Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Acarine ectoparasites of Panti Forest Reserve in Johore, Malaysia
    Mariana A Mohd Kulaimi B Halimaton I Suhaili ZA Shahrul-Anuar MS Nor Zalipah M Ho TM
    2011(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60057-9
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 819.52 K](43)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the presence of acarine ectoparasites and determine whether there is any potential public health risk in Panti Forest Reserve, Johore, Malaysia. Methods: Trapping of animals and avifauna was conducted simultaneously along 5 expedition trails using 150 wire traps, 10 harp traps and 30 mist nets for 6 consecutive nights. A total of 140 animals consisting of 7 species of birds, 19 species of bats, 6 species of rodents and 1 species of tree-shrew as well as 8 myriapods were examined. Results: Infestation rates of ticks, mesostigmatid mites and chiggers on animals examined were 24.3%, 28.6% and 27.9%, respectively. Infestation on bats was low (1.5%) and none occurred on birds. Majority of ticks extracted were at immature stages (78.9%). Genera of ticks on animals were Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes. Ixodes granulatus was the only species of ticks identified from the animals. Examination of ticks under vegetation revealed 54% adults leading to identification of 3 species of ticks. A total of 7 species of mesostigmatid mites were found. 6 species were on rodent, Maxomys surifer and another one species, Laelaps nuttalli was found only on Leopoldamys sabanus. Laelaps sanguisugus was the only mesostigmatid found infesting tree-shrews. Seven genera of chiggers were identified. From this, 5 genera were on rodents, 4 genera on tree-shrews and 1 genus on a bat. Conclusions: A total of 16 genera, 2 sub-genus and 14 species of acarine ectoparasites were found in this area. Findings of the survey demonstrate the presence of three spesies of acarine ectoparasites which have potential health risk i.e. Ixodes granulatus, Laelaps nuttalli and Leptotrombidium deliense.
    2  Biomedical studies on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility during the process of aging
    Arun Kumar
    2011(1):6-7. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60058-0
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 659.07 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate oxidative stress, hemoglobin percentage and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in various aging groups. Methods: A total of 200 healthy volunteers of both genders between age group 20-65 years were selected by random method. Determination of hemoglobin percentage was done employing modified cyanide method of Dacie and Lewis. The erythrocyte lysis was observed in hypotonic solution of buffered saline at varying concentrations and optical density was measured at 540 nm. The extent of lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde was measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Results: The study found a significant decrease in hemoglobin percentage, increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and increased lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde with increasing age. Conclusions: Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent the oxidative injury in elderly group of subjects.
    3  Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.) H. Lev.
    Paul Raj K Irudayaraj V Johnson M Patric Raja D
    2011(1):8-11. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60059-2
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 849.74 K](43)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the morphology, biochemistry and bioactivity of the epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of Christella parasitica (C. parasitica) (L.) H. Lev. Methods: Morphological studies on epidermal glands were carried out by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. To prepare the extract, the shade-dried fronds of glandular morphotype were soaked in acetone. For antibacterial studies paper disc method was followed by using various pathogenic bacteria. Results: Detailed micromorphological, phytochemical and bioactivity studies on a medicinal fern C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. showed its intraspecific variation in antibacterial activity. The presence or absence of the epidermal glands was the key factor for antibacterial activity in the morphovariants of this species. The epidermal glands were orange-coloured, stalked and elongated ones of about 84.2 μm × 45 μm, and distributed on the undersurface of costa, costules and veins in croziers, young and mature leaves. Frequency of glands varied from 15/cm on costa in mature leaves to 140/cm on costules in croziers. The acetone extract of the glands showed antibacterial activities and also toxic effect against mosquito larvae and tadpoles of frog. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and HPLC studies of the gland extract showed the presence of various kinds of terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in it. Conclusions: The present study shows that epidermal glands of the glandular morphotype of C. parasitica (L.) H. Lev. have several bioactive compounds and such rare morphovariant should be conserved in nature. The next step is to isolate the pure compounds and to screen the bioactivity of individual compounds of the epidermal glands.
