Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2013 Table of Contents

  • Display Type:
  • Text List
  • Abstract List
  • 1  A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb
    Aftab Ahmad Asif Husain Mohd Mujeeb Shah Alam Khan Abul Kalam Najmi Nasir Ali Siddique Zoheir A. Damanhouri Firoz Anwar
    2013(5):337-352. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60075-1
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 596.41 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesics, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders. Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out by various researchers and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. Due to its miraculous power of healing, N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
    2  Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman
    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani Mohammad Amzad Hossain Afaf Mohammed Weli Qasim Al-Riyami Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi
    2013(5):353-357. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60076-3
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 351.09 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.
    3  Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic study of Gynura procumbens leaf extracts
    Khalid Algariri Kuong Y Meng Item J Atangwho Mohd Z Asmawi Amirin Sadikun Vikneswaran Murugaiyah Norhyati Ismail
    2013(5):358-366. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60077-5
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 471.00 K](70)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the antidiabetic activity of Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) used in the traditional management of diabetes in Southern Asia. Methods: G. procumbens leaves were extracted sequentially with graded percentage of ethanol in water (95%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%), and the extracts were tested for antidiabetic activity using acute (7 h), subcutaneous glucose tolerance test and sub-chronic (14 d) test in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were further subjected to phytochemical studies. Results: In acute dose (1 g/kg), the extracts significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (P<0.05). However, the FBG-lowering effect of the 25% extract compared to the other extracts, was rapid (47% after 2 h) and the highest: 53%, 53% and 60% in the 3rd, 5th, and 7th h, respectively (P<0.05), comparable only to the effect of metformin. Furthermore, the extracts suppressed peak FBG in subcutaneous glucose tolerance test, but only the 0% and 25% extracts, and metformin sustained the decrease until the 90th min (P<0.05). Moreover, in the 14 days study, the 25% extract exerted the highest FBG-lowering effect, namely 49.38% and 65.43% on days 7 and 14, respectively (P<0.05), similar to the effect of metformin (46.26% and 65.42%). Total flavanoid and phenolic contents in the extracts were found to decrease with increase in polarity of extraction solvents. The composition of reference compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, astragalin and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside) followed a similar trend. Conclusions: G. procumbens contains antidiabetic principles, most extracted in 25% ethanol. Interaction among active components appears to determine the antidiabetic efficacy, achieved likely by a metformin-like mechanism.
    4  A study of in vitro antibacterial activity of lanthanides complexes with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand
    Waleed Mahmoud Al Momani Ziyad Ahmed Taha Abdulaziz Mahmoud Ajlouni Qasem Mohammad Abu Shaqra Muaz Al Zouby
    2013(5):367-370. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60078-7
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 310.42 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To establish the antibacterial activity of lanthanides complexes with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand L. Methods: (N, N'-bis (1-naphthaldimine)-o-phenylenediamine) was prepared from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2:1. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant Ln (Ⅲ) complexes was investigated using agar well diffusion and micro-broth dilution techniques; the latter was used to establish the minimum inhibitory concentrations for each compound investigated. Results: Most of Ln (Ⅲ) complexes were found to exhibit antibacterial activities against a number of pathogenic bacteria with MICs ranging between 1.95-250.00 μg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterial species to [LaL(NO3)2(H2O)](NO3) complex while Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli required a relatively higher MIC (250 μg/mL). The complexes La (Ⅲ) and Pr (Ⅲ) were effective inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Sm (Ⅲ) complex was effective against Serratia marcescens. On the other hand, Gd (Ⅲ), La (Ⅲ) and Nd (Ⅲ) were found to be more potent inhibitors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than two of commonly used antibiotics. The remaining Ln (Ⅲ) complexes showed no remarkable activity as compared to the two standard drugs used. Conclusions: Tetradentate Schiff base ligand L and its complexes could be a potential antibacterial compounds after further investigation.
    5  Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model
    Herwandhani Putri Standie Nagadi Yonika Arum Larasati Nindi Wulandari Adam Hermawan
    2013(5):371-375.
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 731.11 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To observe the combination effect of doxorubicin and Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime’s) peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on blood serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology of female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Doxorubicin and ChEE (5 rats per group) were administered in five groups of 3 rats each for 11 d. Group Ⅰ: doxorubicin (dox) 4.67 mg/kg body weight; GroupⅡ: dox+ChEE 500 mg/kg body weight; Group Ⅲ: dox+ChEE 1 000 mg/kg body weight; Group Ⅳ: ChEE 1 000 mg/kg body weight; Group Ⅴ: untreated (control). Results: ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity rats, but did not repair neither hepatohistopathology profile nor reduce serum activity of ALT and AST. Conclusion: ChEE has potency to be developed as cardioprotector agent in chemotherapy.
