Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  The first report of new species: Trichuris landak n. sp
    Endang Purwaningsih
    2013(2):85-88. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60029-5
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.76 M](125)
    Objective: To study nematode parasites morphology of Hystrix javanica (H. javanica), both through the feces and internal organs. Methods: Feces were observed by direct smear method, internal organs were observed after dissecting the host. Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with 70% warm alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Specimens for SEM examination were postfixed in cacodylate buffer and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated through a graded series of alcohol and freeze dried. The specimens were attached to stubs with double cello-tape, coated with gold and observed with a JSM5310 LV electron microscope. Figures were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to Olympus compound microscope, other figures were photographs of scanning electron microscope images. Measurements were given in micrometers as the mean followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results: The nematode species found in the intestine of H. javanica are Gireterakis girardi and a new species, Trihuris landak. The new species differs with previously reported species from Hystrix because of having stylet and short cervical alae. The pattern of bacillary band is closed to Trichuris trichiurus, the species that infect human, but differs because the surface of its vulva is not covered with densely spine. Conclusions: The species of nematodes found on H. javanica were Gireterakis girardi and a new species Trichuris landak n.sp. Those two species are newly recorded in Indonesia.
    2  Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia
    Freddie Masaninga Emmanuel Chanda Pascalina Chanda-Kapata Busiku Hamainza Hieronymo T Masendu Mulakwa Kamuliwo Wambinji Kapelwa John Chimumbwa John Govere Mac Otten Ibrahima Soce Fall Olusegun Babaniyi
    2013(2):89-94. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60030-1
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 912.97 K](149)
    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide- treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.
    3  Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros
    Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan Zainal Zahari Zainuddin Wahap Marni Abdul Hamid Ahmad Laurentius N. Ambu Junaidi Payne
    2013(2):95-99. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60031-3
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.23 M](128)
    Objective: To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Methods: Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was applied on to a Whatman FTAblood card. Subsequent laboratory work was conducted to extract, amplify and sequence the DNA from the sample. Validation was done by sampling the hair follicles and blood samples from the rhinoceros and subjecting it to the same laboratory process. Results: BLAST search and constructed phylogenetic trees confirmed the blood meal samples were indeed from the rhino. Conclusions: This method could be used in the field application to noninvasively collect genetic samples. Collection of tabanids and other haematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes and ticks) and other blood-sucking parasites (e.g. leeches and worms) could also provide information on vector-borne diseases.
    4  In vitro anthelminthic efficacy of Dichrocephala integrifolia (Asteraceae) extracts on the gastro-intestinal nematode parasite of mice: Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda, Heligmosomatidae)
    Wabo Poné J Payne V K Mbogning Tayo Gertrude Komtangi Marie Claire Yondo Jeannette Ngangout Alidou M Mpoame Mbida Bilong Bilong CF
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 731.53 K](140)
    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Dichrocephala integrifolia (D. integrifolia) against the eggs (fresh and embryonnated), the first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. In order to verify if this medicinal plant possesses active compounds capable of inhibiting the embryonation and hatching of eggs or to induce the mortality of larvae (L1 and L2). Methods: Dried extracts were diluted in distilled water to obtain five different concentrations: 625, 1250, 2500, 3750 and 5000 μg/mL. Fresh eggs obtained from artificially infected mice feces were exposed to these different concentrations for 48 h. Time of contact for embryonated eggs was 6 h while L1 and L2 larvae were exposed for 24 h. Distilled water (placebo) and 1.5% DMSO were used as negative controls. Results: Distilled water, and 1.5% DMSO had no effect on embryonation, hatching and larval survival. Aqueous extracts of D. integrifolia showed a weak activity against all stages of the parasite at all concentrations tested. On the contrary, the ethanolic extract of D. integrifolia inhibited the embryonation of 87.5% of fresh eggs, the hatching of 81.1% of embryonated eggs and induced the mortality of 98.1% and 98% of L1 and L2 larvae respectively at 5 000 μg/mL. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the ethanolic extracts of D. integrifolia contained compounds with ovicidal and larvicidal properties. In spite of these results, in vivo tests, studies on toxicity and mechanism of action of active compounds are also needed to validate the utilisation of this medicinal plant by population of Dschang-Cameroon to treat gastro-intestinal parasites.
    5  Hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced carcinogenesis in experimental mice
    Farhadul Islam Shaikh Mohummad Mohsin Ali Jahan Ara Khanam
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.03 M](130)
    Objective: To determine the hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone (ASC) in vivo in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Drug- induced changes in biochemical and behavioral parameters at dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 14 d and nullifying the toxicity induced by EAC cells were studied. The histopathology studies of the protective effects of ASC on vital organs were also assessed. Results: The administration of ASC made insignificant changes in body weight and behavioral (salivation, diarrhea, muscular numbness) changes during treatment period due to minor toxicity were minimized after the treatment in normal mice. The biochemical parameters, including serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloactate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and billirubin changed modestly in normal mice receiving ASC. Though the treatment continued, these values gradually decreased to normal level after the treatment. In EAC bearing mice, the toxic effects due to EAC cells in all cases were nullified by treatment with the ASC. Significant abnormalities were not detected in histology of the various organs of the normal mice treated with ASC. Conclusions: ASC can, therefore, be considered safe in formulating novel anticancer drug, as it exhibits strong protective effect against EAC cell bearing mice.