    4  Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats
    Okafor OY Erukainure OL Ajiboye JA Adejobi RO Owolabi FO Kosoko SB
    2011(1):12-14. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60060-9
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 700.68 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results: Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions: The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol- induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol- induced toxicity.
    5  Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples
    S Anto Jeya Dayalan Pramod Darwin Prakash S
    2011(1):15-19. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60061-0
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 780.43 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. Methods: The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPlC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. Results: From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPlC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. Conclusions: The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research focuses on various unexplored sources of medical ailments, and also shows that the growth of penicillin is high in maltose rich media that could possibly enhance the growth.
    6  A transmission electron microscopy study of the diversity of Candida albicans cells induced by Euphorbia hirta L. leaf extract in vitro
    Abu Arra Basma Zakaria Zuraini Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    2011(1):20-22. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60062-2
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 851.12 K](45)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the major changes in the microstructure of Candida albicans (C. albicans) after treatment with Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) L. leaf extract. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes caused by E. hirta extract on C. albicans cells at various exposure time. Results: It was found that the main abnormalities were the alterations in morphology, lysis and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. Whereas the control cultures showed a typical morphology of Candida with a uniform central density, typically structured nucleus, and a cytoplasm with several elements of endomembrane system and enveloped by a regular, intact cell wall. Conclusions: The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of E. hirta L. suggests its potential against infections caused by C. albicans. The extract may be developed as an anticandidal agent.
    7  Infection of Schistosomiasis japanicum is likely to enhance proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells: mechanism of action of differential expression of MMP2 and MMP9
    Ya-Ling Lin Rakesh Ramanujum Shiping He
    2011(1):23-28. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60063-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 880.33 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study whether the infection of Schistosomiasis japanicum (S. japanicum) is related to enhanced proliferation and migration of cancer cells, and the molecular mechanism pertains to cancer cell metastasis in human host. Methods: The gene of S. japanicum glutathione transferase (sjGST) cloned from S. japanicum was expressed, purified and applied in a series of assays to explore the effect of sjGST on proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-435S, and the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Immunofluorescence assay for the binding of sjGST to MDA-MB-435S was also carried out. Results: Results showed that sjGST enhanced proliferation and migration in human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-435S signifycantly at 50-200 nM, but did not enhance them in human lung cancer cell A549. Immunofluorescence assay for the binding of sjGST to MDA-MB-435S and A549 showed that GST was readily bound to the breast cancer cells, but showed almost no binding to human lung cancer cells. The assays for gelatinase activity showed that both MMP2 and MMP9 activities were increased significantly in the presence of sjGST (50-200 nM) in MDA-MB-435S, but they were not significant in A549. Conclusions: Our current results show strongly that S. japanicum GST binds to MDA-MB-435S probably via its receptor, and enhances proliferation and migration of the cancer cells by up-regulatory expression of MMP2 and MMP9.
    8  Antioxidative effect of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles
    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty Santanu Kar Mahapatra Sumanta Kumar Sahu Panchanan Pramanik Somenath Roy
    2011(1):29-38. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60064-6
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.22 M](45)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the potency of carboxymethyl chitosan-2, 2’ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine-folate (CMC-EDBE-FA) on tissue injury, antioxidant status and glutathione system in tissue mitochondria and serum against nicotine-induced oxidative stress in mice. Methods: CMC-EDBE-FA was prepared on basis of carboxymethyl chitosan tagged with folic acid by covalently linkage through 2, 2’ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine. Animals were divided into four groups, i.e., control, nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day), CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) and nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day) and CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione level, antioxidant enzyme status and DNA damage were observed and compared. Results: The significantly increase of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione levels and DNA damage was observed in nicotine treated group as compared with control group; those were significantly reduced in CMC-EDBE-FA supplemented group. Moreover, significantly reduced antioxidant status in nicotine treated group was effectively ameliorated by the supplementation of CMC-EDBE-FA. Only CMC-EDBE-FA treated groups showed no significant change as compared with control group; rather than it repairs the tissue damage of nicotine treated group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CMC-EDBE-FA is non-toxic and ameliorates nicotine-induced toxicity.
