Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh
    M. Obayed Ullah Mahmuda Haque Kaniz Fatima Urmi Abu Hasanat Md. Zulfiker Elichea Synthi Anita Momtaj Begum Kaiser Hamid
    2013(1):1-7.
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 752.54 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods: The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results: All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains(zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6- 21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents.
    2  Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. (Phaeophyta, Sargassaceae) collected from Gulf of Mannar
    Kajal Chakraborty Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen Kodayan Kizekadath Vijayan Gonugontla Syda Rao
    2013(1):8-16.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.53 M](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of brown seaweeds belonging to Turbinaria spp. [Turbinaria conoides (T. conoides) and Turbinaria ornata (T. ornata) collected from Gulf of Mannar of southeastern coast of India in various in vitro systems. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS), H2O2/HO radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE)/g of the seaweed extracts. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts to inhibit lipid oxidation. Results: Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. conoides registered significantly higher phenolic content (105.97 mg GE/g) than that of T. ornata (69.63 mg GE/g). Significantly higher antioxidant potential as determined by DPPH (64.14%) radical scavenging activity was registered in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata. A higher ABTS.+ radical scavenging (IC50 3.16 µg/mL), Fe2+ chelating (IC50 0.46 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging (IC50 4.25 mg/mL), lipid peroxidation inhibitory (TBARS, IC50 0.21 mg/mL), and reducing abilities (IC50 52.67 mg/mL) (P<0.05) were realized in EtOAc fraction of T. ornata than other fractions. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential use of T. conoides and T. ornata as candidate species to be used as food supplements/functional foods to increase shelf-life of food items for human consumption, and nutraceuticals to deter deleterious free radical-induced life-threatening diseases.
    3  Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower
    Muhamad Firdaus Asep Awaludin Prihanto Rahmi Nurdiani
    2013(1):17-21.
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 717.79 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius (A. ilicifolius). Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test. Results: A. ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid, phenolic compounds, and alkaloid. The methanol extract of A. ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency (AE=1.41×10-3) against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity (LC50=22 μg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii. Conclusions: It is suggested that active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii. The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy.
    4  Antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of Satureja khozestanica essential oil on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO4 in vitro
    Shahrokh Bagheri Hassan Ahmadvand Ali Khosrowbeygi Farshid Ghazanfari Narges Jafari Habibolah Nazem Reza Haji Hosseini
    2013(1):22-27.
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 884.29 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess various antioxidative activities of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE) and its effect on oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by CuSO4 in vitro by monitoring the formation of conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde (MDA). Methods: The formation of conjugated dienes, lag time and MDA were measured. Inhibition of this Cu-induced oxidation was studied in the presence of several concentrations of SKE. Also total antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging of SKE were determinated. Results: It was demonstrated that SKE was able to inhibit LDL oxidation and decrease the resistance of LDL against oxidation. The inhibitory effects of SKE on LDL oxidation were dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 μg/mL. Total antioxidant capacity of SKE was (3.20±0.40) nmol of ascorbic acid equivalents/g SKE. The SKE showed remarkable scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl- picrylhydrazyl, IC50 (5.30±0.11) ng/mL. Conclusions: This study shows that SKE is a source of potent antioxidants and prevents the oxidation of LDL in vitro and it may be suitable for use in food and pharmaceutical applications.
    5  In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract
    Sridevi Muruhan Senthil Selvaraj Pugalendi Kodukkur Viswanathan
    2013(1):28-34.
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 933.87 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods: Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results: S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine.
    6  Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts
    Nabila Benariba Rabeh Djaziri Wafaa Bellakhdar Nacera Belkacem Marcel Kadiata Willy J. Malaisse Abdullah Sener
    2013(1):35-40.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 723.75 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2 000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.
    7  Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc
    Juan Ascacio-Valdés Edgardo Burboa Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo Mario Aparicio Ramón Pérez-Schmidt Raúl Rodríguez Cristóbal N Aguilar
    2013(1):41-46.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.18 M](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods: An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.
    8  Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms
    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb Toemsak Srikhirin Boonyanit Thaweboon Sroisiri Thaweboon Taweechai Amornsakchai Surachai Dechkunakorn Theeralaksna Suddhasthira
    2013(1):47-52.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 933.25 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.
    9  Effects of Ficus asperifolia on normal rat estrus cyclicity
    Esther Ngadjui Pierre Watcho Telesphore Benoit Nguelefack Albert Kamanyi
    2013(1):53-57.
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 894.51 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) (F. asperifolia) effecting on regular estrus cycle of Wistar rats. Methods: Air-dried fruits of F. asperifolia were extracted using water. Prior to the test, vaginal smear was monitored daily for a 3-week period to select females with normal (regular) estrous cycle. Those with regular estrus cycle weighing between 150-170 g were randomized into three sets of 15 animals each. Each set was then divided into three groups: Group 1 (control) was orally administered with distilled water (10 mL/kg body weight) once a day for 1 week starting from the proestrus stage. Groups 2 and 3 were respectively treated with 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the plant aqueous extract. The two other sets of 15 animals each were similarly treated as the first set for 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Estrus cycle pattern was monitored before and during plant extract application whereas lipid profile, ovary, uterus and liver growth indices were determined at the end of each treatment. Results: F. asperifolia did not disrupt (0%) the order of appearance of normal estrus cycle stages, namely, proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. Short-term treatment (1 week duration) exhibited high frequency of appearance of proestrus and estrus stages while mid- (3 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) treatments revealed constancy in the frequency of all stages irrespective to animal groups. The plasma and organ lipid profile, as well as ovary, uterus and liver growth remained unchanged when compared to distilled water-treated animals. Following long-term administration of plant extract (6 weeks), no adverse effect was noticed. Conclusions: Our data partially support the use of F. asperifolia in common medicine.
    10  Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract
    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed Thorria Radam Marzoog Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery Abdul Amir H. Kadhum Abu Bakar Mohamad
    2013(1):58-63.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 997.46 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Methods: Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/ mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV- vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose- dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.
    11  Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.
    Feroz Ahmad Nahida Tabassum
    2013(1):64-68.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.10 M](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result: Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions: The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.
    12  Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L
    Laila Salim Al Hashmi Mohammad Amzad Hossain Afaf Mohammed Weli Qasim Al-Riyami Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi
    2013(1):69-73.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.00 M](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.
    13  Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog
    Javad Javanbakht Abbas Tavassoli Atefeh Sabbagh Mehdy Aghamohammmad Hassan Shohreh Alian Samakkhah Radmehr Shafiee Ali Lakzian Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee Sonia Shoja Gharebagh
    2013(1):74-78.
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](73)
    Abstract:
    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70-5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9-90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L; reference interval, 5-60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5-55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2-12.4 mg/dL or 9.3-11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5-5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3-17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal sac of dogs.
    14  Pharmacognosy of Enicostemma littorale: A review
    Rajamani Saranya Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai Munisami Hemalatha Ranganathan Balaji Ernest David
    2013(1):79-84.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 721.13 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Traditional medicine system of India comprised varieties of plants which are playing a significant role in curing diseases from ancient times. Among them, Enicostemma littorale blume (E. littorale) a perennial herb of the family Gentianaceae is cosmopolitan in occurrence in India. The bittery natured plant acts as a laxative, helps in curing fever, rheumatism, skin diseases, abdominal disorders, snake bite, obesity and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. The plant constituents have been reported for possessing antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiinflammatory, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic properties. This review provides a bird’s eye view about geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of E. littorale.

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