Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats
    Hassan I El-Sayyad Saber A Sakr Gamal M Badawy Hanaa S Afify
    2011(4):253-260. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60038-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.26 M](40)
    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post- partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.
    2  The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice
    Sunday A Ajayi David A Ofusori Gideon B Ojo Oladele A Ayoka Taiwo A Abayomi Adekilekun A Tijani
    2011(4):261-265. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60039-7
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 1018.78 K](42)
    Objective: To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods: The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results: The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions: It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice.
    3  Isolation and identification of Salmonella from curry samples and its sensitivity to commercial antibiotics and aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) and Trachyspermum ammi (L.)
    Thanes Gunasegaran Xavier Rathinam Marimuthu Kasi Kathiresan Sathasivam Sasidharan Sreenivasan Sreeramanan Subramaniam
    2011(4):266-269. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60040-3
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 774.54 K](42)
    Objective: To isolate Salmonella from curry samples and to evaluate the drug sensitivity of the food-borne Salmonella and its susceptibility to specific plant extracts. Methods: Salmonella was isolated from the curry samples by standard microbiological methods and was confirmed by biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was conducted by disc diffusion method using commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and penicillin. In addition, the susceptibility of the food-borne Salmonella was also evaluated against the aqueous extracts of Camelia sinensis (L.) Theaceae (tea leaves) and the Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Apiaceae ( ajwain or omum seeds). Results: Out of fifty curry samples, only seven samples were identified to have Salmonella contamination. The Salmonella isolates showed a significant drug resistance pattern except for kanamycin. The plant extracts showed a considerable antibacterial activity against the isolates, indicating the presence of antimicrobial principle which can be exploited after complete pharmacological investigations. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the occurrence of Salmonella in the curry samples, and shows significant drug resistance against most of the commercially available antibiotics, except kanamycin. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts against the food-bone Salmonella suggests that dietary including medicinal herbs would be one strategy to manage food borne pathogens.
    4  Catharanthus roseus: a natural source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles
    Mukunthan KS Elumalai EK Trupti N Patel V Ramachandra Murty
    2011(4):270-274. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60041-5
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 907.63 K](40)
    Objective: To develop a simple rapid procedure for bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus). Methods: Characterization were determined by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results: SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 67 nm to 48 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic geometry. Conclusions: C. roseus demonstrates strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). This study provides evidence for developing large scale commercial production of value-added products for biomedical/nanotechnology-based industries.
    5  Modeling and analysis of Schistosoma Argonaute protein molecular spatial conformation
    Jianhua Zhang Zhigang Shang Xiaohui Zhang Yuntao Zhang
    2011(4):275-278. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60042-7
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 795.48 K](42)
    Objective: To analyze the amino acid sequence composition, secondary structure, the spatial conformation of its domain and other characteristics of Argonaute protein. Methods: Bioinformatics tools and the internet server were used. Firstly, the amino acid sequence composition features of the Argonaute protein were analyzed, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Secondly, Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were predicted. Lastly, the protein functional expression form of the domain group was established through the Phyre-based analysis on the spatial conformation of Argonaute protein domains. Results: 593 amino acids were encoded by Argonaute protein, the phylogenetic tree was constructed, and Argonaute protein’s distribution of secondary structure and its physicochemical properties were obtained through analysis. In addition, the functional expression form which comprised the N-terminal PAZ domain and C-terminal Piwi domain for the Argonaute protein was obtained with Phyre. Conclusions: The information relationship between the structure and function of the Argonaute protein can be initially established with bioinformatics tools and the internet server, and this provides the theoretical basis for further clarifying the function of Schistosoma Argonaute protein.
    6  The association of Triatoma maculata (Ericsson 1848) with the gecko Thecadactylus rapicauda (Houttuyn 1782) (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae): a strategy of domiciliation of the Chagas disease peridomestic vector in Venezuela?
    Reyes-Lugo M Reyes-Contreras M Salvi I Gelves W Avilán A Llavaneras D Navarrete LF Cordero G Sánchez EE Rodríguez-Acosta A
    2011(4):279-284. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60043-9
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 844.85 K](42)
    Objective: To investigate the bioecological relationship between Chagas disease peridomestic vectors and reptiles as source of feeding. Methods: In a three-story building, triatomines were captured by direct search and electric vacuum cleaner search in and outside the building. Then, age structure of the captured Triatoma maculata (T. maculata) were identified and recorded. Reptiles living in sympatric with the triatomines were also searched. Results: T. maculata were found living sympatric with geckos (Thecadactylus rapicauda) and they bit residents of the apartment building in study. A total of 1 448 individuals of T. maculata were captured within three days, of which 74.2% (1 074 eggs) were eggs, 21.5% were nymphs at different stages, and 4.3% were adults. Conclusions: The association of T. maculata and T. rapicauda is an effective strategy of colonizing dwellings located in the vicinity of the habitat where both species are present; and therefore, could have implications of high importance in the intradomiciliary transmission of Chagas disease.