    9  Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia
    Maksum Radji Siti Fauziah Nurgani Aribinuko
    2011(1):39-42. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60065-8
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 623.34 K](43)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.
    10  Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Govindarajan M Mathivanan T Elumalai K Krishnappa K Anandan A
    2011(1):43-48. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60066-X
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 677.51 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. Results: The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.
    11  Assessment of in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax fresh isolates
    Poonuch Muhamad Wanna Chacharoenkul Kanchana Rungsihirunrat Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2011(1):49-53. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60067-1
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 709.02 K](45)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the applicability of the SYBR Green-I assay with the standard schizont maturation assay, for determination of sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) to chloroquine and a new antifolate WR 99210. Methods: The study was conducted at Mae Tao Clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during April 2009 to July 2010. A total of 64 blood samples (1 mL blood collected into sodium heparinized plastic tube) were collected from patients with mono- infection with P. vivax malaria prior to treatment with standard regimen of a 3-day chloroquine. In vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays. Results: A total of 30 out of 64 blood samples collected from patients with P. vivax malaria were successfully analyzed using both the microscopic schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays. The failure rates of the schizont maturation inhibition assay (50%) and the SYBR Green-I assay (54%) were similar (P=0.51). The median IC10s, IC50s and IC90s of both chloroquine and WR99210 were not significantly different from the clinical isolates of P. vivax tested. Based on the cut-off of 100 nM, the prevalences of chloroquine resistance determined by schizont maturation inhibition and SYBR Green-I assays were 19 and 11 isolates, respectively. The strength of agreement between the two methods was very poor for both chloroquine and WR99210. Conclusions: On the basis of this condition and its superior sensitivity, the microscopic method appears better than the SYBR Green-I Green assay for assessing in vitro sensitivity of fresh P. vivax isolates to antimalarial drugs.
    12  Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    Firoozfar F Moosa-Kazemi H Baniardalani M Abolhassani M Khoobdel M Rafinejd J
    2011(1):54-56. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60068-3
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 605.19 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods: Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. Results: A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. Conclusions: During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.
    13  Evaluation of anti-apoptotic activity of different dietary antioxidants in renal cell carcinoma against hydrogen peroxide
    Garg Neeraj K Mangal Sharad Sahu Tejram Mehta Abhinav Vyas Suresh P Tyagi Rajeev K
    2011(1):57-63. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60069-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](43)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-apoptotic and radical scavenging activities of dietary phenolics, namely ascorbic acid,α-tocopherol acetate, citric acid, salicylic acid, and estimate H2O2- induced apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma cells. Methods: The intracellular antioxidant potency of antioxidants was investigated. H2O2-induced apoptosis in RCC-26 was assayed with the following parameters: cell viability (% apoptosis), nucleosomal damage and DNA fragmentation, bcl-2 levels and flow cytometery analysis (ROS production evaluation). Results: The anticancer properties of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol acetate, citric acid, salicylic acid with perdurable responses were investigated. It was observed that these antioxidants had protective effect (anti-apoptotic activity) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC-26) cell line. Conclusions: This study reveals and proves the anticancer properties. However, in cancer cell lines anti-apoptotic activity can indirectly reflect the cancer promoter activity through radicals scavenging, and significantly protect nucleus and bcl-2.
    14  Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory
    Kitvatanachai S Apiwathnasorn C Leemingsawat S Wongwit W Overgaard HJ
    2011(1):64-68. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60070-1
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 658.98 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.
