Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf
    S Kumar V Kumar Om Prakash
    2011(5):337-340. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60076-2
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.02 M](41)
    Objective: To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods: Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results: The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions: The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
    2  Isolation of a small molecule with anti-MRSA activity from a mangrove symbiont Streptomyces sp. PVRK-1 and its biomedical studies in Zebrafish embryos
    Rajaretinam Rajesh Kannan Appadurai Muthamil Iniyan Vincent Samuel Gnana Prakash
    2011(5):341-347. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60077-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 1009.06 K](40)
    Objective: The aim of the present study was to isolate the anti-MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) molecule from the Mangrove symbiont Streptomyces and its biomedical studies in Zebrafish embryos. Methods: MRSA was isolated from the pus samples of Colachal hospitals and confirmed by amplification of mecA gene. Anti-MRSA molecule producing strain was identified by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Anti-MRSA compound production was optimized by Solid State Fermentation (SSF) and the purification of the active molecule was carried out by TLC and RP-HPLC. The inhibitory concentration and LC50 were calculated using Statistical software SPSS. The Biomedical studies including the cardiac assay and organ toxicity assessment were carried out in Zebrafish. Results: The bioactive anti-MRSA small molecule A2 was purified by TLC with Rf value of 0.37 with 1.389 retention time at RP-HPLC. The Inhibitory Concentration of the purified molecule A2 was 30 μg/mL but, the inhibitory concentration of the MRSA in the infected embryo was 32-34 μg/mL for TLC purified molecule A2 with LC50 mean value was 61.504 μg/mL. Zebrafish toxicity was assessed in 48-60 μg/mL by observing the physiological deformities and the heart beat rates (HBR) of embryos for anti MRSA molecule showed the mean of 41.33-41.67 HBR/15 seconds for 40 μg/mL and control was 42.33-42.67 for 15 seconds which significantly showed that the anti-MRSA molecule A2 did not affected the HBR. Conclusions: Anti-MRSA molecule from Streptomyces sp PVRK-1 was isolated and biomedical studies in Zebrafish model assessed that the molecule was non toxic at the minimal inhibitory concentration of MRSA.
    3  Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of a mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa
    Sundaram Ravikumar Murugesan Gnanadesigan
    2011(5):348-352. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60078-6
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.03 M](40)
    Objective: To identify the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant activity of Lumnitzera racemosa (L. racemosa) leaf extract. Methods: Animals in Group 1 served as vehicle control, Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (CCL4 treated) group, Group 3 served as positive control (Silymarin) group, and Group 4, 5 and 6 served as (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw p.o.) L. racemosa leaf extract treated groups. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), NO, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were also analyzed for the leaf extract. Results: The levels of the serum parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, cholesterol (CHL), sugar and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in CCL4 treated rats when compared with the control group (P<0.05). But the L. racemosa leaf extract treated rats showed maximum reduction of SGOT [(210.36±19.63) IU/L], SGPT [(82.37±13.87) IU/L], ALP [(197.63±23.43) IU/L], bilurubin [(2.15 ±0.84) mg/dL], cholesterol [(163.83±15.63) mg/dL], sugar [(93.00±7.65) mg/dL] and LDH [(1134.00 ±285.00) IU/L] were observed with the high dose (300 mg/kg bw) of leaf extract treated rats. Histopathological scores showed that, no visible changes were observed with high dose (300 mg/ kg bw) of leaf extract treated rats except few mild necrosis. The IC50 values were observed as (56.37 ±4.87) μg/mL, (57.68±1.98) μg/mL, (64.15±2.90) μg/mL, (61.94±3.98) μg/mL, (94.53±1.68) μg/mL and (69.7±2.65) μg/mL for DPPH, HRSA, NO, FRAP, LPO and SOD radical scavenging activities, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the hepatoprotective effect of the L. racemosa leaf extract might be due to the presence of phenolic groups, terpenoids and alkaloids and in vitro antioxidant properties.
    4  Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats
    Oyedemi SO Adewusi EA Aiyegoro OA Akinpelu DA
    2011(5):353-358. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60079-8
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 693.69 K](42)
    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results: The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage.
    5  Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch
    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify Hossam S El-Beltagi Sayed A Fayed Emad A Shalaby
    2011(5):359-364. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60080-4
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 684.85 K](40)
    Objective: To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods: Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300μg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results: The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0μg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.
    6  Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites
    Azima Laili Hanifah Siti Hazar Awang Ho Tze Ming Suhaili Zainal Abidin Maizatul Hashima Omar
    2011(5):365-369. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60081-6
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 667.36 K](40)
    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results: Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.
