Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb
    Premkumar G Sankaranarayanan R Jeeva S Rajarathinam K
    2011(3):169-172. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60020-8
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 795.98 K](47)
    Objective: To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Methods: Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 μM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). Results: An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 μM KI and 4.44 μM BAP) 2.85 μM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 μM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Conclusions: Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.
    2  Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Habbal O Hasson SS El-Hag AH Al-Mahrooqi Z Al-Hashmi N Al-Bimani Z MS Al-Balushi Al-Jabri AA
    2011(3):173-176. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60021-X
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 647.46 K](42)
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods: Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 ℃ in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results: Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions: Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman.
    3  Pharmacognostic study and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf
    Kumar S Kumar V Prakash OM
    2011(3):177-181. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60022-1
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](43)
    Objective: To study detail pharmacognosy and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus (C. lanceolatus) leaf. Methods: Leaf sample was studied by organoleptic, macroscopical, microscopical, phytochemical and other WHO recommended methods for standardizations. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant was also screened for anti- inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally. The detail pharmacognostic study of the C. lanceolatus leaf was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. Results: C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract showed significant (P<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. This significant anti-inflammatory of C. lanceolatus methanolic leaf extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg was comparable with diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic profile of the C. lanceolatus leaf is helpful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification. The methanolic extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg shows a significant activity in comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg).
    4  Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice
    Ofusori David A Adejuwon Adebomi O
    2011(3):182-185. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60023-3
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 836.99 K](40)
    Objective: To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results: The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions: The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas.
    5  Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus
    Farjana Nikkon M Rowshanul Habib Zahangir Alam Saud M Rezaul Karim
    2011(3):186-188. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60024-5
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 634.56 K](41)
    Objective: To investigate mosquitocidal effects of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta (T. erecta) and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: The fresh flowers of T. erecta were extracted in cold with ethanol (5.0 L) and after concentration, the ethanol extract was fractionated with chloroform and petroleum ether to afford a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extract (50.0 g), petroleum ether soluble fraction (18.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (23.8 g). The larvicidal effect of ethanol extract and their solvent fractions were determined by the standard procedure of WHO against different instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: Among the tested samples the chloroform soluble fractions showed the highest toxicity and consequently, the lowest LC50 values (14.14 μg/mL, 17.06 μg/mL, 36.88 μg/mL and 75.48 μg/mL) for all the instars larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The larvae showed comparative tolerance in the course of increasing age and time. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the flowers of T. erecta are very effective natural larvicide and could be useful against Cx. quinquefasciatus.
    6  Occurrence of Clinostomum complanatum in Aphanius dispar (Actinoptrygii: Cyprinodontidae) collected from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran
    Gholami Z Mobedi I Esmaeili HR Kia EB
    2011(3):189-192. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60025-7
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 699.33 K](40)
    Objective: To investigate the possibility of Aphanius dispar (A.dispar) acting as intermediate host for Clinostomum complanatum (C. complanatum), from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province of Iran. Methods: During a biological study of A. dispar in Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran, a total of 97 fish specimens were collected in 24 January 2006. Results: 4 specimens (4.12%) including 1 male and 3 female were found infected with C. complanatum metacercaria. These metacercaria were coiled in the epiderm on the body surface of infected fishes. The infection is known as yellow spot disease. The parasite abundance, intensity and prevalence were 0.05%, 1.25% and 4.12%, respectively. The infection was higher in females than males. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on occurrence of C. complanatum metacercaria in A. dispar in Iran.
    7  Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice
    Mahuya Sengupta Gauri Dutta Sharma Biswajit Chakraborty
    2011(3):193-199. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60026-9
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 775.12 K](41)
    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods: First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results: The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.
    8  Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine
    Sami Bdir Ghaleb Adwan
    2011(3):200-204. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60027-0
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 795.10 K](40)
    Objective: To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results: Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia Ⅰ, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia Ⅱ and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia Ⅲ have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions: These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance.
