Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Application of a real-time PCR method for detecting and monitoring hookworm Necator americanus infections in Southern China
    Jia-Xu Wang Cang-Sang Pan Li-Wang Cui
    2012(12):925-929. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60001-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 716.94 K](66)
    Objective: To develop a quantitative PCR method for detecting hookworm infection and quantification. Methods: A real-time PCR method was designed based on the intergenic region Ⅱ of ribosomal DNA of the hookworm Necator americanus. The detection limit of this method was compared with the microscopy-based Kato-Katz method. The real-time PCR method was used to conduct an epidemiological survey of hookworm infection in southern Fujian Province of China. Results: The real-time PCR method was specific for detecting Necator americanus infection, and was more sensitive than conventional PCR or microscopy-based method. A preliminary survey for hookworm infection in villages of Fujian Province confirmed the high prevalence of hookworm infections in the resident populations. In addition, the infection rate in women was significantly higher than that of in men. Conclusions: A real-time PCR method is designed, which has increased detection sensitivity for more accurate epidemiological studies of hookworm infections, especially when intensity of the infection needs to be considered.
    2  In vitro anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea for its biomedical application
    P Kumar S Senthamil Selvi M Govindaraju
    2012(12):930-935. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60002-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 770.50 K](68)
    Objective: To investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial activity of Junceella juncea (J. juncea) against biofilm forming pathogenic strains. Methods: Gorgonians were extracted with methanol and analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biofilm forming pathogens were identified by Congo red agar supplemented with sucrose. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to monitor in vitro biofilm reduction by microtitre plate assay. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic gorgonian extract (MGE) was carried out by disc diffusion method followed by calculating the percentage of increase with crude methanol (CM). Results: The presence of active functional group was exemplified by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dry, black, crystalline colonies confirm the production of extracellular polymeric substances responsible for biofilm formation in Congo red agar. MGE exhibited potential anti-biofilm activity against all tested bacterial strains. The anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract was comparably higher in Salmonella typhii followed by Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. The overall percentage of increase was higher by 50.2% to CM. Conclusions: To conclude, anti-biofilm and anti-bacterial efficacy of J. juncea is impressive over biofilm producing pathogens and are good source for novel anti-bacterial compounds.
    3  Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India
    Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar John Poonga Preetam Raj Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
    2012(12):936-943. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60003-9
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 818.08 K](73)
    Objective: To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods: Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results: Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.
    4  Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains
    Rabia Naz Asghari Bano
    2012(12):944-947. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60004-0
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 672.08 K](72)
    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol and water extracts of the selected plant Ricinus communis. Methods: Agar well diffusion method and agar tube dilution method were carried out to perform the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Results: Methanol leaf extracts were found to be more active against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis: ATCC 6059 and Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 6538) as well as Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: ATCC 7221 and Klebsiella pneumoniae) than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Antifungal activity of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts were also carried out against selected fungal strains as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Methanolic as well as aqueous leaf extracts of Ricinus communis were effective in inhibiting the fungal growth. Conclusions: The efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of Ricinus communis from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains than ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts.
    5  Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats
    Kean Tatt Lim Vuanghao Lim Jin Han Chin
    2012(12):948-952. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60005-2
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 668.48 K](67)
    Objective: To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results: It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions: In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions.
    6  Biogenesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from Garcinia xanthochymus
    Swetha Sunkar C Valli Nachiyar
    2012(12):953-959. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60006-4
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 798.72 K](73)
    Objective: To synthesize the ecofriendly nanoparticles, which is viewed as an alternative to the chemical method which initiated the use of microbes like bacteria and fungi in their synthesis. Methods: The current study uses the endophytic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the Garcinia xanthochymus to synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate solution by the endophytic bacterium after incubation for 3-5 d at room temperature. The synthesis was initially observed by colour change from pale white to brown which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs were further characterized using FTIR, SEM-EDX and TEM analyses. Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical with the size in the range of 20-40 nm which showed a slight aggregation. The energy-dispersive spectra of the nanoparticle dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The AgNPs were found to have antibacterial activity against a few pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions: The endophytic bacteria identified as Bacillus cereus was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles with potential antibacterial activity.
