductive system of female buffaloes. The incidence of disorders of female genital organs of buffaloes has been reported by various authors at various percentages in different countries. The incidence of pathological conditions was recorded in clinically infertile cows after slaughtering or from apparently healthy buffaloes slaughtered for human consumption and/or based on postmortem examination. This review is comprehensively covering pathological conditions of female buffalo hitherto which was not previously described at one place. This review will provide a comprehensive knowledge about the prevalence of different pathological condition of different parts of reproductive tract of female buffaloes. The review has six numbers of tables described about the various pathological conditions from ovary to vulva and vagina in female buffaloes. The present review article will be very useful to the buffalo farmers, buffalo breeders and researchers are working in buffalo reproduction & breeding and pathology.
    2017(3):97-103, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170301
    Abstract:
    This article presents a review pertains the laser irradiation effects and its possible mechanisms of action on spermatozoa functions in domestic animals. To improve artificial insemination, laser is sensitive and cost effective technique, when compared to other conventional methods. Laser may have both positive and negative effects on spermatozoa functions. Since the effects of light are mediated by reactive oxygen species, and the levels of these reactive oxygen species following irradiating spermatozoa with laser may be responsible for determining the effects of laser on sperm. Dose of laser may be regarded as of great significance and this dosage of laser may be responsible for determining its effects on spermatozoa. Optimum dosage of laser for improving seminal attributes may vary among various species and this need to be standardized in each of them. The beneficial effects include improving sperm livability, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling response, mitochondrial function and computer-aided sperm analysis parameters. The increase in cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, in laser irradiated cells may be responsible for enhanced sperm quality parameters. Improving fertility with laser irradiated spermatozoa has been reported in few species like boar and need to be elaborated in other species. In conclusion laser may be regarded as an easy, cheap and time saving technology for improving artificial insemination; in addition, laser may have various potential applications in the field of reproductive biotechnology as well as in livestock farms and veterinary polyclinics.
    2018(4):167-171, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.237054
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the methods of increasing the reproductive qualities and indices of viability in the offspring of Holstein cows under conditions of intensive milk production. Methods: Studies were conducted on 3 groups of Holstein cows with 30 heads in each group. Animals of the experimental groups had a different length physiological period. The study focused on experimental groups of animals: the reproductive indicators, the viability of newborn calves, and their growth rate. All the digital materials of the experimental data were processed by the method of variation statistics for the significance of the difference of the compared parameters using the Student’s criterion, adopted in biology and zootechnics. Results: Studies found that reduction of the duration of the service period, along with a simultaneous increase in the inter-lactation period to 80–90 days, increased the reproductive capacity of the cows, and enhances the viability of the offspring compared with their peers. Conclusions: The study revealed the optimal duration of the physiological periods in highproducing cows under conditions of intensive milk production technology.
    2017(3):128-132, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170306
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of Diospyros kaki on cattle spermatozoa during chilling and cryopreservation. Methods: Five milliliter of blended Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) flesh was added to 45 mL TCF to obtain 10% stock solution. Kaki enriched extender (KEE) was prepared by adding to TCF in concentrations 0.0/5.0 mL (control, 0%), 0.5/4.5 mL (1%), 1/4 mL (2%), 1.5/3.5 mL (3%), 2.0/3.0 mL (4%), 2.5/2.5 mL (5%), 3.0/2.0 mL (6%), 3.5/1.5 mL (7%), 4.0/1.0 mL (8%), 4.5/0.5 mL (9%) and 5.0/0.0 mL (10%) to obtain a final volume 5 mL in each tube. Whole egg yolk was added to each tube to obtain KEE with 20% egg yolk (KEEY), all tubes were centrifuged to get rid of debris. Semen was added to the supernatants in other tubes. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation [motility, alive sperm and intact sperm membrane (HOST) %] in both chilled and cryopreserved semen. Conception rate was carried out. Results: Sperm motility was significantly (P<0.000 1) kept high after 11 d of chilling with the concentration 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% as compared to the control (41.67±1.67, 41.67±1.67, 40.00±0.00, 41.67±1.67 and 41.67±1.67, respectively) and also non-significantly kept high at the other concentrations up to 9 d of chilling. Addition of KEE had significantly(P<0.003 3) improved post thawing sperm motility % with the concentrations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6% as compared to the control (51.67±5.27, 55.00±3.16, 48.33±1.05, 45.00±3.96, 57.00±2.50,55.00±5.00 and 43.33±5.11 respectively).While the other concentrations exhibit no effect.Addition of KEE maintained alive sperm%, abnormalities% and % of intact spermatozoa membranes (HOST%) as good as the control with all concentrations of kaki used in our study.The conception rate upon using frozen semen in insemination showed higher conception rate in concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6 % KEE in cattle. Conclusion: It could be concluded that some concentrations of Diospyros kaki improved bull semen quality post-chilling and post-freezing.