    6  Toxicity studies for indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Malang city, East Java on Aedes aegypti larvae
    Zulfaidah Penata Gama Nobukazu Nakagoshi Suharjono Faridah Setyowati
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.12 M](126)
    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) isolates from Malang City for controlling Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. Methods: Soil samples were taken from Purwantoro and Sawojajar sub-districts. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates were obtained with the simple matching method. The growth and prevalence of spores were determined by the Total Plate Count method, and toxicity tests were also performed on the third instar larval stage of Ae. aegypti. The percentage of larval mortality was analysed using probit regression. The LC50 was analysed by ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD interval was 95%. Results: Among the 33 selected bacterial isolates, six were obtained (PWR4-31, PWR4-32, SWJ4-2b, SWJ4-4b, SWJ-4k and SWJ5-1) that had a similar phenotype to reference B. thuringiensis. Based on the dendrogram, all of the bacterial isolates were 71% similar. Three isolates that had a higher prevalence of reference B. thuringiensis were PWR4-32, SWJ4-4b and SW5-1, of which the spore prevalence was 52.44%, 23.59%, 34.46%, respectively. These three indigenous isolates from Malang City successfully killed Ae. aegypti larvae. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing the larvae. Conclusions: Six indigenous B. thuringiensis isolates among the 33 bacterial isolates found in the Sawojajar and Purwantoro sub-districts were toxic to the third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. The PWR4-32 isolates were identical to the reference B. thuringiensis and had 88% phenotype similarity. The PWR4-32 isolates had the highest spore prevalence (52.44%), and the early stationary phase occurred at 36 h. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50-72 h=2.3×108 cells/mL).
    7  Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus
    Ganapathy Rameshkumar Samuthirapandian Ravichandran
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 890.48 K](209)
    Objective: To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods: The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results: During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod’s penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions: From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.
    8  Phytochemical composition of the essential oil of different populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl
    Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti Maryam Mohammadi
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 934.55 K](134)
    Objective: To examine the chemical variability in inflorescences of wild populations of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (S. lavandulifolia) collected throughout two provinces (Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary), Southwest Iran. Methods: The essential oils of S. lavandulifolia Vahl from seven locations were obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The results revealed that distinct differences in the content of compounds depending on region of sample collection. The main constituents of the essential oils were α-thujone (0.3%-32.3%), α-pinene (trace to 37.3%), myrcene (0.5%-15.9%), β-phellandrene (1.1%-37.9%), germacrene D (0.4%-11.3%), ∆-cadinene (trace to 11.6%) and 1, 4-methano-1 H-indene (trace to 10.1%). Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that essential oil components of S. lavandulifolia Vahl can be varied with genetic (ecotype), environmental conditions and geographic origin. In general, the essential oils of various populations of S. lavandulifolia Vahl were rich in monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.
    9  The effects of co-infection with human parvovirus B19 and Plasmodium falciparum on type and degree of anaemia in Ghanaian children
    Kwabena Obeng Duedu Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe Patrick Ferdinand Ayeh-Kumi Raymond Bedu Affrim Theophilus Adiku
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.09 M](169)
    Objective: To determin the extent to which parvovirus B19 (B19V) and co-infection of B19V and malaria contribute to risk of anaemia in children. Methods: B19V DNA and malaria parasites were screened for 234 children at the PML Children’s Hospital in Accra. The role of B19V and co- infection with B19V and malaria in anaemia was evaluated by analysing full blood cell counts, malaria and B19V DNA results from these children. Results: The prevalence of B19V, malaria and co-infection with B19V and malaria was 4.7%, 41.9% and 2.6%, respectively. Malaria posed a greater risk in the development of mild anaemia compared to severe anaemia (OR=5.28 vrs 3.15) whereas B19V posed a higher risk in the development of severe anaemia compared to mild anaemia (OR=4.07 vrs 1.00) from a non-anaemic child. Persons with co-infection with B19V and malaria had 2.23 times the risk (95% CI=0.40-12.54) of developing severe anaemia should they already have a mild anaemia. The degree of anaemia was about three times affected by co- infection (Pillai’s trace=0.551, P=0.001) as was affected by malaria alone (Pillai’s trace=0.185, P=0.001). B19V alone did not significantly affect the development of anaemia in a non-anaemic child. Microcytic anaemia was associated with B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria more than normocytic normochromic anaemia. Conclusions: B19V was associated with malaria in cases of severe anaemia. The association posed a significant risk for exacerbation of anaemia in mild anaemic children. B19V and co-infection with B19V and malaria may be associated with microcytic anaemia rather than normocytic normochromic anaemia as seen in cases of B19V infection among persons with red cell abnormalities.