    9  The microbial content of unexpired pasteurized milk from selected supermarkets in a developing country
    Melisa Anderson Patrice Hinds Stacyann Hurditt Princena Miller Donovan McGrowder Ruby Alexander-Lindo
    2011(3):205-211. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60028-2
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 665.24 K](44)
    Objective: To determine the presence and levels of microbes in unexpired pasteurized milk from randomly selected supermarkets in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: The quantitative study used a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the 20 representative milk samples from six (6) supermarkets. Microbiological tests such as methylene blue reduction, standard plate count (SPC), coliform plate count (CPC), purity plate culture, gram staining and biochemical tests were performed to examine the microbes in purchased unexpired pasteurized milk. Results: One sample (BCr016) had a pH of 4.0, a rancid odour and curdled appearance. It decolourized within one hour during the methylene blue reduction test and was classified as class 4 milk. Seven of the samples were sterile with no microbe growth on the plate count agar and violet red bile salt agar (VRBA). The milk samples that appeared to be safe for consumption were all 10, 11, 12 and 13 days before expiration. The VRBA sample BCr016, had a colony count of 13 400 CFU/ mL. There was the presence of Escherichia coli in sample LCr021 which had a standard plate count of 1 580 SPC/mL and a coliform count of 500 CFU/mL. Enterobacter sp. was present in colonies from BCr016 and all the other milk samples. Conclusions: Unacceptable levels of Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were found in most of the samples. Effective measures to ensure safe milk for human consumption such as the phosphatase test and methylene blue reduction test should be routinely performed on each batch of milk processed by dairy plants.
    10  Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates
    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty Santanu Kar Mahapatra Somenath Roy
    2011(3):212-216. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60029-4
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 921.38 K](45)
    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics. Methods: Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study. Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin.
    11  Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania
    Swai ES Schoonman L
    2011(3):217-222. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60030-0
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 659.37 K](44)
    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. Methods: A microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaken by evaluating 59 samples of milk from selling points (collecting centres =15), bicycle boys (12) and kiosks/restaurants (32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005. Quality and milk- borne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence of Brucellosis (milk ring test), Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 (culture), the coliform bacteria as well as standard plate count (SPC). Specific gravity (SG) determination was used as an indicator of adulteration. Results: The mean coliform plate count (c.f.u/mL) of milk handled by bicycle boys (4.2×106) was significantly higher than that handled by collecting centres (3.0×106) and kiosk/ restaurants (1.4×106), respectively (P < 0.05). Of the 59 milk samples collected, 33 (56%) were Brucella milk ring test (MRT)-positive and 78% and 17% of the samples graded satisfactorily based on SG and coliform plate counts as prescribed by East African Community standards for raw milk. There was no verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) O157: H7 in any of the milk samples collected and analysed during the present study. Conclusions: It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp.) and other harmful microorganisms.
    12  Characterization of cytotoxic compound from mangrove derived fungi Irpex hydnoides VB4
    B Valentin Bhimba DA Agnel Defora Franco Geena Mary Jose Jibi Merin Mathew Elsa Lycias Joel
    2011(3):223-226. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60031-2
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 721.37 K](42)
    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of endophytic fungi isolated from mangrove fungi. Methods: In the present study the DNA was isolated and the ITS region of 5.8s rRNA was amplified using specific primers ITS 1 and ITS4 and sequence was determined using automated sequencers. Blast search sequence similarity was found against the existing non redundant nucleotide sequence database thus, identified as Aspergilus flavus, Hyporcaea lixii, Aspergillus niger, Eutorium amstelodami, Irpex hydnoides and Neurospora crassa. Among the seven isolates, one fungi Irpex hydnoides was selected for further studies. The fungi were grown in sabouraud broth for five days and filtrate were separated and subjected to ethyl acetate for further studies. Results: Nearly half (49.25%) of the extracts showed activity (IC50 of 125μg/mL). These values were within the cutoff point of the National Cancer Institute criteria for cytotoxicity (IC50<20 μg/mL) in the screening of crude plant extracts. The GC MS analysis revealed that the active principals might be Tetradecane (6.26%) with the RT 8.606. Conclusions: It is clear from the present study that mangrove fungi with bioactive metabolites can be expected to provide high quality biological material for high throughout biochemical, anti cancer screening programmes. The results help us conclude that the potential of using metabolic engineering and post genomic approaches to isolate more novel bioactive compounds and to make their possible commercial application is not far off.
