Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy
    Karina Mallardo Sandra Nizza Filomena Fiorito Ugo Pagnini Luisa De Martino
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 744.76 K](124)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods: A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results: MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase- negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions: It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.
    2  Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on anti-Thy1,1 induced kidney injury in albino rats
    Saber Sakr Laila Rashed Waheba Zarouk Rania El-Shamy
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.77 M](118)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis. Methods: Female albino rats were divided into three groups, control group, anti- Thy1,1 group and treatment with i.v. MSCs group. MSCs were derived from bone marrow of male albino rats, Y-chromosome gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the kidney. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated for all groups. Kidney of all studied groups was examined histologically and histochemically (total carbohydrates and total proteins). DNA fragmentation and expression of α-SMA were detected. Results: Kidney of animals injected with anti-Thy1,1 showed inflammatory leucocytic infiltration, hypertrophied glomeruli, tubular necrosis and congestion in the renal blood vessels. The kidney tissue also showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins together with increase in apoptosis and in expression of α-SMA. Moreover, the levels of urea and creatinine were elevated. Treating animals with MSCs revealed that kidney tissue displayed an improvement in the histological and histochemical changes. Apoptosis and α-SMA expression were decreased, and the levels of urea and creatinine decreased. Conclusions: The obtained results demonstrated the potential of MSCs to ameliorate the structure and function of the kidney in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis possibly through the release of paracrine growth factor(s).
    3  Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries
    Kheirandish Reza Askari Nasrin Salehi Mahmoud
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.09 M](128)
    Objective: To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods: This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results: At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions: Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection.
    4  Spinal deformities in a wild line of Poecilia wingei bred in captivity: report of cases and review of the literature
    Alessio Arbuatti Leonardo Della Salda Mariarita Romanucci
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.08 M](123)
    Objective: To describe the occurrence of various spinal deformations in a captive-bred wild line of Poecilia wingei (P. wingei). Methods: Fish belonging to a wild line of P. wingei caught from Laguna de Los Patos, Venezuela, were bred in an aquarium home-breeding system during a period of three years (2006-2009). The spinal curvature was observed to study spinal deformities in P. wingei. Results: Out of a total of 600 fish, 22 showed different types of deformities (scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis), with a higher incidence in females. Growth, swimming and breeding of deformed fish were generally normal. Conclusions: Possible causes for spinal curvature in fish are discussed on the basis of the current literature. While it is not possible to determine the exact cause(s) of spinal deformities observed in the present study, traumatic injuries, nutritional imbalances, genetic defects or a combination of these factors can be supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of such lesions.
    5  Activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-staphylococcal components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. leaf extracts
    Manjunath Manubolu Lavanya Goodla Sivajyothi Ravilla Vijayasarathi Reddy Obulum
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 781.93 K](130)
    Objective: To investigate activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-Staphylococcus aures components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. (S. tenuifolius). Methods: Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of S. tenuifolius were prepared by soxilation for antimicrobial activity against one registered Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC No: 25923) and two clinical isolates, methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus. NCCL standard methods were followed for antibacterial activity. GC-MS was performed to identify the chemical composition of bio active fraction. Results: Among all solvent extracts, methanol extract significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus (ATCC No: 25923), methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus with the best zone of inhibition at 16.23, 14.06 and 15.23 mm and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values at 426.16, 683.22 and 512.12 µg/mL, respectively. In order to detect the active component in methanol extract, it was further purified by column chromatography, which yielded four fractions (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Among these four fractions, St3 was effective against the tested strains of S. aures, with the best zone of inhibition at 15.09, 13.25 and 14.12 mm and with best MIC values at 88.16, 128.11 and 116.12 µg/mL, respectively. Effective fraction partially purified from S. tenuifolius (St3) yielded MIC’s that were at least 20 fold less when compared to crude extract. GC-MS analysis of St3 revealed the presence of 3-[methyl- 6,7-dihydro benzofuran-4 (5H)-one], 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hydroquinone, methyl ester and 3 unknown compounds. Conclusions: The study provides scientific evidence for traditional and folklore medicinal use of S. tenuifolius in skin infections treatment.
    6  Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.
    Sevil Albayrak Ahmet Aksoy
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 796.03 K](120)
    Objective: To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods: Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results: The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.
