Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 6,2011 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing
    Santram Lodhi Singhai AK
    2011(6):421-427. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60093-2
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 815.34 K](46)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone- Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.
    2  Chromatographic finger print analysis of steroids in Aerva lanata L by HPTLC technique
    Yamunadevi Mariswamy Wesely Edward Gnaraj Johnson M
    2011(6):428-433. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60094-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 735.21 K](40)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the chemical profile and steroids composition of the medicinally important plant Aerva lanata (A. lanata) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by the method as Harborne described. HPTLC studies were carried out as Harborne and Wagner et al described. The Ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (8: 2: 1.2) was employed as mobile phase for glycosides. Results: The desired aim was achieved using Chloroform-acetone (8: 2) as the mobile phase. The methanolic extract of stem, leaves, root, flower and seeds of A. lanata showed the presence of 30 different types of steroids with 30 different Rf values from 0.04 to 0.97. Maximum number (11) of steroids has been observed in leaves followed by root (10). Conclusions: HPTLC profile of steroids has been chosen here to reveal the diversity existing in A. lanata. Such finger printing is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as biochemical markers for this medicinally important plant in the pharma industry and plant systematic studies.
    3  Nematode parasite, Auchenacantha spp of flying lemur, Cynocephalus variegatus (Audebert, 1799) from Indonesia: Morphological study with SEM
    Endang Purwaningsih
    2011(6):434-438. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60095-6
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 945.49 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To observe morphology of Auchenacantha galeopteri (A. galeopteri), Auchenacantha spinosa (A. spinosa) and Auchenacantha parva (A. parva) from Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon, Indonesia using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with warm 70% alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon compound microscope. Specimens for SEM examination were processed according to Bozzola. Measurements were given in micrometers (μm) as the average of findings, followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results: The measurements of Auchenacantha spp are same with those of previously described. The striations of male and female A. galeopteri are widen towards outside and wavy. The mouth of female with 6 lips, each of them is wider at base than distal end in A. galeopteri and rectangular in A. spinosa. Both species have dentiform protrusion from inner surface of lips, such structure absent in A. parva, but the lips with transverse festoon like pattern at anterior end of each lip. Conclusions: Using SEM, the lip and the striation pattern of three species of Auchenacantha can be clearly distinguished. Sukabumi and Ujung Kulon are new locality of A. galeopteri and A. spinosa , and A. parva is the new record in Indonesia.
    4  Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and their antimicrobial activity
    Prasad TNVKV Elumalai EK
    2011(6):439-442. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60096-8
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 673.11 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To formulate a simple rapid procedure for bioreduction of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera). Methods: 10 mL of leaf extract was mixed to 90 mL of 1 mM aqueous of AgNO3 and was heated at 60 - 80 ℃ for 20 min. A change from brown to reddish color was observed. Characterization using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed. Results: TEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 57 nm. Conclusions: M. oleifera demonstrates strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). Biological methods are good competents for the chemical procedures, which are eco-friendly and convenient.
    5  Cytotoxicity evaluation and hepatoprotective potential of bioassay guided fractions from Feronia limmonia Linn leaf
    Mahendra Jain Rakhee Kapadia Ravirajsinh N Jadeja Menaka C Thounaojam Ranjitsinh V Devkar SH Mishra
    2011(6):443-447. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60097-X
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 729.74 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective potentials of extracts, fractions or isolated compound from the leaves of Feronia limonia (F. limonia). Methods: Qualitative phytochemical analysis of extracts, fractions or compound was performed by means of thin layer chromatography and spectroscopic assays. The % purity of compound was measured by analytical HPLC. Extracts, fractions or compound have been individually evaluated for their cytotoxicity effects (10, 20, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1 000 μg/mL). Based on the inhibitory concentration (IC50) obtained from the cell viability assay, graded concentrations of extracts, fractions or isolated compound were assessed (10, 20, 50, 100, 200 μg/mL) for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by monitoring activity levels of serum glutamatic pyruvatic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). Results: Results indicated that the methanol extract of F. limonia was non-toxic and hepatoprotective in nature as compared with the petroleum ether extract. The acetone fraction of methanolic extract also showed similar properties but the subsequent two fractions were cytotoxic. However, the pure compound isolated from the penultimate fraction of methanolic extract was non-toxic and hepatoprotective in nature. Biochemical investigations (SGOT, SGPT) further corroborated these cytological observations. Conclusions: It can be concluded from this study that F. limonia methanol extract, some fractions and pure isolated compound herein exhibit hepatoprotective activity. However, cytotoxicity recorded in the penultimate fraction and investigation of structural details of pure compound warrants further study.
    6  Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice
    M Abu Osman M Mamunur Rashid M Abdul Aziz M Rowshahul Habib M Rezaul karim
    2011(6):448-451. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60098-1
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 693.33 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity.
    7  Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains
    Abdul Viqar Khan Qamar Uddin Ahmed M Ramzan Mir Indu Shukla Athar Ali Khan
    2011(6):452-455. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60099-3
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.70 K](40)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results: All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.
    8  Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans
    Ghaleb Adwan Yousef Salameh Kamel Adwan
    2011(6):456-460. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60100-7
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 687.13 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients.
