Ebola virus is a severe, frequently fatal illness, with a case fatality rate up to 90%. The outbreak of the disease has been acknowledged by World Health Organization as Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The threat of Ebola in West Africa is still a major setback to the socioeconomic development. Optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equations which is modeling Ebola infection through three different routes including contact between humans and a dead body. In an attempt to reduce infection in susceptible population, a preventive control is put in the form of education and campaign and two treatment controls are applied to infected and late-stage infected (super) human population. The Pontryagins maximum principle is employed to characterize optimality control, which is then solved numerically. It is observed that time optimal control is existed in the model. The activation of each control showed a positive reduction of infection. The overall effect of activation of all the controls simultaneously reduced the effort required for the reduction of the infection quickly. The obtained results present a good framework for planning and designing cost-effective strategies for good interventions in dealing with Ebola disease. It is established that in order to reduce Ebola threat all the three controls must be taken into consideration concurrently.
Supported by Government of Ghana Annual University Lecturers Research Grant (Grant No. 01/2015) and Postdoctoral Grant from the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (Grant ID: OP52155).