Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  In vitro clonal propagation of Achyranthes aspera L. and Achyranthes bidentata Blume using nodal explants
    Wesely Edward Gnanaraj Johnson Marimuthu@Antonisamy Mohanamathi RB Kavitha Marappampalyam Subramanian
    2012(1):1-5. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60179-2
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 788.59 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To develop the reproducible in vitro propagation protocols for the medicinally important plants viz., Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. and Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) Blume using nodal segments as explants. Methods: Young shoots of A. aspera and A. bidentata were harvested and washed with running tap water and treated with 0.1% bavistin and rinsed twice with distilled water. Then the explants were surface sterilized with 0.1% (w/v) HgCl2 solutions for 1 min. After rinsing with sterile distilled water for 3-4 times, nodal segments were cut into smaller segments (1 cm) and used as the explants. The explants were placed horizontally as well as vertically on solid basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) agar (Hi- Media, Mumbai) and different concentration and combination of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) for direct regeneration. Results: Adventitious proliferation was obtained from A. aspera and A. bidentata nodal segments inoculated on MS basal medium with 3% sucrose and augmented with BAP and Kin with varied frequency. MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of BAP showed the highest percentage (93.60± 0.71) of shootlets formation for A. aspera and (94.70±0.53) percentages for A. bidentata. Maximum number of shoots/explants (10.60±0.36) for A. aspera and (9.50±0.56) for A. bidentata was observed in MS medium fortified with 5.0 mg/L of BAP. For A. aspera, maximum mean length (5.50±0.34) of shootlets was obtained in MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of Kin and for A. bidentata (5.40 ±0.61) was observed in the very same concentration. The highest percentage, maximum number of rootlets/shootlet and mean length of rootlets were observed in 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of IBA. Seventy percentages of plants were successfully established in polycups. Sixty eight percentages of plants were well established in the green house condition. Sixty five percentages of plants were established in the field. Conclusions: The results have shown that use of nodal buds is an alternative reproducible and dependable method for clonal propagation of A. aspera and A. bidentata. The high rate of direct shoot-root multiplication and their high rate of post-hardening survival indicate that this protocol can be easily adopted for commercial large scale cultivation.
    2  Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf
    Dinesh Kumar Jyoti Gupta Sunil Kumar Renu Arya Tarun Kumar Ankit Gupta
    2012(1):6-10. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60180-9
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 969.58 K](67)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results: Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2-3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2-8 cm) long, (1.5-5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.
    3  Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models
    Nirmala M Girija K Lakshman K Divya T
    2012(1):11-15. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60181-0
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 838.62 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods: Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results: Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.
    4  Antiplasmodial and antiulcer activities of Melanthera scadens
    Jude E Okokon Ette O Etebong John A Udobang Jackson Obot
    2012(1):16-20. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60182-2
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 678.27 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antimalarial and antiulcerogenic activities of leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (37-111 mg/kg) and fractions (chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol; 78 mg/kg) of M. scadens were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and for antiulcer activity against experimentally-induced ulcers. The antimalarial activity during early and established infections as well as prophylactic was investigated. Artesunate (5 mg/kg) and pyrimethamine (1.2 mg/kg) were used as positive controls. Thin films made from tail blood of each mouse were used to assess the level of parasitaemia of the mice. Antiulcer activity of the crude extract was also evaluated against indomethacin, ethanol and histamine induced ulcers. Results: The extract and its fractions dose-dependently reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei infection in prophylactic, suppressive and curative models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.001). They also improved the mean survival time (MST) from 9.28 to 17.73 days as compared with the control (P<0.01 - 0.001). The activities of extract/fractions were incomparable to that of the standard drugs i.e. artesunate and pyrimethamine. On experimentally-induced ulcers, the extract inhibited indomethacin, ethanol and histamine induced ulcers. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P<0.001) and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: The antiplasmodial and antiulcerogenic effects of this plant may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant.
    5  Effect of Solanum surattense seed on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa
    Thirumalai T David E Viviyan Therasa S Elumalai EK
    2012(1):21-23. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60183-4
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 638.09 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of Solanum surattense (S. surattense) on the oxidative potential of cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Methods: S. surattense seed extract was orally administered at the dosage of 10 mg/kg b.w. for 15 days, after which aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), citric acid and iso- citrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) were assayed. Results: The activity levels of the enzymes AST and ALT, which are considered to be the androgenicity in the sperm suspension, were depleted in the extract fed rats. The activity level of the enzyme ICDH, was reduced significantly in the treated group (P<0.001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the oral administration of the aqueous seed extract of S. surattense can deplete the oxidative stress of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in albino rats.