    6  In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans
    Tularat Sookto Theerathavaj Srithavaj Sroisiri Thaweboon Boonyanit Thaweboon Binit Shrestha
    2013(5):376-380. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60080-5
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 313.91 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.
    7  Evaluation of PCR-ELISA as a tool for monitoring transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka
    Asha Dilrukshi Wijegunawardana Nilmini Silva Gunawardane Chanditha Hapuarachchi Aresha Manamperi Kithsiri Gunawardena Wimaladharma Abeyewickrama
    2013(5):381-387. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60081-7
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 802.56 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti) infection rates of Culex quinquefasciatus, using dissection and PCR-ELISA in two consecutive time periods (from 2007 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2009). Methods: Mosquitoes were collected in 30 sentinel and 15 non- sentinel sites in 15 Medical Officer of Health areas of Gampaha District known for the presence of W. bancrofti transmission in two consecutive time period of 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009. Captured mosquitoes were dissected to determine the W. bancrofti larvae (L1, L2, L3). PCR was carried out using DNA extracted from mosquito pools (15 body parts/pool) utilizing the primers specific for Wb-SspI repeat. PCR products were analyzed by hybridization ELISA using fluorescein-labeled wild type specific probes. The prevalence of infected/infective mosquitoes in PCR pools (3 pools/ site) was estimated using the PoolScreenTM algorithm and a novel probability-based method. Results: Of 45 batches of mosquitoes dissected, W. bancrofti infected mosquitoes were found in 19 and 13 batches, with an infection rate of 13.29% and 3.10% with mean larval density of 8.7 and 1.0 larvae per mosquito for two study periods in the Gampaha District. Total of 405 pools of head, thorax and abdomen were processed by PCR-ELISA for each year. Of these, 51 and 31 pools were positive for W. bancrofti in the two study periods respectively. The association of dissection based prevalence rates with PCR based rates as determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient were 0.176 and 0.890 respectively for the two periods. Conclusions: Data indicate that PCR-ELISA is more sensitive than the traditional dissection techniques for monitoring transmission intensity.
    8  In vivo antioxidant assessment of two antimalarial plants-Allamamda cathartica and Bixa orellana
    Omonhinmin A. Conrad Ijeoma Precious Dike Uche Agbara
    2013(5):388-394. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60082-9
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 419.44 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the free radical scavenging potentials pytochemical constituents of ethanol leaves extracts of Allamanda cathartica (A. cathartica) and Bixa orellana (B. orellana) and thus their effects in antimalarial activities. Methods: Both ethanol extracted plant samples were administered at 50 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL to Albino rats and then administered with CCl4 at 1 mL/kg body weight, in liquid paraffin (1:1, v/v) for 2 days (negative control) and compared with 5% Tween 80 (placebo) and vitamin E (positive control) pretreatments. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities in blood and liver tissues were assessed. Results: In CCl4 treated rats, TBARS levels significantly increased, while decreased GSH and CAT levels were recorded for both plant extracts. Generally, higher TBARS and GSH values were recorded for blood than for liver homogenates; with reverse trend observed for CAT level. Increased concentrations of A. cathartica extract recorded significant antioxidant levels similar to tocopherol (vitamin E). Reducing sugars, saponins, flavonoids were recorded for both species; alkaloids in A. cathartica and terpenoids in B. orellana. Conclusions: A. cathartica, possess phytochemicals that recorded significant antioxidative defense activities for blood and liver tissues with increasing concentration. However B. orellana did not record similar results.
    9  In vivo antioxidant effect of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana in CCl4 induced liver damage rats
    Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro James Dorcas Bolanle Sallau Balarebe Abdullahi Ozigi Abdulrahaman Ahmed
    2013(5):395-400. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60083-0
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 338.89 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: The antioxidant effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. Methods: A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (148 mg·ml-1·kg-1 body weight) as a 1:1 (v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of V. doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weighy per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of three weeks. Results: The liver of CCl4 induced not treated group showed that the induction with CCl4, significantly (P<0.05) increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between TBARS, SOD and CAT in the liver of the induced treated groups and normal control group. In the kidney, TBARS showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the normal and the induced groups, SOD was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the CCl4 group compared to standard drug and normal control groups, CAT was significantly (P<0.05) increased in root and vitamin E groups when compared to induced not treated group. The studies also showed that when the extracts were administered to normal animals, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in the liver and kidney level of TBARS, SOD and CAT compared with the normal control except in the kidney of animals treated with stem extract where TBARS was significantly (P<0.05) lowered compared to control group. Conclusion: The result of the present study suggests that application of V. doniana plant would play an important role in increasing the antioxidant effect and reducing the oxidative damage that formed both in liver and in kidney tissues. However stem bark has potential to improve renal function in normal rats.
