Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Additive potential of ginger starch on antifungal potency of honey against Candida albicans
    Ahmed Moussa Djebli Noureddine Hammoudi SM Aissat Saad Akila Bourabeh Hemida Houari
    2012(4):253-255. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60018-5
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 614.99 K](77)
    Objective: To evaluate the additive action of ginger starch on the antifungal activity of honey against Candida albicans (C. albicans). Methods: C. albicans was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four varieties of Algerian honey. Lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch and then added to media to determine the minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC). Results: The MIC for the four varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 38% and 42% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop was noticed with each variety. MAIC of the four varieties ranged between 32% honey (v/v) with 4% starch and 36% honey (v/v) with 2% starch. Conclusions: The use of ginger starch allows honey benefit and will constitute an alternative way against the resistance to antifungal agents.
    2  Antioxidant activities of Indigofera cassioides Rottl. Ex. DC. using various in vitro assay models
    R Senthil Kumar B Rajkapoor P Perumal
    2012(4):256-261. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60019-7
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.20 K](72)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of methanolic leaf extract of Indigofera cassioides (MEIC) using various in vitro antioxidant assay systems. Methods: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of MEIC was assayed by using different in vitro models like ABTS, DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Reductive ability of the extract was tested by the complex formation with potassium ferricyanide. Further total phenol and flavonoid contents of the crude extract were also determined. Rutin and ascorbic acid were used as standards. Results: MEIC exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the tested models. Reductive ability was also found to increase with increase in MEIC concentration. Total phenol and flavonoid content determination showed that the extract is rich in phenols and flavonoids. Conclusions: All the results of the in vitro antioxidant assays reveal potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the leaves of Indigofera cassioides, equivalent to that of standard ascorbic acid and rutin. This potent antioxidant activity may be attributed to its high phenolic and flavonoid contents.
    3  Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats
    Subramaniam Ramachandran Aiyalu Rajasekaran KT Manisenthilkumar
    2012(4):262-268. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60020-3
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 758.75 K](75)
    Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results: Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions: Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition.
    4  Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity
    Vijayalakshmi A Ravichandiran V Malarkodi Velraj Nirmala S Jayakumari S
    2012(4):269-275. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60021-5
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 856.71 K](69)
    Objective: To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods: Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results: The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 μg/mL). Conclusions: From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity.
    5  Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats
    Krishna Murti Upendra Kumar
    2012(4):276-280. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60022-7
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 804.32 K](72)
    Objective: To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa). Methods: Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. incision and excision models. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointment for comparison with other groups. Results: From the observation in both two models, aqueous extract of F. racemosa was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that aqueous extract of F. racemosa possesses better wound healing ability than the ethanolic extract.
    6  Antidiabetic effect of Merremia emarginata Burm. F. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
    G Rajiv Gandhi P Sasikumar
    2012(4):281-286. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60023-9
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 937.79 K](69)
    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic property of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata) Burm. F. plant in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The dose dependent effects of 28 days oral treatment with methanol extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) from the plant of M. emarginata on blood glucose level, body weight, insulin, total hemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Histology of pancreas was also studied. Results: A significant decrease in blood glucose, serum urea and serum creatinine and significant increase in body weight, insulin and protein level were observed in diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata. Treatment with M. emarginata resulted in a significant reduction of HbA1C and an increase in total hemoglobin level. The activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase were significantly increased whereas glucose-6- phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase were significantly decreased by the administration of M. emarginata in diabetic rats. Histology of diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata showed the pancreatic β-cells regeneration. Conclusions: These findings suggest that M. emarginata has potent antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
    7  Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection
    Hosny H Kesba Hossam S El-Beltagi
    2012(4):287-293. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60024-0
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 776.70 K](73)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods: The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/ freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results: Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions: Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes.