    7  In vivo screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves for antinociceptive and antipyretic activity
    Naveed Muhammad Barkatullah Muhammad Ibrar Haroon Khan Muhammad Saeed Amir Zada Khan Waqar Ahmad Kaleem
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 827.97 K](168)
    Objective: To study the screening of essential oils of Skimmia laureola leaves (SLO) for acute toxicity, antinociceptive, antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities in various animal models. Methods: SLO were extracted using modified Clevenger type apparatus. Acute toxicity test was used in mice to observe its safety level. Antinociceptive activity of SLO was evaluated in acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests. Yeast induced hyperthermic mice and pentylenetetrazole induced convulsive mice were used for the assessment of its antipyretic and anticonvulsant profile respectively. Results: Substantial safety was observed for SLO in acute toxicity test. SLO showed a high significant activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in a dose dependent manner with maximum pain attenuation of 68.48% at 200 mg/kg i.p. However, it did not produce any relief in thermal induced pain at test doses. When challenged against pyrexia evoked by yeast, SLO manifested marked amelioration in hyperthermic mice, dose dependently. Maximum anti-hyperthermic activity (75%) was observed at 200 mg/kg i.p. after 4 h of drug administration. Nevertheless, SLO had no effect on seizures control and mortality caused by pentylenetetrazole. Conclusions: In vivo studies of SLO showed prominent antinociceptive and antipyretic activities with ample safety profile and thus provided pharmacological base for the traditional uses of the plant in various painful conditions and pyrexia. Additional detail studies are required to ascertain its clinical application.
    8  Seasonal abundance and potential of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds, Thailand
    Tanasak Changbunjong Thekhawet Weluwanarak Namaoy Taowan Parut Suksai Tatiyanuch Chamsai Poonyapat Sedwisai
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 775.06 K](134)
    Objective: To investigate the abundance and seasonal dynamics of mosquitoes, and to detect Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in these mosquitoes at the nesting colony of ardeid birds. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected bimonthly from July 2009 to May 2010 by Centers for Disease Control. Light traps and dry ice, as a source of CO2, were employed to attract mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were first identified, pooled into groups of upto 50 mosquitoes by species, and tested for JEV infection by viral isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 20 370 mosquitoes comprising 14 species in five genera were collected. The five most abundant mosquito species collected were Culex tritaeniorhynchus (95.46%), Culex vishnui (2.68%), Culex gelidus (0.72%), Anopheles peditaeniatus (0.58%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (0.22%). Mosquito peak densities were observed in July. All of 416 mosquito pools were negative for JEV. Conclusions: This study provides new information about mosquito species and status of JEV infection in mosquitoes in Thailand. Further study should be done to continue a close survey for the presence of this virus in the ardeid birds.
    9  Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil
    Elaine Cristina Negri Vamilton Alvares Santarém Guita Rubinsky-Elefant Rogério Giuffrida
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 760.69 K](144)
    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population. Methods: The study was performed by interviewing 253 blood donors, from 19 to 65 years of age, in a hematological centre in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, southeast Brazil. A survey was applied to blood donors in order to evaluate the possible factors associated to the presence of antibodies, including individual (gender and age), socioeconomic (scholarship, familial income and sanitary facilities) and habit information (contact with soil, geophagy, onycophagy and intake of raw/undercooked meat) as well as the presence of dogs or cats in the household. ELISA test was run for detection of the anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies. Bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors associated to seropositivity. Results: The overall prevalence observed in this study was 8.7% (22/253). Contact with soil was the unique risk factor associated with the presence of antibodies (P=0.017 8; OR=3.52; 95% CI=1.244-9.995). Conclusions: The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population.
    10  Hepatitis B virus X protein up-regulates tumor necrosis factor-α expression in cultured mesangial cells via ERKs and NF-κB pathways
    Hong-Zhu Lu Jian-Hua Zhou
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 783.01 K](160)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and the underlying intracellular signal pathways. Methods: The plasmid pCI-neo-X that carries the X gene of hepatitis B virus was transfected into cultured GMCs. HBx expression in the transfected GMCs was assessed by Western-blot. TNF-α protein and mRNA were assessed by ELISA and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Three kinase inhibitors-U0126, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); lactacystin, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); and SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) were used to determine which intracellular signal pathways may underlie the action of HBx on TNF-α expression in transfected GMCs. Results: A significant increase in HBx expression in pCI-neo-X transfected GMCs was detected at 36 h and 48 h, which was not affected by any of those kinase inhibitors mentioned above. A similar increase in the expression of both TNF-α protein and mRNA was also observed at 36 h and 48 h, which was significantly decreased in the presence of U0126 or lactacytin, but not SB203580. Conclusions: HBx upregulates TNF-α expression in cultured GMCs, possibly through ERKs and NF-κB pathway, but not p38 MAPK pathway.
