Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Preparation and characterization of curcumin-piperine dual drug loaded nanoparticles
    C Moorthi Kiran Krishnan R Manavalan K Kathiresan
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 361.65 K](66)
    Objective: To prepare curcumin-piperine (Cu-Pi) nanoparticles by various methods and to study the effect of various manufacturing parameters on Cu-Pi nanoparticles and to identify a suitable method for the preparation of Cu-Pi nanoparticles to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer. Methods: Cu-Pi nanoparticles were prepared by thin film hydration method, solid dispersion method, emulsion polymerization method and Fessi method. Optimization was carried out to study the effect of various manufacturing parameter on the Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Results: Out of four methods, Fessi method produced a minimum average particle size of 85.43 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.183 and zeta potential of 29.7 mV. Change of organic solvent (acetone or ethanol) did not have any significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. However, increase in sonication time, stirring speed, viscosity, use of 1:10:10 ratio of drug/polymer/surfactant, and use of anionic surfactant or combination of anionic surfactant with cationic polymer or combination of non-ionic surfactant with cationic polymer had a significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Conclusions: Cu-Pi nanoparticles coated with PEG containing copolymer produced by Fessi method had a minimum average particle size, excellent polydispersity index and optimal zeta potential which fall within the acceptable limits of the study. This dual nanoparticulate drug delivery system appears to be promising to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer.
    2  Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia
    Al Thabiany Aziz Hamady Dieng Abu Hassan Ahmad Jazem A Mahyoub Abdulhafis M Turkistani Hatabbi Mesed Salah Koshike Tomomitsu Satho MR Che Salmah Hamdan Ahmad Wan Fatma Zuharah Ahmad Saad Ramli Fumio Miake
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 356.74 K](68)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods: Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/ precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results: The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32 109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22 618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city.
    3  Genetic analysis of polymerase complex (PA, PB1 and PB2) genes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses from Iran (1999 to 2009)
    Masoud Soltanialvar Reza Goodarzi Farshad Akbarnejad
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 359.96 K](90)
    Objective: To determine the molecular characterization of Polymerase complex (PA, PB1 and PB2) genes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses and the genetic relationship of Iranian H9N2 viruses and other Asian viruses. Methods: The Polymerase complex (PA, PB1 and PB2) genes from seven isolates of H9N2 viruses isolated from commercial chickens in Iran during 2008-2009 were amplified (by RT-PCR method) and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences (Open Reading Frame: orf) of the PA, PB1 and PB2 genes were used for phylogenetic tree construction. Results: Most PB2 and PA genes of the H9N2 viruses isolated in 2008-2009 belonged to the unknown avian sublineage which grouped with the 2004 Pakistani H7N3 viruses. The PB1 genes of Iranian viruses indicated greater genetic diversity and shared a high level of similarity to PB1 genes from either H5 or H7 subtypes with compared to established H9N2 Eurasian sublineages. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the H9N2 viruses in Iran exhibit striking reassortment which has led to the generation of new genotypes.
    4  Molecular analysis and anticancer properties of two identified isolates, Fusarium solani and Emericella nidulans isolated from Wady El-Natron soil in Egypt against Caco-2 (ATCC) cell line
    Hala F Mohamed
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 449.34 K](66)
    Objective: To characterize, identify and investigate the anticancer properties of two new soil fungal isolates, Emericella nidulans and Fusarium solani isolated from Wady El-Natron in Egypt against colon cancer Caco-2 (ATCC) cell line. Methods: Soil sample was cultured and two strains were chosen for morphological and phenotypical characterization. Partial sequences of the 18s rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region ITS of the two isolates were amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic tree construction and analysis of the resulted multiple sequences from the two fugal isolates were also carried out. In vitro anticancer activity of the two strains was done against colon Caco-2 cancer cell line. Reverse transcription – PCR was carried out to detect level of expression of p53 in Caco-2 cell line. Results: HF.1 displayed morphological and genotypic characteristics most similar to that of Fusarium solani while HF.2 was most similar to Emericella nidulans with high similarity of 99% and 97% respectively. The multiple sequence alignment of the two fungal isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved domains in the 18s rRNA genes were identified with the nucleotide regions of 51st to 399th base pairs, 88th to 525th base pairs respectively. While those in the ITS genes were identified with the nucleotide regions of 88th to 463rd and 51st to 274th. The two isolates showed IC50 value with (6.24±5.21) and (9.84±0.36) μ g/mL) concentrations respectively at 28h. Reverse transcription – PCR indicated that these cells showed high level of expression for p53 mRNA. Conclusions: The morphology and molecular analysis identified HF.1 and HF.2 to be Fusarium solani and Emericella nidulans; new isolates of anticancer producing fungi from Wady El-Natroon city in Egypt. Treatment with the two isolates caused P53 expression in Caco-2 cell line. These two isolates can be used as an anticancer agents.
