Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats
    Amit D Kandhare Kiran S Raygude Pinaki Ghosh Arvindkumar E Ghule Tejas P Gosavi achin L Badole Subhash L Bodhankar
    2012(5):337-344. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60053-7
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 815.67 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods: The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results: Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-α It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-α and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-α.
    2  Tomato lycopene attenuates myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol: Electrocardiographic, biochemical and anti-apoptotic study
    Aman Upaganlawar Vaibhav Patel Balaraman R
    2012(5):345-351. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60054-9
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 828.84 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the protective effects of lycopene on electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (200 mg/kg) for two consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. Rats were treated with lycopene (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for a period of 30 days and isoproterenol (ISO) was injected on the 29th and 30th day. At the end of experiment i.e. on the 31st day electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes were monitored from control and experimental groups. Results: ISO injected rats showed a significant alteration in electrocardiograph pattern and hemodynamic changes (i.e. systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure). It also showed significant increase in C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, nitrite levels and Caspase-3 protease activity. In addition, it also exhibited alteration in the levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Ca2+), vitamin E, uric acid and serum protein. Gel electrophoresis of ISO injected rats showed increase in DNA fragmentation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of the heart section shows increase area of infarction in ISO injected rats. Pre-co-treatment with lycopene significantly prevented the ISO induced alteration in ECG, haemodynamic, biochemical and apoptotic changes. Conclusions: The present result shows that treatment of lycopene in ISO injected rats significantly attenuates induced myocardial infarction.
    3  Investigation of hepatoprotective activity of Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex. Hook.) leaves against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
    P Madhu Kiran A Vijaya Raju B Ganga Rao
    2012(5):352-356. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60055-0
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cyathea gigantea (C. gigantea) against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Methods: The hepatoprotective activity for plant extract was investigated for paracetamol induced hepatoxicity in rats. Wistar albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of 6 animals each and are given orally the following treatment for seven days. The normal control group was given 1% Na.CMC 1 mL/kg bw, p.o. Paracetamol at dose of 1 g/kg bw, p.o. was given as toxic dose for inducing hepatotoxicity. Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given as reference standard. Two doses of C. gigantea extract i.e., 100 mg/kg, p.o. and 200 mg/kg, p.o. were tested for hepatoprotective activity. The treatment was given for seven days and after 24 h of last treatment blood was collected from retro-orbital plexus and analysed for various serum parameters like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and total protein (TP) in different groups. Results: The paracetamol intoxication lead to histological and biochemical deteriorations. The treatment with methanolic leaf extract of C. gigantea reduced the elevated levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB and also reversed the hepatic damage towards normal which further supports the hepatoprotective activity of leaf extract of C. gigantea. Conclusions: The methanolic extract of leaves of C. gigantea at doses of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw have significant effect on liver of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity model in rats.
    4  Pharmacognostic standardization of stems of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs
    Chumbhale DS Upasani CD
    2012(5):357-363. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60056-2
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 910.91 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To establish the standardization parameters for complete pharmacognostic evaluation of stems of Thespesia lampas (T. lampas ) (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs (Malvaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical evaluations, florescence analysis of T. lampas stems were investigated and preliminary phytochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and HPTLC fingerprinting were carried out for qualitative phytochemical evaluation of various extracts of stems of T. lampas. Results: Chemo- microscopy revealed the presence of lignin, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals. Physico- chemical evaluation used to determine numerical standards showed a result with total ash (9.03 ± 0.05) % w/w, acid insoluble ash (1.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, water soluble ash (2.51 ± 0.02) % w/w, sulphated ash (7.50 ± 0.01) % w/w, ethanol soluble extractive (0.24 ± 0.02) % w/w, water soluble extractive (0.08 ± 0.01) % w/w, moisture content (6.03 ± 0.05) % w/w and total crude fibre content of stem powder (47.36 ± 0.32) % w/w. Behavior characteristics of the stem powder showed presence of steroids, starch, alkaloid, flavonoids and proteins. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids such as dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, n- hexadecanoic acid, 9-tetradecenal and HPTLC fingerprinting revealed the presence of β– sitosterol and quercetin in stems of T. lampas. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic standardization of T. lampas is useful towards establishing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.
    5  In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum
    Samuel Jacob Inbaneson Sundaram Ravikumar Palavesam Suganthi
    2012(5):364-367. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60057-4
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 639.27 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods: The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results: Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81μg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14μg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 μg/ mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.
    6  Anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2)
    Sasipawan Machana Natthida Weerapreeyakul Sahapat Barusrux
    2012(5):368-374. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60058-6
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 881.48 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the anticancer activity of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet & Gagnep against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Methods: The anticancer activity was based on (a) the cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells (HepG2) assessed using a neutral red assay and (b) apoptosis induction determined by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was assessed by HPLC analysis. Results: The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) showed greater potential anticancer activity with high cytotoxicity [IC50 = (62.8 ± 7.3)μg/mL] and higher selectivity in HepG2 cells than normal Vero cells [selective index (SI) = 7.9]. The SI of EW-L was higher than the positive control, melphalan (SI = 1.6) and the apoptotic cells (46.4 ± 2.6) % induced by EW-L was higher than the melphalan (41.6 ± 2.1)% (P<0.05). The HPLC chromatogram of the EW-L revealed the presence of various kinds of polyphenolics and flavonoids in it. Conclusions: P. evecta is a potential plant with anticancer activity. The isolation of pure compounds and determination of the bioactivity of individual compounds will be further performed.
