Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L
    Sarita Kumar Naim Wahab Radhika Warikoo
    2011(2):85-88. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60001-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 673.44 K](42)
    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results: The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions: The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.
    2  Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using molecular biology technology
    Juan Garberi Jorge Labrador Federico Garberi Juan Ezequiel Garberi Julian Peneipil Miguel Garberi Luis Scigliano Alcides Troncoso
    2011(2):89-93. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60002-6
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 784.12 K](42)
    Objective: To present an integrated molecular biology dedicated system for tuberculosis diagnosis. Methods: One hundred and five sputum specimens from patients strongly suspected by clinical parameters of tuberculosis were studied by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, by cultivation on solid medium and by a balanced heminested fluorometric PCR system (Orange G3TB) that could preserve worker safety and produce a rather pure material free of potential inhibitors. DNA amplification was performed in a low cost tuberculosis termocycler-fluorometer. Produced double stranded DNA was flurometrically detected. The whole reaction was conducted in one single tube which would not be opened after adding the processed sample in order to minimize the risk of cross contamination with amplicons. Results: The assay was able to detect 30 bacillus per sample mL with 99.8% interassay variation coefficient. PCR was positive in 23 (21.9%) tested samples (21 of them were smear negative). In our study it showed a preliminary sensitivity of 94.5% for sputum and an overall specificity of 98.7%. Conclusions: Total run time of the test is 4 h with 2.5 real working time. All PCR positive samples are also positive by microbiological culture and clinical criteria. Results show that it could be a very useful tool to increase detection efficiency of tuberculosis disease in low bacilus load samples. Furthermore, its low cost and friendly using make it feasible to run in poor regions.
    3  ETM study of electroporation influence on cell morphology in human malignant melanoma and human primary gingival fibroblast cells
    Nina Skolucka Malgorzata Daczewska Jolanta Saczko Agnieszka Chwilkowska Anna Choromanska Malgorzata Kotulska Iwona Kaminska Julita Kulbacka
    2011(2):94-98. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60003-8
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 985.61 K](42)
    Objective: To estimate electroporation (EP) influence on malignant and normal cells. Methods: Two cell lines including human malignant melanoma (Me-45) and normal human gingival fibroblast (HGFs) were used. EP parameters were the following: 250, 1 000, 1 750, 2 500 V/cm; 50 μs by 5 impulses for every case. The viability of cells after EP was estimated by MTT assay. The ultrastructural analysis was observed by transmission electron microscope (Zeiss EM 900). Results: In the current study we observed the intracellular effect following EP on Me-45 and HGF cells. At the conditions applied, we did not observe any significant damage of mitochondrial activity in both cell lines treated by EP. Conversely, we showed that EP in some conditions can stimulate cells to proliferation. Some changes induced by EP were only visible in electron microscopy. In fibroblast cells we observed significant changes in lower parameters of EP (250 and 1 000 V/cm). After applying higher electric field intensities (2 500 V/cm) we detected many vacuoles, myelin-like bodies and swallowed endoplasmic reticulum. In melanoma cells such strong pathological modifications after EP were not observed, in comparison with control cells. The ultrastructure of both treated cell lines was changed according to the applied parameters of EP. Conclusions: We can claim that EP conditions are cell line dependent. In terms of the intracellular morphology, human fibroblasts are more sensitive to electric field as compared with melanoma cells. Optimal conditions should be determined for each cell line. Summarizing our study, we can conclude that EP is not an invasive method for human normal and malignant cells. This technique can be safely applied in chemotherapy for delivering drugs into tumor cells.
    4  Can fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals cause acute appendicitis
    Omer Engin Mehmet Yildirim Savas Yakan Gulnihal Ay Coskun
    2011(2):99-101. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60004-X
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 714.78 K](41)
    Objective: To investigate the relation between fruit seeds, plants residuals and appendicitis. Methods: Among cases that underwent appendectomy, the appendicitis cases having fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals in their etiology were examined retrospectively. Also, histopathological features, age, sex, and parameters of morbidity and mortality were used. Results: Fruit seed was found in one case (0.05%) with presence of pus in appendix lumen, undigested plant residuals in 7 cases (0.35%). It was determined that there were appendix inflammation in 2 of the plant residuals cases, while there were obstruction and lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix lumen of 5 cases. No mortality was observed. Conclusions: The ratio of acute appendicitis caused by plants is minimal among all appendectomised patients, but avoidence of eating undigested fruit seeds and chewing plants well may help to prevent appendicitis.