    7  Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara
    Badakhshan Mahdi-Pour Subramanion L Jothy Lachimanan Yoga Latha Yeng Chen Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    2012(12):960-965. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60007-6
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 935.59 K](70)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content. Methods: The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method. Results: The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts. Conclusions: This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.
    8  Antiproliferative role of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20 methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats
    Sivagnanam Selva Kumar Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy Balasubramanian
    2012(12):966-974. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60008-8
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 782.94 K](72)
    Objective: To find out the anticancer effect of Indigofera aspalathoides (I. aspalathoides) on 20-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats. Methods: Fibrosarcoma was induced in Wistar strain male albino rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. Intraperitoneous (i.p.) administration of 250 mg/kg body weight/day of aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides for 30 d effectively suppressed chemically induced tumors. Parameters such as body weight, liver and kidney weight, tumor weight, mean survival time, behavioral changes, blood glucose, blood glycogen and marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and 5'-nucleiotidase (5'-NT) in serum, liver and kidney and lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids in liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were studied. Results: Fibrosarcoma bearing animals were ferocious and anxious. The mean survival time was found to increase after the treatment. The body weights were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in group Ⅱ fibrosarcoma animals which steadily increased after the treatment with I. aspalathoides. The liver and kidney weights were significantly increased whereas the tumor weights decreased as compared to the weights in untreated fibrosarcoma bearing rats. The blood glucose and the liver and kidney glycogen levels were found to decrease significantly (P<0.001) in group Ⅱ animals. Elevated activities of marker enzymes were observed in serum, liver and kidney of fibrosarcoma bearing Group Ⅱ animals which were normalize after I. aspalathoides treatment. In the liver and kidney of Group Ⅱ animals the total cholesterol increased whereas the phospholipids and free fatty acid levels decreased (P<0.001) which were normalized after treatment. Conclusions: The treatment by I. aspalathoides on fibrosarcoma bearing rats has improved the levels of various parameters indicating its antiproliferative and anticancer activity.
    9  Lycopene stabilizes lipoprotein levels during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced hepatitis in experimental rats
    Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff Thiruvengadam Devaki
    2012(12):975-980. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60009-X
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 752.21 K](75)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of lycopene on lipoprotein metabolism during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) induced hepatitis in experimental rats. Methods: The efficacy of lycopene was validated during D-Gal/LPS induced hepatitis by analyzing the activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin- cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Lipo protein analyses were done by the estimation of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Results: The toxic insult of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) in experimental group of animals reduces the normal values of lipid metabolizing enzymes due to liver injury. The significant drop in the levels of HDL and concomitant increase in the values of VLDL and LDL were observed. The pretreatment of lycopene restore these altered values to near normal level in experimental group of animals. Conclusions: In the light of results, it can be concluded that administration lycopene stabilizes the lipoprotein levels by regulating the lipid metabolizing enzymes through its antioxidant defense and helps to maintain the normal lipid metabolism during toxic injury in liver.
    10  Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera: Noctuidae)
    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar Selvaraj Premalatha Kuppusamy Elumalai
    2012(12):981-986. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60010-6
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 672.54 K](67)
    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results: Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera.