    7  Effect of insulin on Blattela germanica Linnacus
    Abolghasemi E Moosa Kazem SH Abolhasani M Davoudi M
    2011(4):285-288. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60044-0
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 632.75 K](41)
    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of Blattela germanica L (B. germanica L) to differenct doses of insulin. Methods: B. germanica were reared in laboratory conditions at (25±2) ℃ and (50 ±5)% relative humidity (RH), and exposure period of 12:12 L/D. Different concentrations, viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μ of insulin N, R, (N+R) were prepared and injected to 10 treated cockroaches with another 10 cockroaches which were injected with normal saline as control group. Results: Insulin N with a dose of 20 μ caused more than 70% mortality of B. germanica in this study. There was a significant difference between 20 μ of insulin N with other doses of 5, 10, 15 and 25 μ, and its comparison with other forms of medication also showed obvious difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: It can be concluded that effective drug doses of insulin which can be used as posion bait or gel against German cockroaches could be utilized in the control of B. germanica in the future field studies.
    8  Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dore Bafeno Area, Southern Ethiopia
    Tewodros Zerihun Abraham Degarege Berhanu Erko
    2011(4):289-294. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60045-2
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 694.19 K](41)
    Objective: To assess the distribution of ABO blood group and their relationship with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria among febrile outpatients who sought medical attention at Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 269 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia, were examined for malaria and also tested for ABO blood groups in January 2010. The blood specimens were collected by finger pricking, stained with Geimsa, and examined microscopically. Positive cases of the parasitemia were counted. CareStartTM Malaria Pf/Pv Combo was also used to test the blood specimens for malaria. ABO blood groups were determined by agglutination test using ERYCLONE® antisera. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and treatment status of the participants were also collected. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Results: Out of a total of 269 participants, 178 (66.2%) febrile patients were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites, among which 146 (54.3%), 28 (10.4%), and 4 (1.5%) belonged to P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. All febrile patients were also tested for ABO blood groups and 51.3%, 23.5%, 21.9% and 3.3% were found to be blood types of O, A, B and AB, respectively. Both total malaria infection and P. falciparum infection showed significant association with blood types (P<0.05). The proportion of A or B but not O phenotypes was higher (P<0.05) in individuals with P. falciparum as compared with non-infected individuals. The chance of having P. falciparum infection in patients with blood groups A, B and AB was 2.5, 2.5 and 3.3 times more than individuals showing blood O phenotypes, respectively. The mean P. falciparum malaria parasitaemia for blood groups A, B, AB, and O were 3 744/μL, 1 805/μL, 5 331/μL, and 1 515/μL, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: The present findings indicate that individuals of blood groups A, B and AB are more susceptible to P. falciparum infection as compared with individuals of blood group O. Nevertheless, further in depth studies are required to clearly establish the role that ABO blood group plays in P. falciparum malaria.
    9  Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos
    Irudayaraj Varaprasadham Johnson Marimuthu
    2011(4):295-297. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60046-4
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 642.61 K](40)
    Objective: To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods: The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results: A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/ Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions: The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro- micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.
    10  Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India
    Tirupathi Rao G Suresh Babu K Ujwal Kumar J Sujana P A Veerabhadr Raoa Sreedhar AS
    2011(4):298-305. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60047-6
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.17 M](42)
    Objective: To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods: We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results: Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti- bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 μg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅳ inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2μg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. Conclusions: We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piper betel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.
    11  Effect of bacteriophage lysin on lysogens
    Balaji Subramanyam Vanaja Kumar
    2011(4):306-308. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60048-8
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 685.63 K](44)
    Objective: To study the effect of phage lysin on the growth of lysogens. Methods: Sputum specimens processed by modified Petroff's method were respectively treated with phagebiotics in combination with lysin and lysin alone. The specimens were incubated at 37 ℃ for 4 days. At the end of day 1, 2, 3 and day 4, the specimens were streaked on blood agar plates and incubated at 37 ℃ for 18-24 hours. The growth of normal flora observed after day 1 was considered as lysogens. Results: Sputum specimens treated with phagebiotics-lysin showed the growth of lysogens. When specimens treated with lysin alone, lysogen formation was avoided and normal flora was controlled. Conclusions: Lysin may have no effect on the growth of lysogens.
    12  Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes
    Balakumar S Rajan S Thirunalasundari T Jeeva S
    2011(4):309-312. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60049-X
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 736.10 K](44)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.
    13  Risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter bloodstream infection in North-eastern Malaysia
    Zakuan Zainy Deris Mohd Nazri Shafei Azian Harun
    2011(4):313-315. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60050-6
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 639.14 K](42)
    Objective: To determine the risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) bloodstream infection (BSI) cases, since there is very little publication on Acinetobacter baumannii infections from Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study of 41 cases (73.2%) of imipenem-sensitive Acinetobacter baumanii (ISAB) and 15 cases (26.8%) of IRAB was conducted in a teaching hospital which was located at North-Eastern state of Malaysia. Results: There was no independent risk factor for IRAB BSI identified but IRAB BSI was significantly associated with longer bacteraemic days [OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.01, 1.50)]. Although prior use of carbepenems and cephalosporin were higher among IRAB than ISAB group, statistically they were not significant. There was no significant difference in term of outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Although statistically not significant, this analysis compliments previous publication highlighting the importance of appropriate empiric antibiotic usage in hospital especially carbepenems and need further evaluation with bigger subjects.