    9  Phytoecological evaluation with detail floristic appraisal of the vegetation arround Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan
    Abdur Rashid Mohammad Farooq Swati Hassan Sher Mohammad N Al- Yemeni
    2011(6):461-467. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60101-9
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 694.18 K](40)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the present status of plant communities and their possible association with the habitat in Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan. Methods: A study on the phytoecology was conducted in various ecologically important sites of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan from 2002 to 2004. The altitude of these sites ranged from 1 200 m to 3 200 m. Quadrat method was used for evaluation of plants communities and the data on these attributes was converted to relative values. The plant communities were named after 3 leading species with highest importance values. Biological spectrum of the flora based on the life form was prepared by following Raunkiar’s life form classes. Results: The floristic composition and structure of the study area were found to be 200 species belonging to 75 families. Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae were important families in the study area. The biological spectrum showed that therophytic and hemicrytophytic life form and micro-nonophyllous leaf sizes were dominant in the area. The air and soil temperatures were decreasing with increasing elevation. Both the air and soil temperatures were relatively higher in south slopes than on the northeast slopes. The vegetation analysis of the area indicated eleven plant communities around the area. The present vegetation is the relics of moist temperate coniferous forest in the area. The communities reflect highly deteriorated conditions. Both the structure and composition of the surrounding vegetation were associated with the types of habitats. Conclusions: The conservation of the remaining populations of the reported communities will be best achieved by proper time of sustainable harvesting. It is only possible with the participation of local communities.
    10  Hypoglycaemic effect of Berberis vulgaris L. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Nawel Meliani Mohamed El Amine Dib Hocine Allali Boufeldja Tabti
    2011(6):468-471. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60102-0
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 659.28 K](46)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in the aqueous extract of Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and to examine the hypoglycaemic effect and biochemical parameters of aqueous and saponins extract on groups of rats rendered diabetic by injection of streptozotocin. Methods: The phytochemical tests to detect the presence of different compounds were based on the visual observation of color change or formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg bw. The fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips (Dextrostix, Bayer Diagnostics). Blood samples were taken by cutting the tip of the tail. Serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were estimated by enzymatic DHBS colorimetric method. Results: Administration of 62.5 and 25.0 mg/kg of saponins and aqueous extract respectively in normal rats group shows a significant hypoglycemic activity (32.33% and 40.17% respectively) during the first week. However, diabetic group treated with saponin extract produced a maximum fall of 73.1% and 76.03% at day 1 and day 21 compared to the diabetics control. Also, blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract showed decrease of 78.79% on the first day and the effect remains roughly constant during 3 week. Both extracts also declined significantly biochemical parameters (20.77%-49.00%). The control in the loss of body weight was observed in treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic controls. Conclusions: These results demonstrated significant antidiabetic effects and showed that serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were decreased, significantly, consequently this plant might be of value in diabetes treatment.
    11  The biology and demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia
    H Nur Aida Hamady Dieng Abu Hassan Ahmad Tomomitsu Satho AT Nurita MR Che Salmah Fumio Miake B Norasmah
    2011(6):472-477. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60103-2
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.22 K](42)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages. Methods: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2). Results: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation. Conclusions: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.
    12  Increased serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in patients with acute intestinal amebiasis
    Nam?duru ES Tarak??o?lu M Nam?duru M Kocaba? R Erba?c? B Meram I Karao?lan I Y?lmaz N ?ekmen M
    2011(6):478-481. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60104-4
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 655.84 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the level of oxygen-nitrogen stress parameters in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Methods: Twenty-four acute intestinal amebiasis patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in acute intestinal amebiasis patients than healthy controls (P<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that oxidative and nitrosative stress may play a major role in tissue damage in acute intestinal amebiasis patients. Also these parameters can be used to supplement the conventional microscopic method for reliable diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis.
    13  Alteration of some cellular function in amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa transfected macrophages: a time dependent approach
    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty Santanu KarMahapatra Sabyasachi Das Somenath Roy
    2011(6):482-487. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60105-6
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 715.06 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the free radical generation and antioxidant enzymes status in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro amikacin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ARPA) treatment with different time interval. Methods: Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 1× 108 CFU/mL ARPA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and super oxide anion generation, NO generation, reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were analyzed. Results: Super oxide anion generation and NO generation got peak at 12 h, indicating maximal free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during ARPA transfection. Reduced glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes status were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of ARPA transfection. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 12 h in vitro ARPA transfection had significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions: From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro ARPA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant system and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophage.
