Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 6,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Incidence and histopathology of encysted progenetic metacercaria of Clinostomum complanatum (Digenea: Clinostomidae) in Channa punctatus and its development in experimental host
    PA Ahammed Shareef SMA Abidi
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 625.18 K](75)
    Objective: To study the incidence of encysted progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum (C. complanatum) in Channa punctatus (C. punctatus), associated histopathology and the experimental infection to laboratory chicken to obtain ovigerous adult worms. Methods: Live C. punctatus were brought from local fish market of Aligarh, India, dissected and examined on a monthly basis for the presence of C. complanatum cysts. For histochemistry, infected tissue sections with attached cysts were processed for haematoxylene and eosin staining. Cysts were aseptically fed to 4 day old leghorn chicken to obtain adult worms. Mechanically excysted metacercaria and the ovigerous adult worms were stained in carmine to prepare permanent slides. Results: One year survey for the infection of encysted progenetic metacercaria of C. complanatum in C. punctatus revealed the prevalence, intensity and abundance of 24.7%, 2.27 and 0.608, respectively. Histopathology showed heavy infiltration of immune cells at the site of cyst attachment and some tissue damage was also evident. Following feeding to experimental chicken, about 41.07% of the encysted metacercariae were able to excyst and migrate back to bucco-pharyngeal region where they tenaciously attached and fed on blood, and transformed into ovigerous adult worms from 62 hours onwards of post infection. Conclusions: The parasite is potentially pathogenic to the host, and the availability of a suitable intermediate host can be a contributing factor for the occurrence of C. complanatum metacercaria either in the excysted or encysted form, indicating loose host specificity and zoonotic potential.
    2  In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba
    Shahbudin Saad Muhammad Taher Deny Susanti Haitham Qaralleh Anis Fadhlina Izyani Bt Awang
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 245.31 K](77)
    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba). Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods against six microorganisms. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction with a series of solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in sequence of increasing polarity. Results: Methanol extract appeared to be the most effective extract while n-hexane extract showed no activity. The antimicrobial activities were observed against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans appeared to be not sensitive to the concentrations tested since no inhibition zone was observed. E. coli (17.5 mm) appeared to be the most sensitive strain followed by S. aureus (12.5 mm) and B. cereus (12.5 mm). Conclusions: From this study, it can be concluded that S. alba exhibits antimicrobial activities against certain microorganisms.
    3  Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina
    Ezeigbo II Ezeja MI Madubuike KG Ifenkwe DC Ukweni IA Udeh NE Akomas SC
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 248.16 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods: Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in intestinal weight and fluid volume. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to diphenoxylate Hcl (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusions: The results show that the extract of R. serpentina leaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.
    4  Immunomodulatory activity of butanol fraction of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. on Balb/C mice
    Satnam Singh Yadav CPS Malleshappa N Noolvi
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 240.55 K](79)
    Objective: To explore the immunomodulatory properties of 80% ethanol extract and butanol fraction of Gentiana olivieri (G. olivieri) Griseb on Balb/C mice. Methods: The study was performed with basic models of immunomodulation such as the humoral antibody response (hemoglutination antibody titres), cell mediated immune response (delayed type hypersensitivity and in vivo carbon clearance or phagocytosis). Ethanol (80%) extract of flowering aerial parts of G. olivieri and its butanol fraction were administered p.o. (orally) to the mice. Levamisole, 2.5 mg/kg was used as standard drug. Results: There was a potentiation of immune response to sheep red blood cells by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms comparable to levamisole (2.5 mg/kg) by both 80% ethanol extract and the butanol fraction at doses of 50-200 mg/kg in male Balb/C mice. Both significantly (P<0.01) potentiated the humoral immune response in cyclophosphamide (250 mg/kg) immunosupressed mice at 100 and 200 mg/kg of each extract and fraction as compared to control. The potentiation of delayed type hypersensitivity response was statistically significant (P<0.01) at 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract and 100, 200 mg/kg of butanol fraction as compared to control. The phagocytosis was significant at 200 mg/kg with butanol fraction of G. olivieri. Conclusions: The results reveal the immunostimulant effects of plant G. olivieri in mice by acting through cellular and humoral immunity in experimental models of immunity in mice. Butanol fraction is the most effective at a dose level of 200 mg/kg.
    5  In vivo anticancer activity of vanillin semicarbazone
    Shaikh M Mohsin Ali M Abul Kalam Azad Mele Jesmin Shamim Ahsan M Mijanur Rahman Jahan Ara Khanam M Nazrul Islam Sha M Shahan Shahriar
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 335.41 K](83)
    Objective: To evaluate the anticancer activity of vanillin semicarbazone (VSC) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: The compound VSC at three doses (5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered into the intraperitoneal cavity of the EAC inoculated mice to observe its efficiency by studying the cell growth inhibition, reduction of tumour weight, enhancement of survival time as well as the changes in depleted hematological parameters. All such parameters were also studied with a known standard drug bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg/ kg (i.p.). Results: Among the doses studied, 10 mg/kg (i.p.) was found to be quite comparable in potency to that of bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). The host toxic effects of VSC was found to be negligible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that VSC can therefore be considered as potent anticancer agent.
