Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Study on the antiulcer effects of Veronicastrum axillare on gastric ulcer in rats induced by ethanol based on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1)
    Yong Du Weichun Zhao Leilei Lu Jiayan Zheng Xishi Hu Zhehan Yu Lixin Zhu
    2013(12):925-930. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60180-X
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.23 M](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess whether Veronicastrum axillare (V. axillare) can ameliorate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats, reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suppress apoptosis and improve local microcirculation disturbances. Methods: Totally 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, eight rats in each group. Rats in the normal group and the model group were administered with 0.9% normal saline respectively. Rats in the positive group and ranitidine group were administered with 0.18% ranitidine suspension by intragastric administration respectively. Those in the high dose V. axillare group, the medium dose V. axillare group and the low dose V. axillare group were administrated with V. axillare at the daily dose of 2.8 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg and 0.7 g/kg by intragastric administration. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Water extract of V. axillare was successively injected for 14 d and last day was injected 1 h before ethanol administration. Gastric mucosal ulcer index and ulcer inhibitory rate were counted by improved Guth methods. The tissue sections were made for pathological histology analysis. Also, we measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in gastric mucosal, as an index of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and local microcirculation. Besides, the mRNA contents of TNF-α and ET-1 were measured to verify effects on gene expression by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results: Water extract of V. axillare significantly ameliorated the gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol administration (P<0.01). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and ET-1 were increased after ethanol administration and significantly reduced by water extract of V. axillare. The expressions of TNF-α and ET-1 mRNA were also be inhibited by water extract of V. axillare. Conclusion: Current evidences show water extract of V. axillare is effective for defending against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions, significantly inhibiting the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines and the expressions of TNF-α and ET-1 mRNA, which may be useful for inhibiting apoptosis and improving local microcirculation.
    2  Polymorphic patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar border
    Phunuch Muhamad Wanna Chaijaroenkul Papichaya Phompradit Ronnatrai Rueangweerayut Pongsri Tippawangkosol Kesara Na-Bangchang
    2013(12):931-935. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60181-1
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 921.08 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the distribution and patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) isolates collected from the malaria endemic area of Thailand along Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: Dried blood spot samples were collected from 172 falciparum malaria patients prior received treatment. The samples were extracted using chelex to obtain parasite DNA. PCR-RFLP was employed to detect pfcrt mutation at codons 76, 220, 271, 326, 356 and 371, and the pfmdr1 mutation at codon 86. Pfmdr1 gene copy number was determined by SYBR Green I real-time PCR. Results: Mutant alleles of pfcrt and wild type allele of pfmdr1 were found in almost all samples. Pfmdr1 gene copy number in isolates collected from all areas ranged from 1.0 to 5.0 copies and proportion of isolates carrying>1 gene copies was 38.1%. The distribution and patterns of pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations were similar in P. falciparum isolates from all areas. However, significant differences in both number of pfmdr1 copies and prevalence of isolates carrying>1 gene copies were observed among isolates collected from different areas. The median pfmdr1 copy number in P. falciparum collected from Kanchanaburi and Mae Hongson were 2.5 and 2.0, respectively and more than half of the isolates carried>1 gene copies. Conclusions: The observation of pfmdr1 wild type and increasing of gene copy number may suggest declining of artesunate-mefloquine treatment efficacy in P. falciparum isolates in this border area.
    3  Screening and characterization of extracelluar L-asparaginase producing Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88, isolated from Taptapani hotspring of Odisha, India
    Biswaprakash Pradhan Sashi K Dash Sabuj Sahoo
    2013(12):936-941. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60182-3
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.23 M](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To screen and isolate an eco-friendly, a thermophilic and potent L-asparaginase producing bacterium, with novel immunological properties that may obviates hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: In the present study bacterial strain isolated for extracellular L-asparaginase production from hotspring, identified by morphological, biochemical and physiological tests followed by 16S rDNA technology and the L-asparaginase production ability was tested by both semi quantitative and quantitative enzymatic assay. Result: The bacterial strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88 (GenBank Accession Number: JQ237656.1). The extracellular enzyme yielding capacity isolate Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88 (23.8 IU/mL) was found to be 1.7 and 14.5 times higher than the reference organism Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428 (14.2 IU/mL) and Bacillus sp. BCCS 034 (1.64 IU/mL). Conclusion: The isolate is eco-friendly and useful to produce bulk quantity of extracellular, thermophilic L-asparaginase for the treatment of various tumor cases and for preparation of acrylamide free fry food preparation.
    4  Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens
    Baby Joseph Berlina Dhas Vimalin Hena Justin Raj
    2013(12):942-946. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60183-5
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 893.02 K](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods: Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey’s manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results: The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions: Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens.
    5  Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb
    M Sreejith N Kannappan A Santhiagu Ajith P Mathew
    2013(12):947-953. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60184-7
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 747.83 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P<0.05) when compared with paralytic (7.33±0.206) and death time (18.60±0.229) of standard piperazine citrate at 100 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.