    14  Efficacy of xylitol and fluoride mouthrinses on salivary mutans streptococci
    Malee Arunakul Boonyanit Thaweboon Sroisiri Thaweboon Yuwadee Asvanund Kesinee Charoenchaikorn
    2011(6):488-490. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60106-8
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 637.13 K](41)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the level of salivary Mutans streptococci (MS) after rinsing with xylitol, fluoride, and a combination of xylitol and fluoride solutions, compared with distilled water. Methods: Eighty healthy 8-9 years old subjects with high level of MS (> 105 CFU/mL) were equally divided into 4 groups. Subjects rinsed their mouths for 1 min with 10 mL of 0.05% (w/v) sodium fluoride (NaF), 12.5% (w/v) xylitol or 0.05% (w/v) NaF + 12.5% (w/v) xylitol 3 times daily over 10 weeks. Distilled water rinsed group served as a control. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks after rinsing to determine the level of salivary MS by culturing on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests at a significant level of P< 0.05. Results: Significant reductions in MS count were observed in subjects using 0.05% NaF + 12.5% xylitol over other groups within 5 weeks and after 10 weeks and 12.5% xylitol alone after 10 weeks compared with baseline. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence for the inhibitory effect of xylitol, used in combination with fluoride, delivered in the form of mouthrinse, on salivary MS in the group of schoolchildren.
    15  Prevalence of malaria infection in Sarbaz, Sistan and Bluchistan province
    Youssefi Mohammad Reza Rahimi Mohammad Taghi
    2011(6):491-492. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60107-X
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 612.70 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To survey malaria prevalence in Sarbaz from April 2009 to October 2010. Methods: Epidemiological data of 1 464 confirmed malarial patients were analyzed according to demographic status, sex, age, nationality, isolated species and residence place. Results: The majority of patients were male 950 (64.8%) but 514 (35.2%) were female. 82.5% of patients were Iranian, 14% Pakistani immigrants, and 3.5% Afghan immigrants. Data collected showed that 90% of isolated species were Plasmodium vivax, 7.8% Plasmodium falciparum, and 2.2% Plasmodium malariae and mixed species. Conclusions: Therefore, it is crystal clear that refugees should be prohibited by government and controlled by experts in health centers in order to campaign effectively with this life threating disease.
    16  Knowledge of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion among health workers in Ibadan, Nigeria
    Ilesanmi FF Ilesanmi OS
    2011(6):493-495. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60108-1
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 611.68 K](39)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the awareness and knowledge of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion among health workers in Ibadan. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Study instrument was a semi-structured self administered questionnaire. The respondents were health workers from a public health facility. Results: A total of 417 health workers participated out of which males were 60.2%. The mean age of respondents was (28.0±4.9) years old. Doctors made up 83.0% while others were nurses. 95% of the respondents had previous awareness of aflatoxin and class room lectures was the most common source of information (56%). Occupation and religion both showed a significant association with previous awareness of aflatoxin (P<0.05). Knowledge regarding aflatoxin contamination in groundnut and the risk of its ingestion was obtained showing knowledge score range of 0 to 14. In all, 80.6% had good scores of 11 to 14. None of the respondents had ever told their patients about the risk of aflatoxin ingestion. Conclusions: There is a need to explore the possibility of incorporating aflatoxin awareness into routine health talk to increase the level of awareness of patients and their relatives.
    17  Anthrax: an update
    Kamal SM Rashid AKM M Bakar MA Ahad MA
    2011(6):496-501. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60109-3
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 687.25 K](40)
    Abstract:
    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. It is potentially fatal and highly contagious disease. Herbivores are the natural host. Human acquire the disease incidentally by contact with infected animal or animal products. In the 18th century an epidemic destroyed approximately half of the sheep in Europe. In 1900 human inhalational anthrax occured sporadically in the United States. In 1979 an outbreak of human anthrax occured in Sverdlovsk of Soviet Union. Anthrax continued to represent a world wide presence. The incidence of the disease has decreased in developed countries as a result of vaccination and improved industrial hygiene. Human anthrax clinically presents in three forms, i.e. cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalational. About 95% of human anthrax is cutaneous and 5% is inhalational. Gastrointestinal anthrax is very rare (less than 1%). Inhalational form is used as a biological warefare agent. Penicillin, ciprofloxacin (and other quinolones), doxicyclin, ampicillin, imipenem, clindamycin, clarithromycin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin are effective antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy for 60 days is recommended. Human anthrax vaccine is available. Administration of anti-protective antigen (PA) antibody in combination with ciprofloxacin produced 90%-100% survival. The combination of CPG-adjuvanted anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) plus dalbavancin significantly improved survival.
    18  A clinical report of entangled neonates' umbilical cord with queen's fur in Persian cat
    O Azari B Akhtardanesh
    2011(6):502-504. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60110-X
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.16 K](43)
    Abstract:
    A 3-year-old Persian queen was referred to Teaching Veterinary Hospital while 3 neonates' umbilical cords were entangled with the queen's tail hair. Close inspection of the cat showed that the umbilical cords of 3 kittens had twisted around together and entangled with the moms' hairs in the base of tail region. Also this complex has been warped around the left tarsus of one of the involved kittens and caused swelling and skin darkness in the involved limb. Operation was carried out urgently. After cutting the queen's involved hairs the kittens were released. Then the twisted umbilical cords and the hairs were isolated from the umbilical cord and the involved leg was released from the umbilical cords and the twisted umbilical cords were separated from each other. During one week follow up, dry gangrene occurred in the distal extremity of the injured limb and consequently, amputation was performed on the distal part of tibia. Our clinical findings suggest that long hair coats of queens could be a maternal life threatening factor for neonates' life.

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