    14  Antidiabetic and in vitro antioxidant potential of Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn) F. Muell in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Patel DK Kumar R Prasad SK Sairam K Hemalatha S
    2011(4):316-322. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60051-8
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 789.53 K](44)
    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Hybanthus enneaspermus in different models. Methods: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and normoglycemic effect of alcoholic extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus (AHE) were evaluated at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. while hypoglycemic activity and effect on body weight were tested at 250 and 500 mg/ kg p.o. per day for 21 days in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Further, glucose uptake by hemidiaphram was also evaluated. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid were determined and their correlation with various antioxidant assays was also determined. Results: The results showed high level of phenolic content in AHE. AHE also exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity, good reducing power and a significant scavenger of reactive oxygen species like DPPH radical, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and deoxyribose. Furthermore there was a significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the blood glucose level on treatment with the AHE. AHE increased glucose uptake on isolated rat hemi-diaphragm compared to control group. Conclusions: AHE reduce blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic model. It does not show significant effect in normoglycemic study but showes significant effect in OGT. AHE has significant antioxidant activity, which may be attributed to high phenolic content.
    15  Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat
    T Thirumalai S Viviyan Therasa EK Elumalai E David
    2011(4):323-325. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60052-X
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 616.20 K](44)
    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.
    16  Concurrent malaria and dengue infection: a brief summary and comment
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2011(4):326-327. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60053-1
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 615.37 K](43)
    There are several tropical mosquito borne infections. Malaria and dengue are the two common mosquito infections that are very important and cause high morbidity and mortality for many patients around the world. Concurrent malaria and dengue infection is an important condition that is seldom reported. In this specific article, the author hereby summarizes on the topic of concurrent malaria and dengue infection.
    17  Hypertriglyceridemia: a case report from diagnostic laboratory, Barasat, West Bengal, India
    Utpal Kumar Biswas Arun Kumar
    2011(4):328-329. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60054-3
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 635.25 K](40)
    Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as an abnormal concentration of triglyceride in the blood and has been associated with atherosclerosis, even in the absence of hypercholesterolemia. This case report is of 40-year-old man diagnosed to have hypertriglyceridemia who attended for routine screening in our diagnostic laboratory at Barasat. He was nonsmoker, non-alcoholic, had a reasonable diet with abundant fruits and vegetables, and was on regular exercise. He was not taking any lipid lowering medications. He hailed from Barasat, and was employed in Government sector in Barasat and policeman by profession. His father died at the age of 57 years in a heart attack; but his mother is healthy and now almost 62 years of age, and he has two brothers one elder and another younger to him, both are healthy. His blood pressure was normal, his body-mass index was 27, and his waist circumference was 96 cm and hip circumference was 103. His waist/hip ratio was 0.932. The Biochemical analyses were as follows- Fasting Glucose: 186 mg/dL, Total Cholesterol: 90 mg/dL, Triglycerides: 372 mg/dL, High-density cholesterol: 3.80 mg/dL, Low-density cholesterol: 2.90 mg/ dL, VLDL: 83.20 mg/dL, Cholesterol/HDL-C ratio: 23.6:1, LDL-C/HDL-C: 0.07:1. This study revealed the increased prevalence of dyslipidemia to be more prevalent in 31-40 year males, suggesting that this group is at an increased risk of developing CAD leading to young infarcts. Combination lifestyle therapies i.e., enhanced physical activity and dietary modification and therapeutic intervention would help us in the treatment and management of dyslipidemia.
    18  Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts
    Nisar Ahmad Hina Fazal Muhammad Ayaz Bilal Haider Abbasi Ijaz Mohammad Lubna Fazal
    2011(4):330-333. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60055-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 800.05 K](40)
    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×103/μL, 84.0% to 55×103/μL, 3.7×103/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×103/μL, WBC from 3.7×103/μL to 7.7×103/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.
    19  A case report of pulmonary coinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis and Pneumocystis jiroveci
    Bava AJ Romero MM Prieto R Troncoso A
    2011(4):334-336. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60056-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 683.89 K](44)
    A case of pulmonary coinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis and Pneumocystis jiroveci has been detected in an AIDS patient treated in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of the Muñiz Hospital. At diagnosis, the patient presented cough with mucopurulent expectoration, dyspnea, fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on the chest X-ray, negative bacilloscopy for acid fast bacteria and a CD4+ T lymphocytes count of 52 cells/μL. The microbiological diagnosis was achieved by microscopic observation of the respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage, while the wet mount examination revealed rhabditiform and filariform larvae of the nematode and foamy exudates, pathognomonic of the pulmonary pneumocystosis. It was the unique case of this association among about 3 000 samples performed in our laboratory in the last 10 years and diagnosed by microscopy. Other complementary stains (a rapid modification of Grocott, Kinyoun and Giemsa) were applied to the smears after the diagnosis of mycotic and parasitary infections achieved by fresh microscopy. Both physicians and microbiologists should take into account the possible coexistence of respiratory pathogens in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS.

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