    2019(3):93-101, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.259166
    Abstract:
    Among resources of mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical cord appears to be a rising source capable of differentiating into all germ layers, reaching and repairing lesion areas, and promoting wound repair, and it has also the capacity to influence the immune response. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells are considered to be an optimal resource compared with other mesenchymal stem cells sources because they require a noninvasive recovery. All these characteristics allow their use in heterogeneous applications. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate tissues, stimulate angiogenesis, modulate inflammatory pathway signals and recruit endogenous stem cell. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress mitogen-induced signals and modulate the activation and proliferation of several immune cells, modifying lymphocyte phenotypes activity. In culture, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cellss show the capacity to create several tissues such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from the different compartments of umbilical cord and processed by using different techniques. Clinical applications of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells include graft-versus-host disease, autoimmune diseases such as Sj.gren's syndrome and diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, gynecological disorders like endometriosis. Recent studies have shown possible application on rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and neuronal degenerative diseases. This review is focused on the resources, molecular profiles, propriety, in vitro characterizations, clinical applications and possible future usage of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
    2017(2):54-57, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170202
    Abstract:
    Objective: To prove the effect of administered orally lead acetate exposure on Bax expression and the apoptosis index of granulosa cells on antral follicle female albino rats Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus). Methods: Post-test only control group, using female albino rats Wistar strain aged 10-12 wk (reproductive age) weighing 100-200 g. Twenty-four animal samples were classified into one control group and three groups exposed to lead acetate in doses of 30, 100, and 300 ppm, respectively. Lead acetate was administered orally through a feeding tube over 30 d. Bax expression of granulosa cells on antral follicle was checked using immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis index were examined using Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results: Lead increases apoptosis index on doses of 300 ppm. The increase of the Bax expression granulosa cell on antral follicle was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The exposure of lead acetate administrated orally can increase apoptosis index of granulosa cell on antral follicle although it doesn't affect Bax expression.
    2019(2):45-55, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254645
    Abstract:
    Pyometra is one of the most important and common disorders in canine. The disease results in life threatening condition associated with septicemia and toxemia. The condition commonly occurs during luteal phase of estrous cycle, generally 4 weeks to 4 months of estrous cycle. The age, parity, breeds, administration of hormones are some predisposing factors of the condition. However, interaction between potentially pathogenic bacteria and hormonally primed uterus is believed to result in pyometra. The disease is initiated in the form of cystic endometrial hyperplasia, which later progresses into purulent uterine content following bacterial infection resulting in pyometra. The disturbance in antioxidant and pro-oxidant balance succeeding bacterial infection results in oxidative stress. The resultant stress further induces endometrial degeneration, immunosuppression and additionally aggravates the condition. An important clinical sign is malodorous, sanguineous or mucopurulent vaginal discharge with general symptoms such as vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, depression, anorexia and occasionally fever. Till date, ultrasonography is the best diagnostic method while radiology and serological test are also helpful. Recently, the estimation of inflammatory mediators (acute phase proteins and prostaglandin metabolites) has appeared as marker for diagnosis of the pyometra. Determination of levels of inflammatory mediators has emerged as an important diagnostic method because it can be helpful in prognosis of the condition. The pyometra can be best treated by surgical manipulation (ovariohysterectomy); however, hormonal treatment can be given in less severe cases which aimed at reducing the effect of progesterone on the reproductive tract. Together, provision of antioxidants could be helpful in disease recovery along with the determined treatment. In this review, incidence, predisposing factors, etio-pathogenesis, oxidative stress associated with condition, diagnostic methods and treatment are discussed.
    2017(2):93-96, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170209
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effect of different cervical dilators on cervical dilation and reproductive performance of fat-tailed ewes. Methods: In experiment 1 140 ewes were divided into seven groups with seven different treatments as following: 10 mL normal saline (control group), 100 IU oxytocin (OT group), 100 μg estradiol and 100 IU oxytocin (E2+OT group), 5 mL relaxin (R group), 2 mL sensiblex (SEN group), 200 μg misoprostol (MIS group) or 200 μg dinoprostone (DIN group). In experiment 2, artificial insemination was applied for evaluation of reproductive performance in experimental groups. Results: In experiment 1, the highest cervical dilation was observed in OT (90%) and E2+OT (100%) groups (P<0.05), while no significant differences was found among DIN, MIS, SEN and R groups (80%, 75%, 70% and 65%, respectively). In addition, the lowest cervical dilation was observed in control group. Experiment 2 found no significant differences among control, OT and E2+OT groups. The highest pregnancy rate, parturition rate and lambing rate were observed in OT groups (60%, 60% and 70%, respectively) and E2+OT groups (65%, 60% and 70%, respectively) compared to SEN, R, MIS and DIN groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: Oxytocin treatment alone or with estradiol could be used as a suitable dilator for improving reproductive efficiency during artificial insemination in fat-tailed ewes.