    6  Effect of morin, a flavonoid against DOCA-salt hypertensive rats: a dose dependent study
    Prahalathan P Kumar S Raja B
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 426.99 K](80)
    Objective: To determine the protective effect of morin, a flavonoid against deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Methods: Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized rats by weekly twice subcutaneous injection of DOCA (25 mg/ kg bw) and 1% NaCl in the drinking water for six consecutive weeks. Effect of morin against DOCA-salt induced hypertension was evaluated by measuring blood pressure and performing biochemical estimations and histopathological examination of renal tissues. Results: DOCA-salt hypertensive rats showed considerably increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum hepatic marker enzyme activities such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine) in plasma. Oral administration of morin (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw) brought back all the above parameters to near normal level. Histopathology of kidney also confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. The effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw of morin was more pronounced than that of the other two doses (25 and 75 mg/ kg bw). Conclusions: These findings indicate that morin exhibits strong antihypertensive effect against DOCA-salt induced hypertension.
    7  Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract
    Tebekeme Okoko Diepreye Ere
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 306.23 K](78)
    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results: Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions: The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.
    8  Evaluation of antihepatotoxic potential of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against antitubercular drugs induced hepatopathy in experimental rodents
    Talib Hussain Ramesh K Gupta Sweety K Mohd Sajid Khan Md Sarfaraj Hussain Md Arif Arshad Hussain Md Faiyazuddin Chandana Venkateswara Rao
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 419.32 K](75)
    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum (S. xanthocarpum) fruit extract against antitubercular drug-induced liver toxicity in experimental animals. Methods: Ethanolic (50%) fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) was administered daily for 35 days in experimental animals. Liver toxicity was induced by combination of three antitubercular drugs [isoniazid (I) 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin (R) 10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide (P) 35 mg/ kg] given orally as suspension for 35 days in rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), total bilirubin (TBL), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), lactate dehydroginase (LDH), and serum cholesterol (CHL). Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in rat liver homogenate. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination. Results: The results demonstrated that treatment with S. xanthocarpum significantly (P<0.05-P<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, S. xanthocarpum significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the LPO in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that S. xanthocarpum attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of S. xanthocarpum against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.
    9  Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis
    Okokon Jude E Antia Bassey S Udobang John A
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 258.93 K](74)
    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: A. djalonensis root extract/ fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.
    10  Microbiological assessment of indoor air of a teaching hospital in Nigeria
    Awosika SA Olajubu FA Amusa NA
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 256.10 K](86)
    Objective: To investigate the quality of indoor air of different wards and units of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, to ascertain their contribution to infection rate in the hospital. Methods: The microbial quality of indoor air of nine wards/units of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria was conducted. Sedimentation technique using open Petri-dishes containing different culture media was employed and samplings were done twice daily, one in the morning shortly after cleaning and before influx of people/patients into the wards/units and the other in the evening when a lot of activities would have taken place in these wards. Isolates were identified according to standard methods. Results: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.016 7) in the bacteria population of the different sampling time whereas it was not so for fungi population (χ2 = 0.285 7). Male medical ward (MMW) and male surgical general (MSG) recorded the highest bacterial and fungal growth while the operating theatre (OT) was almost free of microbial burden. The bacteria isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marscences while the fungi isolates included Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., Candida albicans and Alternaria sp. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominantly isolated bacterium while Penicillium sp. was the most isolated fungus. Conclusions: Though most of the microbial isolates were potential and or opportunistic pathogens, there was no correlation between the isolates in this study and the surveillance report of nosocomial infection during the period of study, hence the contribution of the indoor air cannot be established. From the reduction noticed in the morning samples, stringent measures such as proper disinfection and regular cleaning, restriction of patient relatives’ movement in and out of the wards/units need to be enforced so as to improve the quality of indoor air of our hospital wards/units.
    11  Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment
    Valli S Suvathi Sugasini S Aysha OS Nirmala P Vinoth Kumar P Reena A
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 292.72 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Methods: Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. Results: All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes.