    8  Antimicrobial resistance of abnormal vaginal discharges microorganisms in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
    Simplice D Karou Florencia Djigma Tani Sagna Christelle Nadembega Moctar Zeba Aboudoulaye Kabre Kokou Anani Djeneba Ouermi Charlemagne Gnoula Virginio Pietra Salvatore Pignatelli Jacques Simpore
    2012(4):294-297. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60025-2
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 783.47 K](75)
    Objective: To assess the prevalence of bacterial strains and fungal strains infecting the vaginal tract and test their sensitivity to antibiotics in women attending Saint Camille Medical Centre in Ouagadougou. Methods: From January 2008 to December 2009, a total of 2 000 vaginal swabs were cultivated for bacterial and fungal identification and isolation. Furthermore, bacterial strains were tested for their susceptibility to several antibiotics used in routine in the centre. Results: The results revealed that microbial isolation and identification was attempted for 1 536/2 000 sample, a positivity rate of 76.80%. Candida albicans (48.76%), followed by Escherichia coli (16.67%), Streptococcus agalactiae (8.14%) and Staphylococcus aureus (7.55%) were the major agents of genital tract infections in patients. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum combined accounted for less than 7%. Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 1.04% cases. The antimicrobial tests revealed that the microorganisms developed resistance to several antibiotics including beta lactams. However, antibiotics such as cefamenzol, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were still active on these bacteria. Conclusions: The results reveal that many sexually active women are infected by one or more microbial pathogens, probably because of the lack of hygiene or the adoption of some risky behaviors, such as not using condoms or having multiple sexual partners. Efforts should be made to address these points in the country.
    9  Isolation and efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) for the control of Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae: suspected dengue vector in Pakistan
    Hazrat Bilal Soaib Ali Hassan Imtinan Akram Khan
    2012(4):298-300. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60026-4
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 643.86 K](72)
    Objective: To isolate the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (M. anisopliae) in the local environment, and evaluate its efficacy against the suspected dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Pakistan. Methods: According to the standard procedure, M. anisopliae was isolated from the dead mosquitoes which were collected from the field or dead after the collection. Bioassay was performed to determine its efficacy. Results: The results indicated that M. anisopliae had larvicidal effect with LC50 value 1.09×105 and LC90 value 1.90×1013 while it took 45.41 h to kill 50% of tested population. Conclusions: Taking long time to kill 50% population when compare with the synthetic insecticides, is the only drawback for the use of entomopathogenic fungus but these bio-pesticides are safe for the use.
    10  Use of buffy coat thick films in detecting malaria parasites in patients with negative conventional thick films
    Chatnapa Duangdee Noppadon Tangpukdee Srivicha Krudsood Polrat Wilairatana
    2012(4):301-303. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60027-6
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 624.35 K](73)
    Objective: To determine the frequency of malaria parasite detection from the buffy coat blood films by using capillary tube in falciparum malaria patients with negative conventional thick films. Methods: Thirty six uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients confirmed by conventional thick and thin films were included in the study. The patients were treated with artemisinin combination therapy at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand for 28 day. Fingerpricks for conventional blood films were conducted every 6 hours until negative parasitemia, then daily fingerpricks for parasite checks were conducted until the patients were discharged from hospital. Blood samples were also concurrently collected in 3 heparinized capillary tubes at the same time of fingerpricks for conventional blood films when the prior parasitemia was negative on thin films and parasitemia was lower than 50 parasites/200 white blood cells by thick film. The first negative conventional thick films were compared with buffy coat thick films for parasite identification. Results: Out of 36 patients with thick films showing negative for asexual forms of parasites, buffy coat films could detect remaining 10 patients (27.8%) with asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusions: The study shows that buffy coat thick films are useful and can detect malarial parasites in 27.8% of patients whose conventional thick films show negative parasitemia.
    11  Effect of age and gender on some blood biochemical parameters of apparently healthy small ruminants from Southern Punjab in Pakistan
    Shumaila Kiran Arif Mahmood Bhutta Bakhtyawar Ali Khan Sobia Durrani Muhammad Ali Furhan Iqbal
    2012(4):304-306. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60028-8
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 668.29 K](72)
    Objective: To report and compare the hematological and serum biochemical profile of goat and sheep from Rahim Yar Khan district in Southern Punjab. Methods: One hundred and twenty blood samples (98 goat and 22 sheep) were collected and their blood glucose, hemoglobin and serum biochemical parameters, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by using spectrophotometer. Parameters were compared between goat and sheep. Results: It was observed that glucose (P=0.001), LDH (P=0.001) and ALT (P=0.001) concentrations differed significantly between sheep and goats. The studied parameters were compared between buck and goats and also between young goats (less than 12 months old) and adults (more than 12 months old). It was found that age and gender did not affect these hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It can be concluded that sheep have overall higher values than goats for studied hematological and serum biochemical parameters.