    10  Antibiotic resistance and carriage class 1 and 2 integrons in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Tehran, Iran
    Reza Mirnejad Sepideh Mostofi Faramaz Masjedian
    2013(2):140-145. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60038-6
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 836.64 K](132)
    Objective: To investigate antibiotic resistance and carriage class 1 and 2 integrons in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) from Tehran, Iran. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The presence of integrons was investigated by PCR using specific primers. Results: Among isolated A. baumannii strains, 82% were multidrug resistant, 27 samples (54%) were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and 16 samples (32%) showed resistance to two antibiotics. Integrons were detected from 44 of 50 isolates (88%), with classes 1 and 2 being observed in 42% (21/50) and 82% (41/50) of isolates, respectively. Integron-positive A. baumannii isolates showed higher antibiotic resistance than integron-negative isolates and all showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Conclusions: Our findings show that classes 1 and 2 integrons, and especially classes 2 integrons are widely disseminated among A. baumannii strains isolated from Tehran and these structures are playing a major role in the acquisition of multidrug resistance in these strains. So monitoring of drug resistance with investigating carriage class 1 and 2 integrons is very important to plan specific infection control measures due to multidrug resistance A. baumannii in Iran hospitals.
    11  The emerging but neglected hepatic capillariasis in China
    Zhongquan Wang Ximeng Lin Ye Wang Jing Cui
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 738.64 K](125)
    12  A report on infection dynamics of inducible clindamycin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a teaching hospital in India
    Debasmita Dubey Shakti Rath Mahesh C. Sahu Subhrajita Rout Nagen K. Debata Rabindra N. Padhy
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 930.00 K](127)
    Objective: To investigate the infection of hospital- and community-acquired “erythromycin- induced clindamycin resistant” strains or D-test positives of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (with and without methicillin resistance) in a hospital. Methods: Strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens were subjected to D-test and antibiotic profiling. Results: Of the total 278 isolates, 140 (50.35%) were D-test positives and the rest were D-test negatives. Further, of 140 (100%) positives, 87 (62.14%) and 53 (37.85%) strains were from males and females, respectively. Of 140 (100%) positives, 117 (83.57%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus and 23 (16.42%) were methicillin sensitive S. aureus; of 140 strains, 103 (73.57%) strains from persons with and 37 (26.42%) were without related infections; of 140 strains, 91 (65%) and 49 (35%) were from hospital- and community-acquired samples, respectively. In 140 strains, 118 (84.28%) with comorbidities and 22 (15.71%) without comorbidities cases were recorded; similarly, persons with prior antibiotic uses contributed 108 (77.14%) and without 32 (22.85%) positive strains. These binary data of surveillance were analyzed by a univariate analysis. It was evident that the prior antibiotic uses and comorbidities due to other ailments were the determinative factors in D-test positivity, corroborated by low P values, P=0.001 1 and 0.002 4, respectively. All isolates (278) were resistant to 17 antibiotics of nine groups, in varying degrees; the minimum of 28% resistance for vancomycin and the maximum of 97% resistance for gentamicin were recorded. Further, of 278 strains, only 42 (15.1%) strains were resistant constitutively to both antibiotics, erythromycin resistant and clindamycin resistant, while 45 (16.2%) strains were constitutively sensitive to both antibiotics (erythromycin sensitive and clindamycin sensitive). Further, of the rest 191 (68.7%) strains were with erythromycin resistant and clindamycin resistant, of which only 140 (50.35%) strains were D-test positives, while the rest 51 (18.34%) strains were D-test negatives. Conclusions: In view of high prevalence of D-test positive S. aureus strains, and equally high prevalence of multidrug resistant strains both in community and hospital sectors, undertaking of D-test may be routinely conducted for suppurative infections.
    13  Bilateral parotid enlargement following snake bite: A rare sign
    Madi Deepak Achappa Basavaprabhu John T Ramapuram Chowta Nithyananda Soundarya Mahalingam
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 788.67 K](126)
    Snakebite is a common medical emergency in India. Unusual complications may occur after viper bite. Bilateral parotid enlargement after viper bite is a rare entity. An 18-year old gentleman presented to our hospital with history of viper bite. On examination he had cellulitis of right lower limb. He developed swelling of both the parotid glands 12 h after admission. He developed coagulopathy, acute renal failure and died within 48 h of hospital admission. Development of parotid swelling after snake bite is associated with poor prognosis. This case is found worth reporting as it is an unusual complication having prognostic value.
    14  Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives
    Vivek Kumar Vyas Keyur Brahmbhatt Hardik Bhatt Utsav Parmar
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 755.02 K](122)
    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity.
    15  Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat
    Ali Akbar Anil Kumar Anal
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 733.28 K](127)
    Objective: To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and /i>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods: Foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results: A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26% were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18% were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72% of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions: The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage.

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