    5  Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis leaves extract
    Neeraj Kumar Saini Manmohan Singha
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 251.91 K](71)
    Objective: To evaluate the potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract using different models in rats. Methods: Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 days. Analgesic activity was evaluated using tail immersion and formalin induced paw licking models in rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Antipyretic activity was evaluated using brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia model in rats. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 days. This indicated that the methanol extract was safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased the latency period in the tail immersion test, reduced the licking time in both the neurogenic and inflammatory phases in the formalin test. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly prevented increase in volume of paw edema. Methanolic T. capensis leaves extract at the doses of (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the rectal temperature of the rats. Conclusions: This study exhibites that methanolic T. capensis leaves extract possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.
    6  Effects of Mirazid and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica under laboratory conditions
    AM Massoud HA Shalaby RM El Khateeb MS Mahmoud MA Kutkat
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 735.05 K](70)
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Mirazid and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica ) under laboratory conditions. Methods: The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid) and myrrh volatile oil on the surface morphology of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those observed in the fluke tegument following incubation in triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), active form, (Fasinex, Ciba-Geigy). Results: Observations of the efficacy of Mirazid oleoresin extract and myrrh volatile oil indicated that both products showed dose-dependent anthelmintic efficacy. The anterior half of the fluke was consistently more severely affected than the posterior half. The surface changes induced by Mirazid oleoresin extract were less severe than those observed after exposure to either myrrh volatile oil or TCBZ-SO. Flukes showed swelling after these treatments, but its level and blebbing were much greater with myrrh volatile oil; in which patches of tegumental sloughing were observed in the apical cone and the posterior mid-body region of flukes. This was not observed after treatment with Mirazid oleoresin extract. Conclusions: The comparatively more disruption, observed in myrrh volatile oil exposed specimens, compared to that exposed to Mirazid oleoresin extract might suggest that the anthelmintic activity of Mirazid oleo resin extract was attributed to its content of volatile oil. So, increasing the concentration of myrrh volatile oil in Mirazid might possibly help to developing its anthelmintic activity.
    7  The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast, Iran
    Saeid R. Nourollahi Fard Nima Ghalekhani Reza Kheirandish Saeid Fathi Ehsan Norouzi Asl
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 260.35 K](70)
    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes of camels slaughtered in Mashhad slaughterhouse, Northeast of Iran. Methods: For this purpose, mesenteric lymph nodes of 400 camels of different sex and age were examined. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and a digestion method was also applied for investigation of samples which was negative macroscopically. Results:The mesenteric lymph nodes of 73 camels out of 400 (18.25%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs. Conclusions:Prevalence of L. serrata nymphs in males and females and different age was not significantly different (P>0.05), but difference was observed between the prevalence in different seasons (P< 0.05). The potential importance of these findings to human health is discussed. This is the first report of infection with L. serrate of camels in camels slaughtered at northeast of Iran.
    8  Phospholipon 90H (P90H)-based PEGylated microscopic lipospheres delivery system for gentamicin: an antibiotic evaluation
    Mumuni Audu Momoh Charles Okechukwu Esimone
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 298.52 K](69)
    Objective: To formulate gentamicin liposphere by solvent-melting method using lipids and polyethylene glycol 4 000 (PEG-4 000) for oral administration. Methods: Gentamicin lipospheres were prepared by melt-emulsification using 30% w/w Phospholipon® 90H in Beeswax as the lipid matrix containing PEG-4 000. These lipospheres were characterized by evaluating on encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, change in pH and the release profile. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphii and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar diffusion method. Results: P after hotomicrographs revealed spherical particles within a micrometer range with minimal growth 1 month. The release of gentamicin in vitro varied widely with the PEG-4 000 contents. Moreover, significant (P>0.05) amount of gentamicin was released in vivo from the formulation. The encapsulation and loading capacity were all high, indicating the ability of the lipids to take up the drug. The antimicrobial activities were very high especially against Pseudomonas compare to other test organisms. This strongly suggested that the formulation retain its bioactive characteristics. Conclusions: This study strongly suggest that the issue of gentamicin stability and poor absorption in oral formulation could be adequately addressed by tactical engineering of lipid drug delivery systems such as lipospheres.