    6  Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.
    Halkare Suryanarayana Vasavi Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath Arun Punchapady Devasya Rekha
    2013(12):954-959. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60185-9
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](70)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods: In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results: EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions: This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum.
    7  Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties
    Shreya Mandal Arpita Patra Animesh Samanta Suchismita Roy Arpita Mandal Tapasi Das Mahapatra Shrabani Pradhan Koushik Das Dilip Kumar Nandi
    2013(12):960-966. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60186-0
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods: For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results: Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions: The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities.
    8  Pharmacological studies on Buchanania lanzan Spreng.-A focus on wound healing with particular reference to anti-biofilm properties
    Ashok Pattnaik Ratul Sarkar Amrita Sharma Kirendra Kumar Yadav Alekh Kumar Paramita Roy Avijit Mazumder Sanmoy Karmakar Tuhinadri Sen
    2013(12):967-974. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60187-2
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.28 M](70)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing activity of the methanolic root extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. (B. lanzan), with a focus on antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties. Methods: The extract was evaluated for its wound healing properties (excision and incision models) as evident from the analysis of tensile strength and wound contraction. The extract was also screened for antibacterial properties against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. B. lanzan was also studied for its effect on biofilm formation and disruption of preformed biofilms. The synergistic effect of B. lanzan was determined in combination with gentamicin. Results: Topical application of B. lanzan (10% w/w ointment) significantly increased (40.84%) the tensile strength in the incision wound model. B. lanzan also showed significant wound healing activity in excision model and such significant activity was observed from the 9th day. Whereas Soframycin displayed significant wound healing activity from the 6th day. It was found that root extracts of B. lanzan revealed significant inhibition against all tested pathogens. B. lanzan displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (MIC 0.625 mg/mL) and Gram negative (MIC 0.625-1.25 mg/mL). B. lanzan was able to reduce biofilm formation and also caused disruption of preformed biofilms in a manner similar to ciprofloxacin. However, gentamicin was found to be ineffective against biofilms formed by Gram negative organism. According to the fractional inhibitory concentration index, B. lanzan displayed synergistic activity when it was combined with gentamicin. Conclusions: From this study it may be concluded that the root extract of B. lanzan revealed significant wound healing potential, which was supported and well correlated with pronounced antibacterial activity of the tested plant parts.
    9  A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India
    Balayogan Sivasankari Subburaj Pitchaimani Marimuthu Anandharaj
    2013(12):975-979. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60188-4
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 757.10 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods: Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results: From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion: This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people.
    10  Control of human filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) through bioactive fraction of Cayratia trifolia leaf
    Sumanta Chakraborty Someshwar Singha Kuntal Bhattacharya Goutam Chandra
    2013(12):980-984. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60189-6
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 702.88 K](66)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the mosquito larvicidal activity of Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin (Vitaceae: Vitales) (C. trifolia) which is distributed in many parts of India with medicinal properties as vector control is facing threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Methods: Young and mature leaves of C. trifolia were investigated for larvicidal activity against 3rd instars larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in different seasons throughout the year. The active fractions were extracted using six different solvents in a non-polar to polar fashion viz petroleum- ether, benzene, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v), acetone, absolute alcohol and distilled water. Dose dependent mortality was recorded against each solvent extract. Determination of LD50 and LD90 were executed through log-probit analysis using the most bioactive fraction. The fluctuations in mortality were statistically co-related through ANOVA analyses concerning different seasons and types of leaves as random variables. Justification of larvicidal activity was established through student’s t-test. Costing effects were evaluated on the non-target water fauna under laboratory conditions. Thin layer chromatographic techniques were performed for phytochemical analysis and categorization of chemical personality of the active fractions using the most effective solvent extract following standard methods. Results: Significant variations in mortality rate were noted with respect to the type of leaves (mature and senescence), concentration of leaf extract and between seasons. The water extract among all the solvent extracts was found to induce cent percent mortality at 50 mg/L in test mosquito species within 24 h with a LD50 and LD90 value of 10.70 mg/L and 27.64 mg/L respectively. No significant mortality was recorded in non-target water population. Chromatographic analyses of the water extract revealed the presence of steroids, triterpene glycosides, essential oil, phenolics and diterpenes as secondary phytochemicals. Conclusions: Water extract of C. trifolia leaf promised as a cost effective and potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus.
    11  Chemical profiling of Elaeocarpus serratus L. by GC-MS
    DH Geetha M Rajeswari Jayashree Indhiramuthu
    2013(12):985-987. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60190-2
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 662.95 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the possible bioactive components of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Elaeocarpus serratus (E. serratus). Methods: The present research was carried out by using GC-MS analysis, while mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and Wiley library. Results: Thirty components from leaves of the above said plant were identified. The active principles with their retention time, molecular formula, molecular weight and concentration (%) in the ethanol extracts of leaf of E. serratus are obtained. Conclusions: This is the first report of documentation of active constituents from leaves of E. serratus. The research reveals the potential of E. serratus leaves as a good source of bioactive compounds such as fatty acid esters, alcohols, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkenes, fatty acids and amides that justify the use of this plant for its various ailments by traditional practitioners.
