Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis among patients with seizures in northern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, India
Objective: To report cases of neurocysticercosis (NCC) from three neighboring districts of Andhra Pradesh state in India where NCC burden was never explored before. Methods: A total of 160 patients presenting with recent onset seizures were recruited from neurology, general medicine, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a local major tertiary care teaching hospital serving above districts during the period 2011–2014. Brain imaging was performed in all the above cases. A commercial immunoglobulin G-ELISA kit (sensitivity = 85%; specificity = 94%) was employed for the serological diagnosis of NCC. Results: The recruited patients presented with generalized, simple partial, and complex partial seizures (55%, 31.25% and 13.75% respectively). NCC was diagnosed in 44 of 160 (27.5%) seizure cases based on imaging characteristics, and a positive serum antibody ELISA. No association was detected between seropositivity with the number and location of the lesion(s) in the brain. Conclusions: The possible potentiality of NCC could be identified as an underlying cause of the recent onset of seizures in this region as explored in the present study. It is recommended that NCC should be suspected as one of the major differential in every recent onset seizure with or without a radio imaging supportive diagnosis, especially in areas endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis.
Partially supported by the Indian Council of Medical Research Ad-hoc Research Grant (IRIS ID: 2010-10530).