    12  A comparative laboratory diagnosis of malaria: microscopy versus rapid diagnostic test kits
    Azikiwe CCA Ifezulike CC Siminialayi IM Amazu LU Enye JC Nwakwunite OE
    2012(4):307-310. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60029-X
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.14 K](72)
    Objective: To compare the two methods of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria. Methods: RDTs and microscopy were carried out to diagnose malaria. Percentage malaria parasitaemia was calculated on thin films and all non-acute cases of plasmodiasis with less than 0.001% malaria parasitaemia were regarded as negative. Results were simply presented as percentage positive of the total number of patients under study. The results of RDTs were compared to those of microscopy while those of RDTs based on antigen were compared to those of RDTs based on antibody. Patients' follow-up was made for all cases. Results: All the 200 patients under present study tested positive to RDTs based on malaria antibodies (serum) method (100%). 128 out of 200 tested positive to RDTs based on malaria antigen (whole blood) method (64%), while 118 out of 200 patients under present study tested positive to visual microscopy of Lieshman and diluted Giemsa (59%). All patients that tested positive to microscopy also tested positive to RDTs based on antigen. All patients on the second day of follow-up were non-febrile and had antimalaria drugs. Conclusions: We conclude based on the present study that the RDTs based on malaria antigen (whole blood) method is as specific as the traditional microscopy and even appears more sensitive than microscopy. The RDTs based on antibody (serum) method is unspecific thus it should not be encouraged. It is most likely that Africa being an endemic region, formation of certain levels of malaria antibody may not be uncommon. The present study also supports the opinion that a good number of febrile cases is not due to malaria. We support WHO’s report on cost effectiveness of RDTs but, recommend that only the antigen based method should possibly, be adopted in Africa and other malaria endemic regions of the world.
    13  Comparative study of chloroquine and quinine on malaria rodents and their effects on the mouse testis
    Esmail Abolghasemi Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi Maryam Davoudi Ahmad Reisi Mohammad Taghi Satvat
    2012(4):311-314. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60030-6
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.63 K](69)
    Objective: To evaluate the effects of quinine and chloroquine against male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei and their adverse effects on the mice testes. Methods: In this study, 48 adult male mice, (20-25 g), aged 8 to 12 weeks were divided into four groups. This study was carried out from December 2009 until May 2010 in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The results showed that 58.33% of mice treated with chloroquine were completely recovered. Parasitemia was 4% on day 8 when compared to that on day 0, whereas it was 9% on day 9. There was no orchitis found in this group. The mortality of mice after exposing to quinine on day 5 was 8.3%, whereas from day 10 to day 14 it was 91.7%. We found 75% orchitis occurred in quinine treated group. There was a significant difference between quinine and chloroquine effects on the parasite and also mice testes (P<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, It can be concluded that male mice have full resistance to the quinine. Quinine does not only make male mice recover completely, but also cause inflammation on mice testicles tissue.
    14  Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory
    Saiful AN Lau MS Sulaiman S Hidayatulfathi O
    2012(4):315-319. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60031-8
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 911.45 K](71)
    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods: Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results: The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control.
    15  An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property
    Patel DK Prasad SK Kumar R Hemalatha S
    2012(4):320-330. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60032-X
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 754.70 K](70)
    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world’s population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.
    16  Case report on an infant presenting with hypoglycemia, and milky serum
    Yogesh Kumar Gupta Anushre Prasad Pushpa Kini Prashant Naik Deepti Choprra Krishnananda Prabhu
    2012(4):331-332. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60033-1
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 591.31 K](71)
    A 4-month-old male baby who presented in a moribund condition with seizures was found to have hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia and milky serum. Serum triglycerides were markedly elevated (3 168 mg/dL) with cholesterol being 257 mg/dL and high density lipoprotein levels were low (19 mg/dL). The possibility of glycogen storage disease type Ⅰ was considered in the diagnosis. Infants with glycogen storage disease type Ⅰ may present like sepsis. The association of hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia and abnormal lipid profile stated above should alert the physician to consider glycogen storage disease type Ⅰ in the diagnosis.
    17  A case report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog
    Reza Kheirandish Shahrzad Azizi Soodeh Alidadi
    2012(4):333-335. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60034-3
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 703.98 K](69)
    Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly in the veterinary literature. This malformation is characterized by a cystic mass of non-functioning primitive lung tissue that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree or with the pulmonary arteries. This article describes gross and histopathological characteristics of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in a dog. Grossly, a mass was observed in the left side of the thoracic cavity, closed to the caudal lobes of the lung, without communication with the tracheobronchial tree and the pulmonary arteries that was separated by pleural covering. Histopathologic examination showed emphysematous alveoli and bronchi, hypertrophy of smooth muscles and presence of the undifferentiated mesenchymal tissue. Therefore, based on microscopic findings, extralobar pulmonary sequestration was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in dog.
    18  Mosquito vector management with botanicals-the most effective weapons in controlling mosquito-borne diseases
    Shyamapada Mandal
    2012(4):336-336. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60035-5
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 561.02 K](67)

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