    11  Ovicidal activity of Atalantia monophylla (L) Correa against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    Kathirvelu Baskar Chellaiah Muthu Gnanaprakasam Antony Raj Selvadurai Kingsley Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
    2012(12):987-991. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60011-8
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 699.76 K](69)
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Atalantia monophylla (A. monophylla) leaf in different solvent crude extracts and fractions against eggs of Spodoptera litura (S. litura). Methods: Hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform solvent extracts of A. monophylla leaf and 12 fractions from hexane extract were screened at 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.0% and 0.5% for crude extracts and 1 000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg for fractions against the eggs of S. litura for the ovicidal activity. LC50 and LC90 were calculated using probit analysis. Results: Hexane crude extract showed maximum ovicidal activity of 61.94% at 5.0% concentration with a correlation value of r2=0.81, and least LC50 value of 3.06%. Hexane extract was fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and 12 fractions were obtained. Fraction 9 was active which showed maximum ovicidal activity of 75.61% at 1 000 mg/kg with the LC50 value of 318.65 mg/kg and LC90 value of 1 473.31 mg/kg. In linear regression analysis, significant and high correlation (r2=0.81%) was seen between concentration and ovicidal activity of hexane crude extracts and its active fraction. Conclusions: As per our knowledge, this is the first report for ovicidal activity of A. monophylla against S. litura, A. monophylla could be used for the management of S. litura and other insect pests.
    12  Effect of newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-3-thione derivatives on olfactory bulbectomy induced depression in rats
    Urmila M Aswar Padmaja P Kalshetti Suhas M Shelke Sharad H Bhosale Subhash L Bodhankar
    2012(12):992-998. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60012-X
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 710.65 K](68)
    Objective: To study the derivatives of 1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-3-thione for antidepressant activity in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats. Out of various derivatives tested for acute tail suspension test, the two derivatives showing prominent action were selected for bilateral olfactory bulbectomy model of chronic depression in rats. Methods: The sub acute effects of 14-day oral pretreatment of two derivatives labeled as 3a (70 mg/kg) and 3r (70 mg/kg), imipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (30 mg/kg) and moclobemide (15 mg/kg) were evaluated on bilateral bulbectomy induced rise in body weight, hyperphagia, hyperactivity, and on sexual dysfunction. The serum sodium concentration, body temperature, and heart rate were also recorded. Results: The derivatives 3a and 3r showed reversal of drop in body weight, reversed OBX induced hyperactivity, normalized body temperature, heart rate, and serum sodium concentration. In elevated maze test, moclobemide, 3a, 3r treatment significantly reduced time spent in open arm as compared to OBX rats. 3a and 3r also improved sexual behavior parameters. Conclusions: The present study shows promising antidepressant action and provides a proof of concept for the chronic treatment of 3a, 3r to treat depression.
    13  Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan
    Tajeldin M Abdallah Abdel Aziem A Ali
    2012(12):999-1001. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60013-1
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 625.46 K](70)
    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors of tuberculosis (TB) in eastern Sudan. Methods: The socio-demographic and clinical data was retrieved from the database at Kassala hospital during the year of 2011. The medical file of consequent patients who was discharged from the same ward in the hospital was reviewed to act as control for the TB patients. Results: A total of 670 patients were registered at Kassala hospital with clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence proven TB. Pulmonary TB accounted for 73.4% while extra-pulmonary TB was reported in 26.6% of all TB patients. The mean age (SD) was not significantly different between the cases and controls (670 in each arm). TB patients were those who had less education, and the infection more likely common among male patients. Conclusions: Intervention from outside the health field in particular awareness of associated risk factors and improvement of the educational level potentially will strengthen TB control.
    14  Pharmacological properties of Datura stramonium L. as a potential medicinal tree: An overview
    Priyanka Soni Anees Ahmad Siddiqui Jaya Dwivedi Vishal Soni
    2012(12):1002-1008. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60014-3
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 763.10 K](73)
    India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. Datura stramonium (D. stramonium) is one of the widely well known folklore medicinal herbs. The troublesome weed, D. stramonium is a plant with both poisonous and medicinal properties and has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage in folklore medicine. D. stromonium has been scientifically proven to contain alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. This plant has contributed various pharmacological actions in the scientific field of Indian systems of medicines like analgesic and antiasthmatic activities. The present paper presents an exclusive review work on the ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological activities of this plant.

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