Role of higher levels of post-challenge antibodies in protective vaccination against Leishmania tropica infection of BALB/c mice
Objective: To study the role of antibodies in protection against Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) infection in the experimental model of BALB/c mice. Methods: BALB/c mice were vaccinated against L. tropica by soluble Leishmania antigen or recombinant L. tropica stress-inducible protein-1 (LtSTI1) of L. tropica, and against Leishmania major (L. major) by soluble Leishmania antigen. Monophosphoryl lipid A was used as an adjuvant. The L. tropica- or L. major-vaccinated mice were challenged by L. tropica or L. major, respectively. The levels of anti-Leishmania antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) were determined after vaccination and after challenge. Results: All vaccinated groups caused a higher antibody response in comparison with the control group. The L. major-vaccinated group showed lower IgG1 response than the control group after the challenge. Conversely, in L. tropica-vaccinated mice, the levels of antibodies were higher than the control group. Moreover, the group receiving rLtSTI1 and monophosphoryl lipid A showed higher levels of antibodies than those of the rLtSTI1 group. In vaccinated mice, antibody responses against L. tropica remained high until 16 weeks after the challenge. Conclusions: The higher levels of post-challenge antibodies are associated with protective vaccination against L. tropica infection of BALB/c mice. Our findings provide new insight into the association of antibody with vaccine-induced protective immunity against L. tropica infection. More studies are needed to clarify the role of antibody in protection against L. tropica.
Pasteur Institute of Iran (Research Project No. 754) and Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.