    7  Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans
    Ghaleb Adwan Yousef Salameh Kamel Adwan Ali Barakat
    2012(5):375-379. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60059-8
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 661.20 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods: The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals.
    8  Stabilization of membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation by carotenoids from Chlorococcum humicola in Benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity
    Bhagavathy S Sumathi P
    2012(5):380-384. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60060-4
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 672.25 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the alteration of the membrane potential and the effect of carotenoid extracts from Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) on membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation. Methods: The total carotenoids were extracted from C. humicola. Four groups of Swiss albino mice were treated as control, Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], total carotenoids, B(a)P + total carotenoids respectively for a period of 60 days. Membrane lipid peroxidation and ATPases (Total ATPases, Ca2+- ATPases, Mg2+ - ATPases, Na+K+ - ATPase) were determined in lung, liver and erythrocyte samples. Results: The activity of total ATPase was found to be significantly increased in the B(a)P treated liver and lung tissue. Erythrocyte membrane also showed higher ATPase activity which was significantly reverted on total carotenoid treatment. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the changes in membrane potential favour the functional deterioration of physiological system. The overall findings demonstrates that the animals post treated with carotenoid extract from C. humicola may maintains the alterations in membrane bound ATPase and lipid peroxidation in tissues against the carcinogenic chemical and hence aid in establishing the membrane potential action. Therefore C. humicola can be further extended to exploits its possible application for various health benefits as neutraceuticals and food additives.
    9  In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals
    Kamlesh Singh Nisha Singh Anish Chandy Ashish Manigauha
    2012(5):385-388. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60061-6
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 887.46 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods: Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results: A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats.
    10  HPLC analysis of camptothecin content in various parts of Nothapodytes foetida collected on different periods
    AG Namdeo A Sharma
    2012(5):389-393. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60062-8
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 967.96 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the content of topoisomerase I-DNA inhibitor alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) from various parts of Nothapodytes foetida (N. foetida) collected from the month of October to February. Methods: The content of CPT was quantified in the methanolic extract of various parts of N. foetida using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantification was performed with the regression analysis and the method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results: The results revealed that maximum concentrations of camptothecin were found in root (2.62%) collected in the month of February followed by fruits (January, 1.22%), stem (January, 0.81%) and leaves (February, 0.70%). Roots were found to have 3-fold higher concentration of CPT than the leaves and stem, while the fruits showed 2-fold higher concentration. Maximum concentration of camptothecin in fruits was observed in month of January, when they were not fully mature, which was 2-fold higher than that of young and fully mature fruits. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the synthesis of CPT differs in different parts of N. foetida and the content varies periodically.
    11  Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice
    Farhadul Islam Hasina Khatun Soby Ghosh MM Ali JA Khanam
    2012(5):394-398. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60063-X
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 688.29 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results: EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions: The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches.
    12  In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens
    Ruban P Gajalakshmi K
    2012(5):399-403. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60064-1
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 673.81 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results: The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions: The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.
    13  Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea Roxb.
    Prakash Chandra Gupta Nisha Sharma Ch V Rao
    2012(5):404-408. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60065-3
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](84)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile of leaves and stem of Careya arborea (C. arborea) Roxb. (Lecthyidaceae), an important medicinal plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Leaf and stem samples of C. arborea were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, broadly obovate in shape, acuminate apex with crenate, dentate margin, petioles (0.1-1.8 cm) long. Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of median large size vascular bundle covered with fibrous bundle sheath, arrangement of xylem in cup shape and presence of cortical vascular bundle, patches of sclerenchyma, phloem fibers in groups and brown pigment containing cells in stem are some of the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. Powder microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem with pitted vessels and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy and fluorescence analysis. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, swelling index, extractive values and ash values were also determined and results showed that total ash of the stem bark was about two times higher than leaf and water soluble extractive value of leaf and stem bark was two times higher than alcohol soluble extractive value. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
    14  Abdominal lymphadenopathy: An atypical presentation of enteric fever
    Nayla Ahmed Zeb I Saeed Muhammad Tariq
    2012(5):409-410. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60066-5
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 590.93 K](72)
    Abstract:
    This is a case report of a patient who presented to the Aga Khan University Hospital with generalized abdominal lymphadenopathy and high-grade fever. Due to ambiguous clinical findings, which were suggestive of either abdominal tuberculosis, or a lymphoma, the patient was started on empirical anti-tuberculous treatment due to the endemicity of tuberculosis in this region. The blood culture reports, however, were reported to grow colonies of Salmonella paratyphi A; thus the diagnosis of the patient was changed to enteric fever, and the patient improved on the subsequently started therapy of ceftriaxone 2 000 mg bid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient suffering from enteric fever whose primary clinical findings were abdominal lymphadenopathy and fever.
    15  Diabetes mellitus: An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity
    Patel DK Kumar R Laloo D Hemalatha S
    2012(5):411-420. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60067-7
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 750.45 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

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