Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Mortality of therapeutic fish Garra rufa caused by Aeromonas sobria
    Juraj Majtán Jaroslav Cerny Alena Ofúkaná Peter Takác Milan Kozánek
    2012(2):85-87. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60197-4
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 674.58 K](72)
    Objective: To investigate a case of mass mortality of Garra rufa (G. rufa) from a fish hatchery farm in Slovakia. Methods: Causative bacterial agent was swabbing out of affected fish skin area and subsequently identified using commercial test system. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Infected G. rufa was characterized by abnormal swimming behaviour, bleeding of skin lesions and local haemorrhages. Despite of using recommended aquatic antibiotic treatment no improvement was achieved and Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) was identified as a causative agent of fish mortality. Due to massive fish mortality, antibiotic susceptibility of pure isolated culture of A. sobria was evaluated employing eight antibiotics against human infections. A. sobria was resistant only against one antibiotic, namely ampicilin. Conclusions: These results indicate that A. sobria can act as a primary pathogen of G. rufa and may be a potential risk factor for immunodeficient or immunoincompetent patients during the ichthyotherapy.
    2  Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents in central institution of southern Iran
    Azar Shokri Khojasteh Sharifi Sarasiabi Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi Hamid Mahmoodi
    2012(2):88-91. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60198-6
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 685.19 K](74)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally retarded residents of rehabilitation center of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, southern Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in central rehabilitation institute of Hormozgan province in summer 2010. Fecal samples of all 133 residents (72 males, 61 females) aged 3-52, were collected in triplicate. Specimens were examined by direct smear, formalin- ether concentration techniques and stained by permanent Trichrome, Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS 13.5. Results: Intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 48.5% (64 out of 133 subjects: 53.4% in males and 46.6% in females). Strongyloides stercoralis with 17.3% showed the highest incidence followed by Entamoeba coli (9.8%), Blastocystis hominis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Endolimax nana (2.3%), Hymenolepis nana (0.8%), Oxyuris vermicularis (0.8%), and Chilomasix mesnili (0.8%). Double infections were found to be as: Strongyloides stercoralis + Giardia lamblia (2.3%), Entamoeba coli + Giardia lamblia (1.5%), Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis (1.5%), Oxyuris vermicularis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis + Entamoeba coli (0.8%), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that strongyloidiasis is a common disease among mentally retarded population in southern Iran.
    3  Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines
    Ravikumar S Fredimoses M Gnanadesigan M
    2012(2):92-96. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60199-8
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 716.22 K](72)
    Objective: To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods: In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results: Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82) μg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 μg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group Ⅰ and Ⅲ, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group Ⅱ. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions: The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines.
    4  Mass scale screening of common arboviral infections by an affordable, cost effective RT-PCR method
    Debjani Taraphdar Arindam Sarkar Shyamalendu Chatterjee
    2012(2):97-101. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60200-1
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 711.06 K](79)
    Objective: To develop a rapid, cost effective RT-PCR method for the mass scale diagnosis of such diseases at the viremia stage to find out the actual disease burden in that area. Methods: For this purpose, cases with the history of only short febrile illness were considered. Thus 157 samples with the history of dengue/chikungunya like illness and only 58 samples with a history of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) were selected. Results: Out of 157 samples, 42 and 74 were detected as dengue and chikungunya, respectively and out of 58 AES cases only 23 could be detected as Japanese encephalitis by this RT-PCR method. Conclusions: This cost effective RT-PCR method can detect the total positive cases that remain undetected by ELISA method. Moreover, this method is capable to detect the viral RNA from patients’ sera even after the appearance of IgM antibody at one fifth costs as compared with the other commercially available kits.
    5  Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China
    Shiwen Wang Jing He Lijuan Zhang
    2012(2):102-103. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60201-3
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 620.46 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.
    6  Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab
    Samreen Zulfiqar Sadia Shahnawaz Muhammad Ali Arif Mahmood Bhutta Shahid Iqbal Sikandar Hayat Shazia Qadir Muhammad Latif Nazia Kiran Ali Saeed Furhan Iqbal
    2012(2):104-108. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60202-5
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 673.92 K](75)
    Objective: To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results: 27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions: This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.
    7  Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes
    Bhagavathy S Sumathi P
    2012(2):109-117. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60203-7
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 890.31 K](75)
    Objective: To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods: Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results: The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α- carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.
