Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2012 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.
    Apurba Sarker Apu Mahmuda Sultana Liza A.T.M. Jamaluddin Md. Amran Howlader Repon Kumer Saha Farhana Rizwan Nishat Nasrin
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 322.56 K](72)
    Objective: To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods: The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results: The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 μg/disc. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.
    2  Effect of germicidal UV-C light(254 nm) on eggs and adult of house dustmites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Astigmata: Pyroglyhidae)
    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah Raja Noor Azreen Raja Musa Ho Tze Ming
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 424.35 K](80)
    Objective: To examined the immediate and 24 hours post- irradiation germicidal effects of UV-C lamp on eggs and adults of house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae). Methods: This study investigated the immediate and 24 hours post irradiation mortalities of adult mites exposed to UV-C at different exposure times (5 mins, 10 mins, 15 mins, 20 mins, 30 mins and 60 mins) and distances (10 cm, 25 cm, 35 cm, 45 cm and 55 cm). Fresh eggs of the 2 dust mites were also irradiated at 10, 35 and 55 cm for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 minutes, and observed daily post- irradiation for up to 7 days. Results: Highest immediate mortality of 100% occurred with direct irradiation at 10 cm distance from UV-C lamp and for 60 mins, for both species of mites. The post 24 hours mean mortality rates were (58.4±17.4)% for D. pteronyssinus and (27.7±9.7)% for D. farinae when irradiated for 1 hour at 55 cm distance under UV-C lamp. When mites were irradiated in the presence of culture media, the highest mortality rates were lower compared to the direct irradiation; at 10 cm distance and 60 mins exposure, the mean mortality was (74.0±6.8)% for D. pteronyssinus and (70.3±6.7)% for D. farinae. Egg hatchability for both species of mites was also notably reduced by greater than 50% following irradiation. Conclusions: Ultraviolet C irradiation is lethal to an array of organisms by damaging their nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). This study demonstrates the increasing mite mortalities with increasing exposure times and decreasing distances.
    3  Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats
    Ramaiyan Dhanapal J.Vijaya Ratna I. Sarathchandran Malaya Gupta
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 316.44 K](75)
    Objective: To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods: Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results: Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ∆5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions: The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive.
    4  Protective effect of aqueous extract of Feronia elephantum correa leaves on thioacetamide induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats
    Prashant Sharma Subhash L Bodhankar Prasad A Thakurdesai
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 314.62 K](70)
    Objective: To evalueate hepatoprotective effects Feronia elephantum (F. elephantum) correa against thioacetamide (TA) induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were made diabetic with alloxan (160 mg/kg) on day 0 of the study. They were intoxicated with hepatotoxicant (thioacetamide, 300 mg/kg, ip) on day 9 of study to produce liver necrosis. Effects of 7 day daily once administration (day 2 to day 9) of EF (400 and 800 mg/kg, po) were evaluated on necorosis of liver in terms of mortality, liver volume, liver weight, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), and histopathology of liver sections (for signs of necorosis and inflammation) on day-9 of the study. Separate groups of rats with treated only with alloxan (DA control), thioacetamide (TA control) and both (TA+DA control) were maintained. Results: FE significantly lowered the mortality rate and showed improvement in liver function parameters in TA-induced diabetic rats without change in liver weight, volume and serum glucose levels. Conclusions: FE showed promising activity against TA-induced liver necorsis in diabetic rats and so might be useful for prevention of liver complications in DM.
    5  Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism
    Neeraj Verma G Amresh PK Sahu Ch V Rao Anil Pratap Singh
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 418.36 K](73)
    Objective: To explore and identify the most potent antihyperglycemic fraction from the ethanol extract of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) flowers. Methods: Normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were treated with all four fractions of R. arboreum flowers for short term and with fraction 3 for long term study. On completion of the treatment, a range of indicators were tested including fasting blood glucose, plasma protein, haemoglobin A1C, insulin secretion, body weight, blood lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver. Results: In short term study, the fraction 3 (Active fraction) produced a significant (P<0.000 1) reduction (73.6%) in blood glucose level at a dose of 200 mg/kg after the treatment in the diabetic rats. Administration of active fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) once daily for 30 d in streptozotocin diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P<0.001 to P<0.000 1) fall in blood glucose level, hemoglobin A1C, serum urea and creatinine with significant but a increase in insulin level similar to standard drug glybenclamide. Further, the active fraction showed antihyperlipidemic activity as evidenced by significant (P<0.001 to P<0.000 1) decreases in serum serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density cholesterol levels coupled together with elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic rats. Conclusions: The active fraction of R. arboreum flowers decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by promoting insulin secretion and glycolysis and by decreasing gluconeogenesis.