    9  Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
    Ramesh B Karuna R Sreenivasa Reddy S Haritha K Sai Mangala D Sasi Bhusana Rao B Saralakumari D
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 312.80 K](73)
    Objective: To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results: The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status.
    10  Epidemiology of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand
    Watcharawit Rassami Mayura Soonwera
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 358.75 K](70)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of infestation with head lice in primary schoolchildren in the eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Methods: The present study was to determine the head lice infestation (Pediculosis) levels in primary schoolchildren, during May, 2011 to July, 2011, A total of 3 747 schoolchildren aged 5-12 years old from 12 selected primary school of Ladkrabang district, the eastern area of Bangkok were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was defined as the presence of at least on living adult, nymph and viable egg. Results: The overall head lice infestation rate was 23.32% and infestation rate was higher in girls (47.12%) than in boys (0%). The infestation rate among schoolchildren varied from 12.62% to 29.76%. The infestation rate among girls varied from 26.07% (12 years old group) to 55.89% (8 years old group). Conclusions: Pediculosis is a common public health problem affecting primary schoolchildren in eastern area of Bangkok and those levels are epidemic importance.
    11  Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and bronchodialator effect of a polyherbal drug-Shrishadi
    Divya Kumari Kajaria Mayank Gangwar Dharmendra Kumar Amit Kumar Sharma Ragini Tilak Gopal Nath Yamini Bhusan Tripathi JS Tripathi SK Tiwari
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 272.60 K](68)
    Objective: To investigate antimicrobial and bronchodialator effect of hydroalcholic extract of polyherbal drug Shirishadi containing Shirisha (Albezzia lebbeck), Nagarmotha (Cyprus rotandus) & Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum). Methods: Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method and MIC, MBC, MFC were calculated by micro dilution method. Hydroalcholic extract of this preparation was investigated for its phytochemical analysis, phenol and flavonoid were determined by spectrophotometric method and in vivo bronchodilator effect was analysed by convulsion time. Results: The phytochemical tests revealed presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The antimicrobial result showed the MIC of 6.25 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and 12.5 mg/mL for Escherichia coli and 12.5 mg/mL against remaining bacteria tested, with strong antifungal activity. The maximum inhibition zone is found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC 16 mg/mL. Drug showed significant bronchodilator effect with 27.86% & 36.13% increase in preconvulsion time of guinea pigs pretreated with 100 & 200 mg/kg body weight of extract. Conclusions: The study reveals that the extracts possess antibacterial activity and antifungal activity in a dose dependent manner. This antimicrobial property may be due to presence of several saponins, further studies are highly needed for the drug development.
    12  Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats
    Viswanadha Vijaya Padma Gurusamy Lalitha Nicholson Puthanveedu Shirony Rathinasamy Baskaran
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 326.04 K](69)
    Objective: To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods: Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results: Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions: Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane.
    13  Fatal Delftia acidovorans infection in an immunocompetent patient with empyema
    Sadia Khan Sujatha Sistla Rahul Dhodapkar Subhash Chandra Parija
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 206.82 K](71)
    Delftia acidovorans (earlier known as Comamonas acidovorans) is an aerobic, non-fermentative, Gram negative rod, classified in the Pseudomonas rRNA homology Group Ⅲ. Reports of isolation of the organism from serious infections like central venous catheter associated bacteremia, corneal ulcers, otitis media exist. The microbiologists can identify this organism based on an orange indole reaction. This reaction demonstrates the organism's ability to produce anthranilic acid from tryptophan on addition of Kovac's reagent; which gives the media its characteristic “pumpkin orange” colour. Here we report the isolation of this organism from the Endotracheal tube aspirate of a 4 year old child. With the increasing use of invasive devices, it has become important to recognize these non fermentative gram negative bacilli as emerging source of infection even in immunocompetent individuals.

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