    12  Bacteriological and pathological studies of egg peritonitis in commercial layer chicken in Namakkal area
    Palani Srinivasan Gurusamypalayam Amirthalingam Balasubramaniam Thippichettipalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna Murthy Perumal Balachandran
    2013(12):988-994. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60191-4
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.39 M](68)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To detect the various bacteriological agents and pathological changes in commercial layer chicken affected with egg yolk peritonitis in Namakkal region of India. Methods: A total of 6 572 layer chicken from 85 commercial farms were subjected for the study, out of which 1 715 showed various types of oviduct abnormalities. Among the 1 715, 264 birds from six farms were identified as egg peritonitis on the basis of postmortem examination. Trachea, lung, heart blood, liver, peritoneal exudate, oviduct (infundibulum, magnum, uterus) and cloacal swabs were collected from the 264 birds with egg peritonitis lesion for screening of bacterial agents. Signalment, clinical signs and pathological changes were recorded in the affected flocks. Result: The results of the present investigation indicated that the E. coli associated egg peritonitis was responsible for 15.39% of the reproductive tract abnormalities in commercial layers between 21 and 80 week of age. In the affected flocks egg production drop and mortality varied from 3% to 20% and 0.5% to 7.0% respectively. It was noticed during peak egg production (21 to 60 week) and southwest monsoon season (58%). Statistical analysis of age, season and egg production by Chi square test of independence revealed highly significant difference. E. coli was isolated as a pure culture and concurrent with other bacterial agents in 226 and 38 birds respectively. Among the fifteen E. coli serotypes identified serotype O166, O64 and O111 were predominant. Necropsy examination of affected birds revealed the presence of amorphous or insipissiated yolk material in the abdominal cavity with inflammatory changes in the ovary, oviduct and intestine. Microscopically the oviduct surface epithelium showed degeneration and desquamation, moderate to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells especially heterophils and lymphocytes in various regions and lumen contained serofibrinous exudate, inflammatory and desquamated epithelial cells with bacterial microcolonies. Ovarian follicles revealed hyperemia, degeneration of granulosa cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Intestine showed degenerative, necrotic and inflammatory lesion. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the egg peritonitis might be caused by either the translocation of intestinal E. coli into the peritoneal cavity or by the movement of cloacal E. coli into the oviduct followed by ascension of these bacteria up the oviduct, through the infundibulum, and into the peritoneal cavity. To control the egg peritonitis faecal contamination with E. coli should be minimized.
    13  Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa
    Parthasarathy Govindasamy Bhaskar Reddy Kesavan Jayaveera Korlakunta Narasimha
    2013(12):995-1002. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60192-6
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.09 M](67)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods: Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results: The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions: The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine.
    14  Some ecological attributes of malarial vector Anopheles superpictus Grassi in endemic foci in southeastern Iran
    Jalil Nejati Hasan Vatandoost Mohammad Ali Oshghi Masud Salehi Ehssan Mozafari Seyed Hasan Moosa-Kazemi
    2013(12):1003-1008. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60193-8
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.18 M](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the bionomics and susceptibility status of the malarial vector Anopheles superpictus (An. superpictus) to different insecticides in the Sistan-Baluchestan province which has the highest malarial prevalence in Iran. Methods: Different sampling methods, in addition to scoring abdominal conditions, were used to define the seasonal activity and endo/exophilic behavior of this species. In addition, the standard WHO susceptibility tests were applied on adult field strains. Results: Most adult mosquitoes were collected from outdoor shelters. The peak of seasonal activity of An. superpictus occurred at the end of autumn. Most larvae were collected from natural and permanent breeding places with full sunlight and no vegetation. Blood feeding activities occurred around midnight. Compared with the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected indoors, the abdominal conditions of adult mosquitoes collected outdoors were gravid and semigravid. This species was suspected to be resistant to DDT, but was susceptible to other insecticides. Conclusions: An. superpictus was present in almost all outdoor shelters, and the ratios of gravid, semigravid/unfed, and freshly fed confirmed that this species had a higher tendency to rest outdoors than indoors. This behavior can protect An. superpictus from indoor residual spraying in this malarious area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the susceptibility status of An. superpictus in Southeastern Iran. We do not suggest the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying in southeast Iran.
    15  Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review
    Prasad G. Jamkhande Sonal R. Barde Shailesh L. Patwekar Priti S. Tidke
    2013(12):1009-1012. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60194-X
    [Abstract](37) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.44 M](78)
    Abstract:
    More than half of the world’s population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far.

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