    10  Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)
    Stephen Chege Judith Howlett Majid Al Qassimi Arshad Toosy Joerg Kinne Vincent Obanda
    2013(5):401-406. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60084-2
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 532.55 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting ‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet- faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.
    11  Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia
    Mekonnen Haileselassie Habtamu Taddele Kelali Adhana Shewit Kalayou
    2013(5):407-412. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60085-4
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 337.00 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results: 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.
    12  Occurrence of trichoepithelioma in a cat: Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study
    Abbas Tavasoli Hannaneh Golshahi Maryam Nobakht Rad Afra Taymouri
    2013(5):413-415. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60086-6
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 423.76 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Trichoepitheliomas are benign follicular appendage tumors with differentiation to all three segments of the hair follicle. A 2 years old female domestic short hair cat presented with a mass on the tail. The mass was surgically excised and for histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, was sent to Department of Pathology. Histologically, the tumor was encapsulated and consisted of many islands of follicular epithelium and also cysts structures which varied in size and shape. The cells of epithelium islands were round to oval and had variable amounts of slightly, eosinophilic cytoplasm and euchromatic nuclei. The cystic structures were lined by a complex layer of squamous epithelium. Often, cells under went an abrupt transition between basal layers and keratinization without the development of a granular cell layer. No tendency of malignancy was seen in this case. According to mentioned characteristics, trichoepithelioma was diagnosed. By immunohistochemical study it was confirmed that this tumor had epithelial origin because squamous tumor cells reacted with the pan-cytokeratin antibody. The expression of β-catenin was predominately cytoplasmic and also together with numerous positive nuclei but membranous expression was inconsistenet. Distribution of neoplastic cells with β-catenin expression was more than 75% and labeling intensity was strong in both cytoplasm and nuclei. According to author’s knowledge, this is the first report of trichoepithelioma in cat in Iran and also investigation of β-catenin expression in feline trichoepithelioma in veterinary literature.
    13  A case of cerebral malaria and dengue concurrent infection
    Anwar Alam Md Dm
    2013(5):416-417. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60087-8
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 236.79 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Cerebral malaria and dengue are the common infections which cause higher mortality and morbidities in every part of the world especially in India. Concurrent infection of cerebral malaria and dengue is rare entity due to different habitat of vectors and it was reported rarely from Southeast Asia. In this case report, the authors reported a case of concurrent cerebral malaria and dengue which was recovered after eight days of admission with increase in morbidity.
    14  Giemsa and Grocott in the recognition of Histoplasma capsulatum in blood smears
    Javier Bava Alcides Troncoso
    2013(5):418-420. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60088-X
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 272.75 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To facilitate the recognition of intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum and differentiate it from Leishmania amastigotes and other parasites, using the combination of Giemsa and a rapid modification of Grocott stains to peripheral blood smears in a hematological study. Methods: The combination of both stains was applied consecutively (first Grocott and then Giemsa) to previously fixed peripheral blood smears. Microscopy was performed with 400× and 1 000×, the latter using immersion oil. Results: The yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum were observed into the cytoplasm of leukocytes as brownish oval elements, with 3-4 µm in diameter. Conclusions: The combination of both techniques is a simple and fast method to facilitate recognition of intracellular yeasts and it is different from intracellular parasitic elements. Moreover, it allows distinguishing the cell elements that are in the microscopic preparations. It may be very helpful in those cases in which the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis has not been established yet and where other more sophisticated methods are not available.

    Current Issue


    Volume , No.

    Table of Contents Archive

    Volume

    Issue

    Most Read

    Most Cited

    Most Downloaded

    Academic misconduct statement

      Peer review

      WeChat

      Mobile website

      Close