    6  Elevated alanine aminotransferase activity is not associated with dyslipidemias, but related to insulin resistance and higher disease grades in non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Mohammad Ebrahim Ghamar-Chehreh Mohsen Amini Hossein Khedmat Seyed Moayed Alavian Fatemeh Daraei Reza Mohtashami Reza Hadi Bent-Al-Hoda Beyram Saeed Taheri
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 279.85 K](68)
    Objective: To explore demographic and metabolic factors associated with increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Methods: Overall 372 patients who consecutively attended to Gastroenterology Clinic of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran awere diagnosed as NAFLD entered into analysis. Exclusion criteria were having diabetes mellitus and fasting blood glucose over 126 mg/dL, active hepatitis B virus infection, having hepatitis C virus positive serology, and to be under corticosteroid therapy. ALT levels were considered pathologically high when it was over 30 IU/L for men and over 19 IU/L for women. Results: Bivariate analyses using t test and chi-square test showed that patients with pathologically augmented ALT levels had significantly higher NAFLD grades in their ultrasonographic evaluations (P=0.003). Moreover, these patients represented significantly higher homeostatic model assessment levels (P=0.003), levels of serum insulin (P=0.002), fasting blood glucose (P<0.001), and uric acid (P=0.02). The prevalence of insulin resistance was also higher in patients with increased serum ALT concentrations. Multifactorial logistic regression models showed that ultrasonographic grading of NAFLD (P=0.027) and insulin resistance (P=0.013) were the only variables significantly associated with abnormal ALT levels. Conclusions: This study shows that the associations of increased ALT serum levels in NAFLD patients are different from what are supposed before. By excluding diabetic patients from our population, we find that increased ALT levels are not associated with dyslipidemias but are independently associated with insulin resistance and NAFLD grading on ultrasonographic evaluations. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.
    7  Evaluation of aqueous and ethanol extract of bioactive medicinal plant, Cassia didymobotrya (Fresenius) Irwin & Barneby against immature stages of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Raja Nagappan
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 355.58 K](81)
    Objective: To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The wide range concentration tested in the present study was 10 000, 1 000, 100, 10 and 1 mg/L and narrow range concentration was 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Results: 2nd instar larvae exposed to 100 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract showed 100% mortality. Remaining stages such as 3rd, 4th and pupa, 100% mortality was observed at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration after 24 h exposure period. In aqueous extract all the stages 100% mortality was recorded at 1 000 mg/L and above concentration. In narrow range concentration 2nd instar larvae 100% mortality was observed at 150 mg/L and above concentration of ethanol extract. The remaining stages 100% mortality was recorded at 250 mg/L. In aqueous extract all the tested immature stages 100% mortality was observed at 250 mg/L concentration after 24 h exposure period. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. Conclusions: From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.
    8  Cytotoxic (A549) and antimicrobial effects of Methylobacterium sp. isolate (ERI-135) from Nilgiris forest soil, India
    Balachandran C Duraipandiyan V Ignacimuthu S
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 291.01 K](78)
    Objective: To assess the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Methylobacterium sp. isolated from soil sample of Doddabetta forest, Nilgiris, Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Isolation of Methylobacterium was performed from soils by serial dilution plate technique. The strain was grown in modified nutrient gulucose agar (MNGA) medium to study the morphology and biochemical characteristics. Methylobacterium sp. was screened for its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The strain was subjected to 16S rRNA analysis and was identified as Methylobacterium sp. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate exhibited close similarity with other Methylobacterium sp. and has been submitted to Genbank. The antibacterial substances were extracted using chloroform and ethyl acetate from MNGA medium in which ERI-135 had grown for 5 d at 30 ℃. Cytotoxic effect was also studied. GC-MS analysis was carried out. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Results: Ethyl acetate extract showed activity against bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureu and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and fungi such as, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were: 250 μg/mL against S. epidermidis and 250μg/mL against K. pneumonia. The isolate had the ability to produce enzymes such as protease. The exyract showed cytotoxic effect in human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (A549). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of isovaleric acid (3.64%), 2-Methylbutanoic acid (5.03%), isobutyramide (5.05%), N,N-oimethylformamide-di-t-butylacetal (9.79%), benzeneacetamide (15.56%), octyl butyl phthalate (3.59%) and diisooctyl phthalate (5.79) in the extract. Conclusions: Methylobacterium sp. (ERI-135) showed promising antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. This is the first report in the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of Methylobacterium sp.
    9  In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L.
    E. Christy Jeyaseelan P.T. Justin Jashothan
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 317.47 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity of hot and cold ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis L (R. communis) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC 25922). Methods: Leaf powder of R. communis L. was extracted with hot (in Soxhlet) and cold ethanol and methanol, separately. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution methods. The extracts were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. Results: All the four test extracts showed inhibition on both S. aureus and E. coli. Hot and cold ethanol extracts revealed significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition on S. aureus than methanol extracts, and the hot ethanol extract had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively). E. coli was highly inhibited by hot extracts of both ethanol and methanol with the MIC and MBC of 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in all test extracts. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the hot and cold methanol and ethanol extracts are potential sources for control of S. aureus and E. coli. Especially, the hot and cold extracts of ethanol are more inhibitive against S. aureus even at lower concentration. Further study is needed to identify the specific bioactive compounds, their mode of action and their nontoxic nature in vivo condition.