    12  Diversity and frequency of Nocardia spp. in the soil of Isfahan province, Iran
    Kachuei R Emami M Mirnejad R Khoobdel M
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 321.94 K](78)
    Objective: To isolate and identify Nocardia spp. from soil in different regions of Isfahan province in the center of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in 32 districts (16 cities and 16 villages) in Isfahan province during two years. A total of 800 soil samples from these regions were studied by using kanamycin. The isolated Nocardia species were examined by gram and acid-fast staining and were identified biochemically and morphologically. The frequency and distribution of Nocardia spp. were determined in relation to different factors such as soil pH and temperate climate. Results: From 153 (19.1%) Nocardia isolates identified, Nocardia asteroids (N. asteroids) complex (45.5%) and Nocardia brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis) (24.7%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (2.2%), Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura actinomadura (each 1.7%) and Nocardia transvalensis (1.1%) and also unknown spp. (23.0%). In this study, most species (54.4%) of Nocardia, especially N. asteroides complex were isolated from soils with pH: 7.01-8, whereas in pH: 8.01-9 more N. brasiliensis was isolated. The most Nocardia spp. was detected from regions with semi-nomadic and temperate climate (41.1%). Conclusions: N. asteroids complex is more prevalent in Isfahan province and soil can be a potential source of nocardiosis infections. It is to be considering that climate and soil pH are involved in the frequency and diversity of aerobic Actinomycetes.
    13  Association of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs use with expression of cag A and cag T genes of Helicobacter pylori in salivary samples of asymptomatic subjects
    Pinaki Ghosh Subhash Laxmanrao Bodhankar
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 321.43 K](80)
    Objective: To determine the association of smoking, alcohol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use with presence and virulence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in a representative sample of a random adult population of asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Non virulent 16S rRNA and virulent cag A and T genes from salivary samples of 854 asymptomatic subjects were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The presence and absence of virulent and non virulent infection was statistically compared with consumption of smoking, alcohol and NSAIDs. Results: The prevalence of infection in male and female subjects was found to be 69.25% and 66.90%, respectively. The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows: current (31.22%), former (52.20%) and never (43.58%). The prevalence of infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows: current (88.80%), former (57.14%) and never (33.33%). The prevalence of infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 82.75% and 21.16%, respectively. Virulence in male and female subjects was found to be 60.00% and 50.00%, respectively. The presence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to consumption of alcohol was as follows: current (28.57%), former (40.15%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the population of asymptomatic subjects with respect to smoking of cigarettes was as follows: current (79.32%), former (75.00%) and never (50.00%). The prevalence of virulent infection in the subject population consuming NSAIDs and not consuming NSAIDs frequently was found to be 88.23% and 66.66%, respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that smoking and NSAIDs consumption are aggravating factors for virulence of H. pylori and alcohol can inhibit H. pylori infection in asymptomatic subjects.
    14  Infections and inequalities: anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty
    Lucia Gonzalez Celeste Seley Julieta Martorano Isabella Garcia-Moreno Alcides Troncoso
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 237.29 K](78)
    Objective: To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods: A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results: Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000 1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8 000 calories per day. Conclusions: The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.
    15  First survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties, Iran
    Masoomeh Shemshad Khadijeh Shemshad Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat Majid Shokri Alireza Barmaki Mojgan Baniardalani Javad Rafinejad
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.13 K](76)
    Objective: To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods: Nearly about 2 638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results: The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan’s livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions: The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken.
    16  Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats
    Osonuga IO Osonuga OA Osonuga A Onadeko AA Osonuga AA
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 231.19 K](77)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of short term artemether administration on some blood parameters in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Sixty five albino rats with body weight of 190-220 g were used for the four-phased study. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. The first-four groups of 15 rats were further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats. The drug was administered orally at sub-optimal, therapeutic, and high doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw, respectively to the rats for 1 day, 2 days and 3 days. Blood samples were collected by cardio-puncture from the rats for hematology at the end of each phase. The last group served as control, and they were given water ad libitum. Results: Artemether caused significant reduction (P<0.05) of the hematological profile of the animals in a dose dependent manner. Discontinuation of the drug use however showed gradual recovery of the depressed indices of the blood parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that artemether can induce reversible changes in hematological profiles of rats by extension man. This can probably aggravate anemia when artemether is administered to malaria patients. Hence, the study supports the use of the drug with caution especially in patients prone to anemic tendencies.
    17  Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans
    W Sylvester Fredrick S Ravichandran
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 323.50 K](77)
    This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs.
    18  A child with Erysipelothrix arthritis-beware of the little known
    Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay Hitesh Shah KE Vandana Frenil Munim Sandeep Vijayan
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 228.12 K](79)
    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an established animal pathogen while the zoonotic infections in humans are rarely reported. Infections occur after exposure to animals or animal products that are mostly occupational in adults. Here we report in a child for the first time septic arthritis and osteomyelitis without an identifiable risk factor. A 5-year-old male child was admitted with pain in the left hip joint and inability to bear weight on the limb. Clinical examination followed by radiological and magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of septic arthritis. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae grew from peroperative joint specimen. The infection was resolved following arthrotomy, joint lavage and antibiotic therapy.

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