    7  Antibacterial activities of selected medicinal plants in traditional treatment of human wounds in Ethiopia
    Biruhalem Taye Mirutse Giday Abebe Animut Jemal Seid
    2011(5):370-375. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60082-8
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 684.82 K](40)
    Objective: To evaluate the activity of selected Ethiopian medicinal plants traditionally used for wound treatment against wound-causing bacteria. Methods: Samples of medicinal plants (Achyranthes aspera, Brucea antidysenterica, Datura stramonium, Croton macrostachyus, Acokanthera schimperi, Phytolacca dodecandra, Millettia ferruginea, and Solanum incanum) were extracted using absolute methanol and water and tested for their antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates and standard strains of wound-causing bacteria using agar well diffusion and micro titer plate methods. Results: Most of the plant extracts had antibacterial activities, among which Acokanthera schimperi and Brucea antidysenterica inhibited growth of 100% and 35% of the test organisms, respectively. Methanolic extracts had higher activities compared with their corresponding aqueous extracts. The most susceptible organism to the extracts was Streptococcus pyogens while the most resistant were Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Conclusions: This finding justifies the use of the plants in wound healing and their potential activity against wound- causing bacteria. Their toxicity level and antimicrobial activity with different extraction solvents should further be studied to use them as sources and templates for the synthesis of drugs to control wound and other disease-causing bacteria.
    8  Analytical characterization and structure elucidation of metabolites from Aspergillus ochraceus MP2 fungi
    Meenupriya J Thangaraj M
    2011(5):376-380. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60083-X
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 692.18 K](40)
    Objective: To isolate and characterize the bioactive secondary metabolites from Aspergillus ochraceus (A. ochraceus) MP2 fungi. Methods: The anti bacterial activity of marine sponge derived fungi A. ochraceus MP2 was thoroughly investigated against antagonistic human pathogens. The optimum inhibitory concentration of the fungi in the elite solvent was also determined. The promising extracts that showed good antimicrobial activity were subjected to further analytical separation to get individual distinct metabolites and the eluants were further identified by GC MS instrumental analysis. The molecular characterization of the elite fungal strains were done by isolating their genomic DNA and amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 5.8s rRNA using specific ITS primer. The novelty of the strain was proved by homology search tools and elite sequences was submitted to GENBANK. Results: Three bioactive compounds were characterized to reveal their identity, chemical formula and structure. The first elutant was identified asα- Campholene aldehyde with chemical formula C10 H16 O and molecular weight 152 Da. The second elutant was identified as Lucenin-2 and chemical formula C27 H30 O16 and molecular weight 610 Da. The third elutant was identified as 6-Ethyloct- 3-yl- 2- ethylhexyl ester with Chemical formula C26 H42 O4 with molecular weight 418 Da. Conclusions: The isolated compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity against potential human pathogens. Microbial secondary metabolites represent a large source of compounds endowed with ingenious structures and potent biological activities.
    9  Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume
    Thirumalai T Viviyan Therasa S Elumalai EK David E
    2011(5):381-385. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60084-1
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 678.10 K](42)
    Objective: To investigate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous leaf extract of Enicostemma littorale (E. littorale) Blume (Ens) against ethanol induced hepatic injury in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken for study. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effect of E. littorale Blume (Ens) aqueous leaf extract at a dosage of 250 mg/kg bw was evaluated. Results: Levels of serum and tissue cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were elevated and levels of tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide were increased in ethanol treated rats. The activity levels of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were decreased. After adiminstration of extract of E. littorale Blume, levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were decreased in serum and liver tissue, levels of TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide were decreased, and liver antioxidant enzymes were increased in liver tissue. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the aqueous leaf extract of E. littorale Blume (Ens) has potent restorative effect on hyperlipidaemic and oxidative stress.
    10  Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Arokiyaraj S Balamurugan R Augustian P
    2011(5):386-390. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60085-3
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 635.67 K](40)
    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results: H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.
    11  Protection of cadmium chloride induced DNA damage by Lamiaceae plants
    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar
    2011(5):391-394. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60086-5
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 755.09 K](39)
    Objective: To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). Methods: The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed. Results: Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage.