    13  Detection of leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in north-east of Iran
    Ehsanollah Sakhaee Gholam Reza Abdollah pour
    2011(3):227-229. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60032-4
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 634.89 K](41)
    Objective: To detect leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in north- east of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of human leptospiral infections by MAT, using six current reference strains of Leptospira interrogans in north-east of Iran. A total of 285 serum samples were collected from three north-east provinces of Iran, from December, 2009 to June, 2010. Results: Antibodies were detected at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 45 sera (15.79 %) among 285 samples at a dilution 1:100 or greater. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 24 sera of the positive samples. Therefore, there were 75 positive reactions against different serovar of Leptospira interrogans. Positive titers were recorded against serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (31 samples), hardjo (26 samples), grippotyphosa (7 samples), pomona (5 samples), canicola (4 samples) and ballum (2 sample). Conclusions: In present study the most prevalent (Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae) and the least prevalent (Leptospira ballum) serovar are different from previous studies. Maybe, species and prevalence of serovars change during the time in one area and between regions.
    14  In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara
    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    2011(3):230-232. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60033-6
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 689.34 K](40)
    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara(L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions: Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.
    15  Malaria parasite carbonic anhydrase: inhibition of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and its therapeutic potential
    Sudaratana R Krungkrai Jerapan Krungkrai
    2011(3):233-242. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60034-8
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 830.04 K](43)
    Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) is responsible for the majority of life-threatening cases of human malaria, causing 1.5-2.7 million annual deaths. The global emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites necessitates identification and characterization of novel drug targets and their potential inhibitors. We identified the carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes in P. falciparum. The pfCA gene encodes anα-carbonic anhydrase, a Zn2+-metalloenzme, possessing catalytic properties distinct from that of the human host CA enzyme. The amino acid sequence of the pfCA enzyme is different from the analogous protozoan and human enzymes. A library of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides possessing a large diversity of scaffolds were found to be very good inhibitors for the malarial enzyme at moderate-low micromolar and submicromolar inhibitions. The structure of the groups substituting the aromatic-ureido- or aromatic-azomethine fragment of the molecule and the length of the parent sulfonamide were critical parameters for the inhibitory properties of the sulfonamides. One derivative, that is, 4- (3, 4-dichlorophenylureido)thioureido- benzenesulfonamide (compound 10) was the most effective in vitro Plasmodium falciparum CA inhibitor, and was also the most effective antimalarial compound on the in vitro P. falciparum growth inhibition. The compound 10 was also effective in vivo antimalarial agent in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, an animal model of drug testing for human malaria infection. It is therefore concluded that the sulphonamide inhibitors targeting the parasite CA may have potential for the development of novel therapies against human malaria.
    16  Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt
    Emad A Shalaby
    2011(3):243-248. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60035-X
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 698.43 K](44)
    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.
    17  The first case report of Leishmania (leishmania) chagasi in Panthera leo in Brazil
    Magyda AA Dahroug Arleana BPF Almeida Valéria RF Sousa Valéria Dutra Luciana D Guimar?es César E Soares Luciano Nakazato Roberto L de Souza
    2011(3):249-250. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60036-1
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 617.87 K](40)
    We reported here the first known case of natural infection of a lion (Panthera leo-Linnaeus, 1758) with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi (L. chagasi) in Brazil. The specimen was created by a circus handler in the state of Mato Grosso and was donated to the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso. Infection by L. chagasi was detected using a PCR-RFLP test. It was known that the domestic felids can act as reservoir of infection of L. chagasi in endemic areas, making it important that studies demonstrate their participation in the epidemiological chain. We demonstrate in this work that wild animals can have an important role in the epidemiological chain and must be considered in order to plan methods of control of this zoonosis.
    18  A case report of herpetic and candidal esophagitis in an immunocompetent adult
    Vishwanath Sathyanarayanan Abdul Razak M Mukhyprana Prabhu Kavitha Saravu Ganesh Pai C Anuradha K Rao
    2011(3):251-252. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60037-3
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 642.70 K](41)
    Reports of combined candidal and herpetic esophagitis in immunocompetent states are rare and sporadic. A 44-year-old previously healthy lady presented with a one week history of progressive dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed extensive desquamation of the entire esophagus except for distal 4 cm. Histopathological examination revealed ulcerated and inflamed squamous epithelium with the margin of ulcer showing a few overhanging squamous cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm, multinucleated and faceted nuclei with glassy chromatin, and an occasional Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies. Few candidal spores were seen in the underlying stroma. Intravenous acyclovir, fluconazole and pantoprazole were initiated. Oral analgesics were given for pain relief. She was treated for a total of 14 days. She showed significant improvement and was tolerating oral intake after discharge. The patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence at a 2-month follow-up.

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