Nationwide seroprevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors of Leishmania in Jordan
Objective: To explore the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Leishmania seropositivity in Jordan. Methods: Blood samples from 872 apparently healthy participants were randomly selected from 11 governorates in Jordan and tested for anti- Leishmania K39 IgG. Risk factors (animal ownership and agriculture practices) and demographic data were also collected using pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: Overall, 2.52% of participants were seropositive for Leishmania spp. Participants living in the Jordan Valley plateau had significantly greater odds (adjusted odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.37-9.93) of seropositivity than those living in the Highlands after adjustment for age. Conclusions: This study supports the intermittent reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the Jordan Valley. Vector control measures in the Jordan Valley should be considered, including insecticide treated bed nets, sugar baits and using flowering plants to attract and trap Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies. Active surveillance in the Jordan Valley is also recommended in light of this and other reports.
Jordan University of Science and Technology (Deanship of Research Project # 162/2016)