    8  Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq
    Mbaebie BO Edeoga HO Afolayan AJ
    2012(2):118-124. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60204-9
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 770.03 K](74)
    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress- induced ailments in South Africa. Methods: The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80± 0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.
    9  Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants
    Shakhawoat Hossain Golam Kader Farjana Nikkon Tanzima Yeasmin
    2012(2):125-127. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60205-0
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 638.18 K](76)
    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods: Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 μg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 μg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent.
    10  Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice
    Evan Prince Sabina Haridas Indu Mahaboobkhan Rasool
    2012(2):128-133. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60206-2
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 782.54 K](76)
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods: The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group Ⅰ served as control; mice in group Ⅱ were injected with monosodium urate crystal; group Ⅲ consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.); group Ⅳ comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-α were determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results: The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-α levels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.
    11  Evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fraction of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn F. Muell
    Patel DK Kumar R Kumar M Sairam K Hemalatha S
    2012(2):134-139. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60207-4
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 771.79 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate the aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus for potential use in diabetic cataract. Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid content of different fractions was determined. ARI activity of different fractions in rat lens was investigated in vitro. Results: The results showed significant level of phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate fraction [total phenol (212.15±0.79 mg/g), total flavonoid (39.11± 2.27 mg/g)] and aqueous fraction [total phenol (140.62±0.57 mg/g), total flavonoid (26.07±1.49 mg/g)] as compared with the chloroform fraction [total phenol (68.56±0.51 mg/g), total flavonoid (13.41± 0.82 mg/g)] and petrolium ether fraction [total phenol (36.68±0.43 mg/g), total flavonoid (11.55±1.06 mg/g)]. There was a significant difference in the ARI activity of each fraction, and it was found to be the highest in ethyl acetate fraction [IC50 (49.26±1.76 μg/mL)] followed by aqueous extract [IC50 (70.83±2.82 μg/mL)] and it was least in the petroleum ether fraction [IC50 (118.89±0.71 μg/mL)]. Chloroform fraction showed moderate activity [IC50 (98.52±1.80 μg/mL)]. Conclusions: Different fractions showed significanct amount of ARI activity, where in ethyl acetate fraction it was found to be maximum which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. The extract after further evaluation may be used in the treatment of diabetic cataract.
    12  Production of chitosan from endolichenic fungi isolated from mangrove environment and its antagonistic activity
    Logesh AR Thillaimaharani KA Sharmila K Kalaiselvam M Raffi SM
    2012(2):140-143. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60208-6
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 721.04 K](73)
    Objective: To screen the chitosan producing ability of endolichenic fungi and its antibacterial activity. Methods: Lichen collected from mangroves was screened for endophytes and the chitosan producing ability of endolichenic fungi by submerged fermentation was also determined. Antibacterial activity was carried out against different pathogens. Results: Totally 4 different groups of fungi were isolated from the lichen Roccella montagnei. Among the four genera, Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is potential to produce chitosan (1.3 g/L) on the twelfth day of incubation. Glucose plays an important role in the productivity of chitosan and the yield was maximum at 10% (1.93 g/L). Antibacterial activity revealed that Vibrio cholerae was sensitive to chitosan followed by Escherichia coli. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that A. niger is a potential candidate to produce more chitosan than the other strains and glucose plays an important role in the production of chitosan which proves to have a good antibacterial activity.
    13  Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens
    Jude E Okokon Anwanga E Udoh Samuel G Frank Louis U Amazu
    2012(2):144-148. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60209-8
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 680.27 K](75)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods: The crude leaf extract (39-111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg- albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal- induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results: The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 - 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions: The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.
    14  Pharmacological screening of methanolic extract of Ixora species
    Lachimanan Yoga Latha Ibrahim Darah Kassim Jain Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    2012(2):149-151. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60210-4
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 629.91 K](73)
    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of Ixora species. Methods: Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion assay against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Results: All methanolic extracts of different parts of Ixora species showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial and antiyeast activities, which inhibited the growth of at least one bacterium or yeast. There was no remarkable difference between different Ixora species observed in this study. Conclusions: The significant antimicrobial activity shown by this Ixora species suggests its potential against infections caused by pathogens. The extract may be developed as an antimicrobial agent.