    2017(2):77-80, DOI: 10.12980/apjr.6.20170205
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the effect of BHT on cattle spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk (TCFY) diluent considered as control (0 BHT) and different concentrations of BHT (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mM were prepared in ethanol in prewarmed (37 ) test tubes. The ethanol was allowed to evaporate so that, a thin crystallized layer of BHT was deposited on the inner surface of the tubes. Then extended semen was added into the tubes and incubated at 37 for 5 min to allow uptake of BHT by spermatozoa. The tubes were cooled slowly (approximately for 2 h) up to 5 and equilibrated for 4 h. After equilibration, semen freezing process was carried out. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive sperm, intact sperm membrane (HOST) % and acrosome integrity) in both cooled and cryopreserved semen. Results: The result revealed that sperm motility of post-cooled spermatozoa improved (P<0.05) by the use of BHT concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mM) in Tris semen extender if compared to the control (85.00±1.09), (83.33± 0.63), (81.67± 0.63) and (78.33± 0.63), respectively. Alive sperm percent was significantly higher in all concentrations of BHT. Sperm abnormalities percent were significantly lower in concentrations of BHT 1 and 2 (11.2±0.2), (11.8±0.2)and (13.4±0.4), respectively. Sperm membrane integrity were significantly higher in BHT concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM). It is exhibited that improved sperm motility in post-thawed frozen semen in the concentrations of BHT (1, 2, 3 and 4 mM) if compared to the control. The sperm membrane integrity were significantly improved at all concentrations of BHT. Acrosome integrity was significantly higher at BHT concentration 1 mM (81.80±0.57) and (76.00±2.05), respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that some concentrations of BHT improved bull semen quality post-cooling and post-freezing.
    2019(2):63-69, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.254647
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate ameliorative effects of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and VAC containing pharmaceutical supplement (VPS) against polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: PCOS in the rats was induced by daily administration of letrozole at 1 mg/kg body weight concentration for 21 d. PCOS rats were then treated daily either with metformin, VAC plant extract or VPS at 70, 8 or 8 mg/kg body weight concentration for 15 d. Rats that received none of these treatments were considered as control. Blood and ovaries were collected from all the rats. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulation hormone, catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehide and reduced glutathione were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Rats treated with letrozole demonstrated a significant increase in serum testosterone, estrogen, cholesterol, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and malondialdehide levels, and a significant decline in progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, catalase and reduced glutathione levels compared to control. Contrarily, no significant change in superoxide dismutase was noted in response to letrozole treatment. Rats treated with metformin, VAC or VPS showed a remarkable reversal in the levels of parameters affected by letrozole treatment. Conclusions: Data indicate that VAC and VPS exert potential ameliorative effects against PCOS through the modulation of hormonal and lipid profile as well as oxidative stress. Moreover, the favorable effects of these compounds are comparable to that of metformin.
    2019(3):102-111, DOI: 10.4103/2305-0500.259167
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effect of preparation to play a maternal role in mothers fertilized through in vitro fertilization on maternal anxiety. Methods: A total of 60 mothers undergoing in vitro fertilization were assigned into intervention group and control group. Pregnancy concerns and stress questionnaires were research tools. Questionnaires were completed in both groups before organizing preparation program. Then, the preparation program was held for four sessions for the mothers in the intervention group, and the subjects in both groups were immediately investigated again after completion of preparation program and one month later. Data analyses about pregnancy stress and concerns of mothers and its dimensions were performed by repeated measure (analysis of variance), Mann-Whitney, Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. Analysis of demographic variables was performed by using independent t-test and Chi-square test in SPSS 21. Results: The score of pregnancy stress and concerns before the intervention was not significantly different between the two groups. There was a significant difference in the intervention group in the score of pregnancy stress and concerns before and after the intervention (P<0.001), before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001), immediately after and one month after the intervention (P<0.001) which was not significant in the control group. Conclusions: Maternal preparation program can be effective in reducing maternal stress and concerns.

Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, a publication of Hainan Medical University, is a peer-reviewed print + online Bimonthly journal.

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