    10  Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum L. Schott
    Khadem Ali Ayesha Ashraf Nripendra Nath Biswas
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 355.40 K](81)
    Objective: To explore the efficacy of ethanolic leaf extract of Typhonium trilobatum L. Schott in treating diarrhea, pain and inflammation using experimental models. Methods: In the present study, acetic acid-induced writhing, xylene-induced ear edema and castor oil-induced diarrheal model were used to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities, respectively. Acute toxicity test was carried out to fix the safe doses of the plant extract. Results: The plant extract demonstrated a significant inhibition of writhing (P<0.01) compared with the control group in acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The extract also significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema formation (P<0.05). In anti-diarrheal test, the extract significantly decreased the frequency of defecation and increased the mean latent period (P<0.01) in castor oil-induced diarrheal model mice at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Conclusions: These results suggest that the extract possesses significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal activities that support to the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.
    11  Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria
    Kazeem MI Akanji MA Hafizur Rahman M Choudhary MI
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 371.16 K](76)
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antiglycation potential of polyphenols from three spices; alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg. Methods: Polyphenol extracts of these spices were subjected to brine-shrimp lethality assay, phytotoxicity test, DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging as well as BSA-glucose antiglycation assay. Results: Results obtained showed that polyphenol extract of ginger has the highest antioxidant potential with IC50 0.075 and 0.070 mg/mL for DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay while alligator pepper displayed highest antiglycation activity with IC50 0.125 mg/mL. However, nutmeg extract exhibited weakest cytotoxic and phytotoxic potential with LD50 4359.70 and 1490 μg/mL respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential and are safe for consumption.
    12  Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities by ethanolic extract of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) leaf
    G Oboh AJ Akinyemi AO Ademiluyi
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.45 K](71)
    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Telfairia occidentalis Hook f. (Curcubitaceae) (T. occidentalis) leaf on key enzyme linked to type-2 diabetes (α - amylase and α - glucosidase) as well as assess the effect of blanching (a commonly practiced food processing technique) of the vegetable on these key enzymes. Methods: Fresh leaves of T. occidentalis were blanched in hot water for 10 minutes, and the extracts of both the fresh and blanched vegetables were prepared and used for subsequent analysis. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α - amylase and α - glucosidase activities as well as some antioxidant parameter was determined in vitro. Results: The result revealed that unprocessed T. occidentalis leaf reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ and also inhibited α - amylase and α - glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, blanching of the leafy vegetables caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the antioxidant properties but decrease their ability to inhibit α - amylase and α - glucosidase activities. Conclusions: This antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibition could be part of the mechanism by which they are used in the treatment/prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, the blanched vegetable reduces their ability to inhibit both α - amylase and α - glucosidase activity in vitro.
    13  Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
    Bachir Raho G Benali M
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 281.50 K](74)
    Objective: To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus). Methods: The essential oils of this plant were obtained by the hydrodistillation method. The inhibitory effects of this essential oil were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) by using agar disc diffusion and dilution broth methods. Results: The results obtained showed that essential oil of the leaves of E. globulus has antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria (E. coli) as well as gram positive bacteria (S. aureus). Conclusion: The encouraging results indicate the essential oil of E. globulus leaves might be exploited as natural antibiotic for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these two germs, and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medicines.
    14  Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.
    Bharat Gami Smita Pathak Minoo Parabia
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 308.37 K](74)
    Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi.
    15  Indications of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice- Review
    C Ramu TV Padmanabhan
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 288.08 K](71)
    Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice.
    16  Dengue related maculopathy and foveolitis
    Jaafar Juanarita Mohd Noor Raja Azmi Yaakub Azhany Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 296.17 K](66)
    A 24 year-old Malay lady presented with high grade fever, myalgia, generalized rashes, severe headache and was positive for dengue serology test. Her lowest platelet count was 45 × 109 cells/ L. She complained of sudden onset of painlessness, profound loss of vision bilaterally 7 days after the onset of fever. On examination, her right eye best corrected vision was 6/30 and left eye was 6/120. Her anterior segment examination was unremarkable. Funduscopy revealed there were multiple retinal haemorrhages found at posterior pole of both fundi and elevation at fovea area with subretinal fluid. Systemic examination revealed normal findings except for residual petechial rashes. She was managed conservatively. Her vision improved tremendously after 2 months. The retinal hemorrhages and foveal elevation showed sign of resolving. Ocular manifestations following dengue fever is rare. However, bilateral visual loss can occur if both fovea are involved.

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