    15  Larvicidal and irritant activities of hexane leaf extracts of Citrus sinensis against dengue vector Aedes aegypti L.
    Radhika Warikoo Ankita Ray Jasdeep Kaur Sandhu Roopa Samal Naim Wahab Sarita Kumar
    2012(2):152-155. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60211-6
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 657.56 K](74)
    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and irritant activities of the hexane extracts of leaves of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) against the early fourth instars and female adults of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: The larvicidal potential of the prepared leaf extract was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 h and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of extract as mosquito irritant was assessed by contact irritancy assays. Extract-impregnated paper was placed on a glass plate over which a perspex funnel with a hole on the top was kept inverted. Single female adult, 3-day old unfed/blood-fed, was released inside the funnel. After 3 min of acclimatization time, the time taken for the first take-off and total number of flights undertaken during 15 min were scored. Results: The citrus leaf extracts from hexane possessed moderate larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays resulted in an LC50 and LC90 value of 446.84 and 1 370.96 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. However, the extracts were proved to be remarkable irritant against adults Ae. aegypti, more pronounced effects being observed on blood-fed females than unfed females. The extract-impregnated paper was thus proved to be 7-11 times more irritable as compared with the control paper. Conclusions: The hexane extracts from C. sinensis leaves are proved to be reasonably larvicidal but remarkably irritant against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of extract as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the extract could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control.
    16  Effect of a commercial air ionizer on dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in the laboratory
    Suhaili Zainal Abidin Ho Tze Ming
    2012(2):156-158. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60212-8
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 687.41 K](78)
    Objective: To investigate the short and long term efficacy of a commercial air ionizer in killing Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) mites. Methods: The effect of a commercial ionizer on D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae was evaluated in the laboratory, using a specially designed test. Mortality was assessed after 6, 16 and 24 hours for direct exposure and after 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours for exposure in simulated mattress. New batches of mites were used for each exposure time. Results: LT50 for direct exposure of ionizer was 10 hours for D. pteronyssinus and 18 hours for D. farinae. The LT50 for exposure in simulated mattress was 132 hours or 5.5 days for D. pteronyssinus and 72 hours or 3 days for D. farinae. LT95 for direct exposure of ionizer was 36 hours for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Meanwhile, the LT95 for exposure in simulated mattress was 956 hours or 39.8 days for D. pteronyssinus and 403 hours or 16.8 days for D. farinae. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the increasing mite mortalities with increasing exposure time of a commercial ionizer and suggests that negative ions produced by an ionizer kill dust mites and can be used to reduce natural mite populations on exposed surfaces such as floors, clothes, curtains, etc. However, there is reduced efficacy on mites inside stuffed materials as in mattresses and furniture.
    17  Strategies for production of active eukaryotic proteins in bacterial expression system
    Orawan Khow Sunutcha Suntrarachun
    2012(2):159-162. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60213-X
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 641.69 K](80)
    Bacteria have long been the favorite expression system for recombinant protein production. However, the flaw of the system is that insoluble and inactive proteins are co-produced due to codon bias, protein folding, phosphorylation, glycosylation, mRNA stability and promoter strength. Factors are cited and the methods to convert to soluble and active proteins are described, for example a tight control of Escherichia coli milieu, refolding from inclusion body and through fusion technology.
    18  ‘A life threatening scratch on little toe’- at most clinical suspicion the essential key in management of snake bite
    George Peter Panicker I Georgy
    2012(2):163-165. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60214-1
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 652.69 K](72)
    Snake bites are one among the under reported clinical emergencies from tropical countries. There are variations in clinical presentation of snake bites and its toxic features differ with the species and type of bite. There are lots of controversies in the treatment guidelines which often makes it difficult to manage. We report the case of a severe hemotoxic snake bite who presented to the outpatient service of our hospital with a trivial foot injury. Even though snakebites are familiar clinical situations for an emergency physician from tropics, we report this case as most are under reported. We also intend to emphasize the excellent outcome of appropriately diagnosed and treated cases of snake bite.
    19  A rare case of community acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection presenting as pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent individual
    Suman S Karanth Hariharan Regunath Kiran Chawla Mukhyaprana Prabhu
    2012(2):166-168. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60215-3
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 706.54 K](78)
    Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) infection is rarely reported in an immunocompetent host. It is a well known occurence in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease where it increases both morbidity and mortality. It has also been included in the list of organisms causing nosocomial infections in an immunocompetent host, most of them transmitted from the immunocompromised patient in which this organism harbors. We report a rare case of isolation of B. cepacia from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of an immunocompetent agriculturist who presented with productive cough and fever associated with a pyopneumothorax. This is the first case of community acquired infection reported in an immunocompetent person in India.

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