    6  Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus
    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify Fatma S Ali Turky AF
    2012(1):24-30. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60184-6
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 741.67 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Methods: Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. Results: The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S- transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae.
    7  Effect of Biophytum sensitivum on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats
    Ananda Prabu K Kumarappan CT Sunil Christudas Kalaichelvan VK
    2012(1):31-35. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60185-8
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 667.09 K](70)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous solution of Biophytum sensitivum leaf extract (BSEt) on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ-nicotinamide (40, 110 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intraperitoneally. BSEt (200 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for 28 days. The effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver was studied in diabetic rats. Results: BSEt significantly reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels and significantly increased the total haemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats. It also increased the hexokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase activities in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BSEt possesses a promising effect on STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.
    8  Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India
    Periyasamy N Srinivasan M Balakrishnan S
    2012(1):36-40. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60186-X
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 729.96 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results: The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions: The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.
    9  Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat
    Nabil M Ibrahim Esam A Eweis Hossam S El-Beltagi Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy
    2012(1):41-46. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60187-1
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.39 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.
    10  Effect of in ovo ghrelin administration on serum malondialdehyde level in newly-hatched chickens
    Alireza Lotfi Habib Aghdam Shahryar Yahya Ebrahimnezhad Jalal Shayegh
    2012(1):47-49. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60188-3
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 629.75 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate effects of in ovo ghrelin administration on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level in newly-hatched chickens. Methods: Fertilized eggs were divided into 7 groups: group T1 as control (without injection), group T2 (in ovo injected with 50 ng/egg ghrelin on day 5), group T3 (in ovo injected with 100 ng/egg ghrelin on day 5), group T4 (in ovo injected with 50 ng/egg ghrelin on day 10), group T5 (in ovo injected with 100 ng/egg ghrelin on day 10), group T6 (in ovo injected with solvent: 1% acetic acid, without ghrelin on day 5) and group T7 (in ovo injected with solvent without ghrelin on day 10). After hatching, serum MDA concentrations were determined. Results: Ghrelin administrated groups (T2, T3, T4 and T5) had lower serum MDA level in comparison with control group (T1) or solvent injected groups (T6 and T7). T2 and T3 (ghrelin injection on day 5) had significantly lower MDA concentrations (4.10 and 4.60 nmol/mL, respectively) in comparison with other groups. In T4 and T5, MDA levels were lower than T1, T6 and T7 (non-ghrelin administrated groups) (9.53 and 9.50 in comparison with 10.73, 10.03 and 10.13 nmol/mL) and were higher than T2 and T3. Conclusions: It can be concluded that in ovo administration of ghrelin can have anti- oxidative protection and reduce serum MDA level. Ghrelin administration on day 5 of incubation is more efficient.
    11  Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)
    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir Rosmilah Misnan Noormalin Abdullah Faizal Bakhtiar Masita Arip Shahnaz Murad
    2012(1):50-54. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60189-5
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 759.09 K](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15-250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients’ sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.
    12  A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern
    Swai ES Schoonman L
    2012(1):55-60. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60190-1
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 699.03 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ≥3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods: Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results: Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.
    13  Detection of Entamoeba histolytica in experimentally induced amoebic liver abscess: comparison of three staining methods
    Tan Zi Ning Wong Weng Kin Shaymoli Mustafa Arefuddin Ahmed Rahmah Noordin Tan Gim Cheong Olivos-Garcia Alfonso Lim Boon Huat
    2012(1):61-65. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60191-3
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 961.22 K](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the efficacy of three different tissue stains, namely haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for detection of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) trophozoites in abscessed liver tissues of hamster. Methods: Amoebic liver abscess was experimentally induced in a hamster by injecting 1 × 106 of axenically cultured virulent E. histolytica trophozoites (HM1-IMSS strain) into the portal vein. After a week post-inoculation, the hamster was sacrificed and the liver tissue sections were stained with H&E, PAS and IHC stains to detect the amoebic trophozoite. Results: The three stains revealed tissue necrosis and amoebic trophozoites, but with varying clarity. H&E and PAS stained the trophozoites pink and magenta, respectively, however it was difficult to differentiate the stained trophozoites from the macrophages because of their similarity in size and morphology. On the other hand, IHC stain revealed distinct brown appearance of the trophozoites in the infected liver tissues. Conclusions: It can be concluded that out of the three stains, IHC is the best for identification of E. histolytica trophozoites in tissue sections.