    15  HIV prevalence in suspects attending Sir Sunder Lal Hospital
    Ajay Singh
    2011(1):69-73. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60071-3
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 663.98 K](44)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the sero-positivity rate of HIV infection among clinically suspected subjects of reproductive age group (15-49 years), biological and behavioral characteristics of the subjects gender specific variation of sero-positivity rate, and the differentials of the sero-positivity rate for the history of blood transfusion or blood products or other organs, history of needle exposure and symptoms of morbidity. Methods: Study is based on the retrospective data of the calendar year 2005 obtained from Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre (VCTC) (now renamed as ICTC), Department of Microbiology, I.M.S., B.H.U., Varanasi. These cases were either referred by the consultants of different OPD'S of Sir Sunderlal Hospital or came voluntarily for knowing their HIV status. About 2-3 mL of blood samples were collected in a plain vial and tested for HIV status by strategy Ⅱ/Ⅲ as per WHO/NACO guidelines. Results: Overall sero-positivity of HIV was 15.3% (18.1% in males and 12.2% in females) which increased 6-7 folds in the age group 35-49 years as compared to 15-24 years in both the sexes. Sero-positivity rate in male migrants was 43.1%, while in female migrants it was 18.7%. The history of multiple sexual contacts was about 3 times higher in males as compared to females; predominantly it was very high in male migrants (67.7%) as compared to male non-migrants (15.8%). History of multiple sexual contacts was not uncommon in females and it was 25.0% in female migrants and 9.7% in non-migrant females. The sero-positivity rate with the history of multiple sexual contacts was 45.4% in males and 60.3% in females, while without history of multiple sexual contacts these were only 2.8% and 5.3% respectively. Sero-positive cases had on an average 3.6±1.7 various morbidity symptoms as compared to 0.7±1.1 in sero-negatives. It is to be noted that sero-positivity rate was more in those females who seemed apparently healthy compared to those presenting with some of the symptoms; vice versa, in males presenting with some symptoms HIV infection was 7 times higher than those without symptoms. Conclusions: The findings indicate a high sero-positivity among both the genders. Multiple heterosexual contacts, especially, in migrants are the main root of transmission of HIV. These are causing spread of HIV to their spouses. The multiple sexual contacts in the society, especially, among non migrant females of this region are indicating the distortion of traditions and cultures which are a serious concern and may lead to HIV infection on the rise. Awareness program to the susceptible group is the need to reduce further spread of HIV.
    16  Malaria vaccines: looking back and lessons learnt
    Veronique Lorenz Panagiotis Karanis
    2011(1):74-78. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60072-5
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 648.83 K](43)
    Abstract:
    The current status of malaria vaccine approaches has the background of a long and arduous path of malaria disease control and vaccine development. Here, we critically review with regard to unilateral interventional approaches and highlight the impact of socioeconomic elements of malaria endemicity. The necessity of re-energizing basic research of malaria life-cycle and Plasmodium developmental biology to provide the basis for promising and cost-effective vaccine approaches and to reach eradication goals is more urgent than previously believed. We closely analyse the flaws of various vaccine approaches, outline future directions and challenges that still face us and conclude that the focus of the field must be shifted to the basic research efforts including findings on the skin stage of infection. We also reflect on economic factors of vaccine development and the impact of public perception when it comes to vaccine uptake.
    17  Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill: a case study
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2011(1):79-80. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60073-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 603.68 K](45)
    Abstract:
    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control. There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic. Here, the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill. General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.
    18  A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in Argentina
    Javier Bava Lucia G Gonzalez Celeste M Seley Gisela P López Alcides Troncoso
    2011(1):81-82. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60074-9
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 748.60 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) represents the most common tropically acquired dermatosis. CLM is caused by infection with hookworm larvae in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and people who have a history of foreign travel and of walking barefoot on sandy soil or beaches are at a high risk of getting infected with it. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the typical appearance of the lesion, intense itching and history of foreign travel. CLM is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. A case of CLM is described in this article.
    19  A case of acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting as ARDS in an immunocompetent host
    Sameer Singhal DD Wagh Shivali Kashikar Yeshwant Lonkar
    2011(1):83-84. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60075-0
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 699.59 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Acute eididymo-orchitis is the most common cause of intrascrotal inflammation, and retrograde ascent of pathogens is the usual route of infection. Here we intend to present a case of young boy, not sexually active, suffering from acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proper timely diagnosis of the primary cause and prompt treatment including support with non invasive ventilation lead to a favourable outcome in the same case.

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