    5  Nitric oxide mediated Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and protective role of nanoconjugated vancomycin
    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty Santanu Kar Mahapatra Sumanta Kumar Sahu Sourav Chattopadhyay Panchanan Pramanik Somenath Roy
    2011(2):102-109. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60005-1
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 705.13 K](44)
    Objective: To test the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inside lymphocyte that contributes to the pathogenesis of infection and possible anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effect of nanoconjugated vancomycin against in vivo S. aureus infection in a dose and duration dependent manner. Methods: 5×106 CFU/mL vancomycin-sensitive S. aureus (VSSA) and vancomycin-resistive S. aureus (VRSA) were challenged in Swiss male mice for 3 days, 5 days, 10 days and 15 days, respectively. Bacteremia and inflammatory parameters were observed to evaluate the duration for development of VSSA and VRSA infection. 100 mg/kg bw/day and 500 mg/kg bw/day nanoconjugated vancomycin were administrated to VSSA and VRSA infected group for 5 days. Bacteremia, inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress related parameters were tested to observe the effective dose of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection. Nanoconjugated vancomycin was treated at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day and 500 mg/ kg bw/day, respectively, to VSSA and VRSA infected group for successive 5 days, 10 days and 15 days. Bacteremia, inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress related parameters were observed to assess the effective duration of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection. Results: The result revealed that in vivo VSSA and VRSA infection developed after 5 days of challenge by elevating the NO generation in lymphocyte and serum inflammatory markers. Administration with nanoconjugated vancomycin to VSSA and VRSA infected group at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day and 500 mg/kg bw/day, respectively, for successive 10 days eliminated bacterimia, decreased NO generation in lymphocyte, serum inflammatory markers and increased antioxidant enzyme status. Conclusions: These findings suggest, in vivo challenge of VSSA and VRSA for 5 days can produce the highest degree of damage in lymphocyte which can be ameliorated by treatment with nanoconjugated vancomycin for 10 successive days.
    6  Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil
    Clarissa Gutiérrez Carvalho Simone Martins Castro Ana Paula Santin Carina Zaleski Felipe Gutiérrez Carvalho Roberto Giugliani
    2011(2):110-113. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60006-3
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.99 K](42)
    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice. Methods: Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on 490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced 35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December 2007. Enzymatic screening of G6PD activity was performed, followed by PCR. Results: There was prevalence of 4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of 3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate with ABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association with UGT1A1 variants. Conclusions: G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated.
    7  Antimicrobial potential of selected brown seaweeds from Vedalai coastal waters, Gulf of Mannar
    Manivannan K Karthikai devi G Anantharaman P Balasubramanian T
    2011(2):114-120. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60007-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 702.69 K](43)
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides), Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora) and Sargassum tenerrimum against human bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against various organisms were tested by using disc diffusion method. Results: The methanol extract showed the better result than the other extracts. Whereas, the strong antibacterial inhibition was noted in methanol extracts of P. gymnospora against Bacillus subtilus (26.33±1.86) and the mild inhibition of ethanol extracts from T. conoides against Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.33±0.51). Acetone extraction of P. gymnospora had strong antifungal inhibition against Cryptococcus neoformans (23.00±1.78), and acetone extract of T. conoides had mild inhibition against Aspergillus niger (3.00±0.89). Conclusions: The seven different solvent extracts of seaweeds used in the present study have shown significant bacterial action. Further, a detailed study on the principle compound in the seaweeds which is responsible for antimicrobial activity is still needed and it can be achieved by using advanced separation techniques.
    8  New host and locality records of snake intestinal nematode Kalicephalus spp in Indonesia
    Endang Purwaningsih Mumpuni
    2011(2):121-123. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60008-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.30 K](42)
    Objective: To observe three species of Kalicephalus found in three species of snake (Ophiophagus hannah, Ptyas mucosus, and Naja Sputatrix) during research on Capture Snake for Trading in Java and Snake Biodiversity in Kalimantan Islands. Methods: Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with warm 70% alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon compound microscope. Measurements were given in micrometers (μ) as the average of findings, followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results: Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus was found from 7 Ptyas mucosus, Kalicephalus bungari from 2 Naja sputatrix and 1 Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus and Kalicephalus assimilis found from 1 Ophiophagus hannah. The morphology and measurement of three species of Kalicephalus found in this study were close to those described before. Conclusions: New finding of host of Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus and Kalicephalus bungari was a snake species of Naja sputatrix. New records of locality were Kalimantan island as the new locality of Kalicephalus assimilis, and Java island was new locality of Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus.
    9  Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)
    Prabhu K Murugan K Nareshkumar A Ramasubramanian N Bragadeeswaran S
    2011(2):124-129. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60009-9
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 661.41 K](40)
    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods: M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results: Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.
    10  Antimicrobial drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products
    Sasidharan S Prema B Yoga Latha L
    2011(2):130-132. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60010-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 630.96 K](44)
    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in dairy products. Methods: Isolation and identification of S. aureus were performed in 3 dairy- based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 5 different common antimicrobial drugs. Results: Of 50 samples examined, 5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the 5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample 18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus. Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistant S. aureus.
    11  Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species of Amaranthus
    Girija K Lakshman K Udaya Chandrika Sabhya Sachi Ghosh Divya T
    2011(2):133-138. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60011-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 804.47 K](43)
    Objective: To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed. Results: It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at 200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed. Conclusions: Methanol extracts of Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.