    11  New species: Trichuris landak n. sp, what is its medical implication?
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.51 K](122)
    12  Clonal distribution and possible microevolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in a teaching hospital in Malaysia
    Xin Ee Tan Hui-min Neoh Salasawati Hussin Noraziah Mohamad Zin
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 819.44 K](132)
    Objective: To genotypically characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from medical and surgical wards in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) in 2009. Methods: MRSA strains were collected and molecularly typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: PFGE typing on 180 MRSA isolated in UKMMC identified 5 pulsotypes (A-E) and 6 singletons, where pulsotypes B and C were suspected to be divergent clones originating from a single ancestor. This study also showed that most MRSA strains were isolated from swab (119 isolates), followed by blood (22 isolates), tracheal aspirate (11 isolates) and sputum (10 isolates). On the other hand, urine and bone isolates were less, which were 4 and 1 isolates, respectively. The distribution of different pulsotypes of MRSA among wards suggested that MRSA was communicated in surgical and medical wards in UKMMC, with pulsotype B MRSA as the dominant strain. Besides, it was found that most deceased patients were infected by pulsotype B MRSA, however, no particular pulsotype could be associated with patient age, underlying disease, or ward of admittance. Conclusions: Five pulsotypes of MRSA and 6 singletons were identified, with pulsotype B MRSA as the endemic strains circulating in these wards, which is useful in establishment of preventive measures against MRSA transmission.
    13  First report of furuncular myiasis caused by the larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in a Taiwanese traveler
    Je-Ming Hu Chih-Chien Wang Li-Lian Chao Chung-Shinn Lee Chien-Ming Shih
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](130)
    A case of furuncular myiasis was reported for the first time in a 29-year-old young Taiwanese traveler returning from an ecotourism in Peru. Furuncle-like lesions were observed on the top of his head and he complained of crawling sensations within his scalp. The invasive larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, was extruded from the furuncular lesion of the patient. Awareness of cutaneous myiasis for clinicians should be considered for a patient who has a furuncular lesion and has recently returned from a botfly-endemic area.
    14  RNAi: antiviral therapy against dengue virus
    Sobia Idrees Usman A Ashfaq
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 843.77 K](142)
    Dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. Currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. Thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. RNA interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted RNA by a sequence specific process. Several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of siRNA in inhibiting dengue virus replication. This review summarizes siRNAs as a therapeutic approach against dengue virus serotypes and concludes that siRNAs against virus and host genes can be next generation treatment of dengue virus infection.
    15  Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand
    Thapana Chontananarth Chalobol Wongsawad
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 1018.16 K](143)
    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods: The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results: A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions: The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.
    16  Therapeutic potential of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae): The Ayurvedic wonder
    Anwesa Bag Subir Kumar Bhattacharyya Rabi Ranjan Chattopadhyay
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 803.52 K](131)
    Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases from the dawn of civilization. Terminalia chebula Retz. (Fam. Combretaceae), is called the ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and is always listed at the top of the list of ‘Ayurvedic Materia Medica’ because of its extraordinary power of healing. The whole plant possesses high medicinal value and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments for human beings. Some of the folklore people used this plant in the treatment of asthma, sore throat, vomiting, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles, ulcers, gout, heart and bladder diseases. The plant has been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological and medicinal activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, radioprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic, anticaries, gastrointestinal motility and wound healing activity. But no systematic updated information on the therapeutic effectiveness of Terminalia chebula, a popular herbal remedy in India and South-East Asia has so far been reported. This review highlights an updated information particularly on the phytochemistry and various pharmacological and medicinal properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. and some of its isolated compounds, along with their safety evaluation. This may provide incentive for proper evaluation of the plant as medicinal agent against the human diseases and also to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and future scope which may offer immense opportunity for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective botanical medicine.

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