    12  Pedalium murex Linn (Pedaliaceae) fruits: a comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions
    DK Patel R Kumar SK Prasad S Hemalatha
    2011(5):395-400. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60087-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 743.21 K](42)
    Objective: To examine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different solvent fractions of Pedalium murex (P. murex) Linn fruits (Family: Pedaliaceae) as well as the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Methods: In the present study, the antioxidant activities of P. murex were evaluated using six in-vitro assays, namely total antioxidant assay, DPPH assay, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and deoxyribose scavenging assays, and total phenol contents were also investigated. Results: The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found to have high levels of phenolic content (298.72 ±2.09 mg GAE/g). The EA fraction exhibit higher total antioxidant capacity, higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (135.11±2.95μg/mL), nitric oxide (200.57±4.51μg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (217.91±6.12 μg/mL), deoxyribose (250.01±4.68μg/mL) and higher reducing power. Correlation coefficient (r2=0.914) was found to be significant between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. Conclusions: In general, the results indicate that the EA fractions are rich in phenolic antioxidants with potent free radical scavenging activity implying their importance to human health.
    13  Anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory activities of a bioactive alkaloid from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir
    A Vijayalakshmi V Ravichandiran Malarkodi Velraj S Hemalatha G Sudharani S Jayakumari
    2011(5):401-405. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60088-9
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 735.91 K](44)
    Objective: To investigate the anti-anaphylactic, anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing properties of plumerianine (compound 1) isolated from the root bark of Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Methods: The anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was studied by using models such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive paw anaphylaxis and its anti- inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in albino rats was also investigated using ketotifen and indomethacin as reference drugs. Results: A dose-dependent beneficial effect was observed on leakage of evans blue dye in skin challenged with antigen and on paw anaphylaxis induced by antiserum. The compound 1 also exhibited significant (P<0.01) inhibition of rat paw edema and granuloma tissue formation, including significant protection of RBC against the haemolytic effect of hypotonic solution, an indication of membrane-stabilizing activity. Conclusions: Anti-anaphylactic activity of compound 1 may be possibly due to inhibition of the release of various inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory activity of compound may be related to the inhibition of the early phase and late phase of inflammatory events.
    14  Antibacterial activity of various leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata
    EK Elumalai M Ramachandran T Thirumalai P Vinothkumar
    2011(5):406-408. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60089-0
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 606.95 K](40)
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extracts of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata). Methods: The antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of M. emarginata were evaluated by agar well diffusion method against four selected bacterial species. Results: The presence of tannins, flavonoids, amino acids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in the different leaf extracts was established. The methanol extract was more effective against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, whereas aqueous extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The results in the present study suggest that M. emarginata leaf can be used in treating diseases caused by the tested organisms.
    15  Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn
    Golam Kader Farjana Nikkon Mohammad Abdur Rashid Tanzima Yeasmin
    2011(5):409-412. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60090-7
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 651.26 K](44)
    Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L.) Smith and its chloroform and petroleum ether soluble fractions against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet were extracted in cold with ethanol (4.0 L) after concentration. The crude ethanol extract was fractionated by petroleum ether and chloroform to form a suspension of ethanol extract (15.0 g), petroleum ether fraction (6.6 g) and chloroform soluble fraction (5.0 g). The crude ethanol extract and its petroleum ether and chloroform fractions were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity against thirteen pathogenic bacteria and three fungi by the disc diffusion method. Commercially available kanamycin (30 μg/disc) was used as standard disc and blank discs impregnated with the respective solvents were used as negative control. Results: At a concentration of 400 μg/disc, all the samples showed mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and produced the zone of inhibition ranging from 6 mm to 10 mm. Among the tested samples, the crude ethanol extract showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude ethanol extract and its fractions were within the value of 128-256 μg/mL against two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and all the samples showed the lowest MIC value against V. parahemolyticus (128 μg/mL). Conclusions: It can be concluded that, potent antibacterial and antifungal phytochemicals are present in ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet (L).
    16  Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status
    Dnyaneshwar J Taur Ravindra Y Patil
    2011(5):413-418. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60091-9
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 652.70 K](41)
    Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.
    17  Excellent outcome of primary Neisseria meningitidis keratoconjunctivitis
    Jakiyah Daud Siti Raihan Ishak Zakuan Zainy Deris Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam
    2011(5):419-420. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60092-0
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 620.43 K](44)
    Infectious conjunctivitis is a very common presentation to medical professional and ophthalmologist all over the world. Although its typically self-limiting and treatable in almost all of the cases, but we need to be aware of the rare and potentially life threatening if the cause is not promptly identified and treated accordingly. In our case report, we highlighted the rare case of Neisseria meningitidis as a primary cause of keratoconjunctivitis. Neisseria meningitidis is a rare etiology of keratoconjunctivitis and its ocular presentations are quite similar with other bacterial or viral infection. The infection may potentially fatal if systemic invasion occurred, however with immediate and proper treatment the outcome is satisfactory. Early diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment are critical to prevent systemic spread of the infection. Public health intervention is needed to prevent outbreak of the disease.

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