    12  Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves
    Dnyaneshwar J Taur Maruti G Waghmare Rajendra S Bandal Ravindra Y Patil
    2011(2):139-141. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60012-9
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 638.15 K](42)
    Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MRCL). Methods: Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100, 125 and 150 mg/kg bw. Results: The results indicated that MRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids. Conclusions: It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it.
    13  Hepatoprotective activity of Hepax-A polyherbal formulation
    VC Devaraj B Gopala Krishna GL Viswanatha Jagadish V Kamath Sanjay Kumar
    2011(2):142-146. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60013-0
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 775.74 K](43)
    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of Hepax, a polyherbal formulation, against three experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods: Hepatoprotective activity of Hepax was studied against three experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models, namely, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), paracetamol and thiocetamide induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results: Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4, paracetamol and thiocetamide) showed significant morphological, biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with Hepax had significant protection against hepatic damage by maintaining the morphological parameters (liver weight and liver weight to organ weight ratio) within normal range and normalizing the elevated levels of biochemical parameters (SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total bilirubin), which were evidently showed in histopathological study. Conclusions: The Hepax has highly significant hepatoprotective effect at 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. on the liver of all the three experimental animal models.
    14  Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extacts of Gendarussa vulgaris Nees
    TK Mohamed Saleem AK Azeem C Dilip C Sankar NV Prasanth R Duraisami
    2011(2):147-149. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60014-2
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 602.92 K](42)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf exacts of Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. Methods: G. vulgaris Nees of the family Apocynaceae is a medium sized tree grown in semishade or no shade and is common in the Ernad and Nilambur taluks of Kerala. Various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, sores, inflammation, dyspepsia, healing of wounds, etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedima. Results: Both the methods showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.
    15  Prevalence of HIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva
    Adesuwa I Osahon Catherine U Ukponmwan Odarosa M Uhunmwangho
    2011(2):150-153. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60015-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 650.25 K](41)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Methods: All patients with clinical and histopathological confirmation of squamous cell carcinoma seen during a ten year period (July 1999 to June 2009) were tested for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva who are HIV positive were counted. Results: A total of thirty-three(33) eyes in thirty- two(32) patients were confirmed histopathologically to have conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Their ages ranged from 22 years to 66 years with a mean age of (38.6±11.8) years (SD). The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Twenty four (75%) of these patients were HIV positive. Conclusions: Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with the human immunodeficiency virus and is thus a marker for the disease in Benin City, Nigeria.
    16  Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity
    Manisha Deb Mandal Shyamapada Mandal
    2011(2):154-160. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60016-6
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 733.29 K](41)
    Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities.
    17  Intraductal papilloma of the breast in association with preoncogenic gene of breast cancer
    Tuenchit Khammapirad Jenjeera Prueksadee Concepcion Diaz-Arrastia Shaleen K Botting Morton Leonard Louisea Bonoan-Deomampo Mahmoud A Eltorky
    2011(2):161-163. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60017-8
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 806.87 K](40)
    We reported a case of an African American woman who went to the hospital with palpable right breast lump with bloody nipple discharge at University of Texas Medical Branct at Galvestion. The modalities of breast imagings included mammography and ultrasongraphy. The method used for viral identification was Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Intraductal papilloma revealed as high density tubular or rounded lobular masses with partially circumscribed, obscured margins and clustered punctate microcalcifications on mammograms. Ultrasound showed as intraductal masses with dilated ducts. The core biopsy demonstrated duct filled with papillary lesion and post excision revealed intraductal papilloma. HPV DNA types 16, 33, 58 and 71 were detected after use of Linear Array HPV genotyping test.
    18  A case report of ocular toxocariasis
    Azira NMS Zeehaida M
    2011(2):164-165. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60018-X
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 615.61 K](41)
    Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis). We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a 9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.
    19  A case of cellulitis of the hands caused by a predatory bird attack
    M Adil Abbas Khan Mohammed Farid Zain A Sobani Syed Nadir Ali Huzaifa Malick Maryam Baqir Hasanat Sharif M Asim Beg
    2011(2):166-168. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60019-1
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 684.20 K](44)
    Many species have been drastically affected by rapid urbanization. Harris's hawks from their natural habitat of open spaces and a supply of rodents, lizards and other small prey have been forced to change their natural environment adapting to living in open spaces in sub- and peri-urban areas. Specific areas include playgrounds, parks and school courtyards. The migration of this predatory species into these areas poses a risk to individuals, and especially the children are often attacked by claws, talons and beaks intentionally or as collateral damage while attacking rodent prey. In addition, the diverse micro-organisms harbored in the beaks and talons can result in wound infections, presenting a challenge to clinical management. Here we would like to present a case of an 80-year-old man with cellulitis of both hands after sustaining minor injuries from the talons of a Harris’s hawk and review the management options. We would also like to draw attention to the matter that, even though previously a rarity, more cases of injuries caused by birds of prey may be seen in hospital settings.

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