    14  Comparison of protein patterns between Plasmodium falciparum mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine and the original parent clone T9/94
    Kanchana Rungsihirunrat Wanna Chaijaroenkul Napaporn Siripoon Aree Seugorn Sodsri Thaithong Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2012(1):66-69. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60192-5
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 683.88 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the protein patterns from the extracts of the mutant clone T9/94-M1-1(b3) induced by pyrimethamine, and the original parent clone T9/94 following separation of parasite extracts by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Methods: Proteins were solubilized and separated according to their charges and sizes. The separated protein spots were then detected by silver staining and analyzed for protein density by the powerful image analysis software. Results: Differentially expressed protein patterns (up- or down-regulation) were separated from the extracts from the two clones. A total of 223 and 134 protein spots were detected from the extracts of T9/94 and T9/94-M1-1(b3) clones, respectively. Marked reduction in density of protein expression was observed with the extract from the mutant (resistant) clone compared with the parent (sensitive) clone. A total of 25 protein spots showed at least two-fold difference in density, some of which exhibited as high as ten-fold difference. Conclusions: These proteins may be the molecular targets of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to pyrimethamine. Further study to identify the chemical structures of these proteins by mass spectrometry is required.
    15  Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis
    Yan-Bo Zeng Shun-Hai Zhu Hui Dong Hong-Yu Han Lian-Lian Jiang Quan Wang Jun Cheng Qi-Ping Zhao Wei-Jiao Ma Bing Huang
    2012(1):70-75. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60193-7
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 959.85 K](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods: Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results: The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested- PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis.
    16  Infectious diseases in the aftermath of monsoon flooding in Pakistan
    Maryam Baqir Zain A Sobani Amyn Bhamani Nida Shahab Bham Sidra Abid Javeria Farook M Asim Beg
    2012(1):76-79. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60194-9
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 665.98 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Pakistan is ranked 9th in terms of flood-affected countries worldwide. In the summer of 2010, the northern province of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa received more than 312 mm of rain in a 56 hour period. This resulted in over 1 600 deaths across the region. In addition, over 14 million people were directly affected by this record-breaking deluge. Flood affected regions serve as ideal breeding grounds for pathogens, leading to the spread of diseases. The poor standards of hygiene in camps set up for individuals displaced by the floods also contribute to this. It is essential that those involved in relief efforts are aware of the epidemiology of diseases that have historically seen a sudden upsurge after natural disasters. Keeping this in mind, we conducted a simple review of literature. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed data base and online search engines. Articles published in the last 20 years were considered along with some historical articles where a background was required. Seven major diseases were identified to increase substantially in the aftermath of natural disasters. They were then classified into acute and sub-acute settings. Diarrhea, skin & eye infections and leptospirosis were identified in the acute setting while malaria, leishmaniasis, respiratory infections and hepatitis were identified in the sub-acute setting.
    17  Pulmonary coinfection by Pneumocystis jiroveci and Cryptococcus neoformans
    Bava Javier Lloveras Susana Garro Santiago Troncoso Alcides
    2012(1):80-82. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60195-0
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 776.46 K](82)
    Abstract:
    We communicate the diagnosis by microscopy of a pulmonary coinfection produced by Cryptococcus neoformans and Pneumocystis jiroveci, from a respiratory secretion obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of an AIDS patient. Our review of literature identified this coinfection as unusual presentation. Opportunistic infections associated with HIV infection are increasingly recognized. It may occur at an early stage of HIV-infection. Whereas concurrent opportunistic infections may occur, coexisting Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) and disseminated cryptococcosis with cryptococcal pneumonia is uncommon. The lungs of individuals infected with HIV are often affected by opportunistic infections and tumours and over two-thirds of patients have at least one respiratory episode during the course of their disease. Pneumonia is the leading HIV-associated infection. We present the case of a man who presented dual Pneumocystis jiroveci and cryptococcal pneumonia in a patient with HIV. Definitive diagnosis of PCP and Cryptococcus requires demonstration of these organisms in pulmonary tissues or fluid. In patients with < 200/ microliter CD4-lymphocytes, a bronchoalveolar lavage should be performed. This patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. After 1 week the patient showed clinical and radiologic improvement and was discharged 3 weeks later.
    18  Congenital sternal foramen in a stillborn Holstein calf
    Shahrzad Azizi Mohsen Khosravi Bakhtiary Mehdi Goodarzi
    2012(1):83-84. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60196-2
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 675.78 K](70)
    Abstract:
    Congenital sternal foramen is an anomaly whose occurrence is rare in human but is especially unusual in animals. This defect was formed when fusion of multiple ossification centers was incomplete. It may be associated with other lesions in body organs especially cardiac anomalies. In the present study, we report a very rare case of congenital sternal foramen in a Holstein calf. The oval defect was like a gunshot wound and located at the lower third of the sternum. Apparently, the rest of skeleton system seems normal. The awareness of the anomaly is important for better diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

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