Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 6,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Recommendation letter for Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (APJTB)
    Alcides Troncoso
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 625.23 K](76)
    2  Acute pancreatitis in HIV/AIDS patients: an issue of concern
    Gordana Dragovic
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 675.59 K](80)
    Pancreatitis is a well-described complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself and its combination antiretroviral therapy. Historically, this has been predominantly associated with the usage of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine and stavudine, but only rarely with the usage of protease inhibitors via the induction of hypertriglyceridemia. Pancreatitis rates in HIV/AIDS population may have been exceedingly high because of the comorbid conditions prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients (e.g. ethanol use and biliary disease), and the use of non- combination antiretroviral therapy medications such as pentamidine, corticosteroids, ketoconazole, sulphonamides, metronidazole, isoniazid and opportunistic infections (e.g. cytomegalovirus, cryptosporidiosis, mycobacterial disease). In resource limited settings, where didanosine and stavudine are widely available in cheaper generic fixed dose combinations it is likely that their usage will remain in the first line HIV treatment in common. In such settings management or estimation of a patient’s risk of pancreatitis still remains an issue of concern.
    3  Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia
    Gebreselema Gebreyohannes Feleke Moges Samuel Sahile Nagappan Raja
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 892.87 K](80)
    Objective: To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results: The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/ mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.
    4  The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology
    Aguirre Joya Jorge De La Garza Toledo Heliodoro Zugasti Cruz Alejandro Belmares Cerda Ruth Aguilar Cristóbal Noé
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.44 M](78)
    Objective: To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods: The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal Ⅱ experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results: It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions: It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.
    5  Evaluation of antifungal activity of free fatty acids methyl esters fraction isolated from Algerian Linum usitatissimum L. seeds against toxigenic Aspergillus
    Amrouche Abdelillah Benmehdi Houcine Dalile Halima Chabane sari Meriem Zaaboub Imane Smahi Djamal Eddine Moussaoui Abdallah Chabane sari Daoudi
    2013(6):443-448. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60094-5
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 726.00 K](76)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the major fraction of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) isolated from Linum usitatissimum L. seeds oil collected from Bechar department (Algeria). Methods: The assessment of antifungal activity was carried out in terms of percentage of radial growth on solid medium (potatoes dextrose agar PDA) and biomass growth inhibition on liquid medium (potatoes dextrose broth PDB) against two fungi. Results: The FAMEs was found to be effective in inhibiting the radial mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus more than Aspergillus ochraceus on all tested concentrations. The highest antifungal index was found to be (54.19%) compared to Aspergillus ochraceus (40.48%). The results of the antifungal activity of the FAMEs inhibition of biomass on liquid medium gave no discounted results, but this does not exclude the antifungal activity. Conclusions: We can assume that the observed antifungal potency may be due to the abundance of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in linseed oil which appears to be promising to treat fungal infections, storage fungi and food spoilage in food industry field.
    6  Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro
    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde Ganiyu Oboh
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 969.07 K](80)
    Objective: To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.
    7  Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya aestuarii and Aphanothece bullosa as antifungal and antileishmanial drug resources
    Maheep Kumar Manoj Kumar Tripathi Akanksha Srivastava Jalaj Kumar Gour Rakesh Kumar Singh Ragini Tilak Ravi Kumar Asthana
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.40 M](78)
    Objective: To investigate two cyanobacteria isolated from different origins i.e. Lyngbya aestuarii (L. aestuarii) from brackish water and Aphanothece bullosa (A. bullosa) from fresh water paddy fields for antifungal and antileishmanila activity taking Candida albicans and Leishmania donovain as targets. Methods: Biomass of L. aestuarii and A. bullosa were harvested after 40 and 60 d respectively and lyophilized twice in methanol (100%) and redissolved in methanol (5%) for bioassay. Antifungal bioassay was done by agar well diffusion method while antileishmanial, by counting cell numbers and flageller motility observation of promastigotes and amastigotes from L. donovani. Fluconazole and 5% methanol were used as control. Results: Both the cyanobacteria were found to be potent source of antifungal activity keeping fluconazole as positive control, however, methanolic crude extract (15 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was found more potent (larger inhibition zone) over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii. Similarly antileishmanial activity of crude extract (24.0 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was superior over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii (25.6 mg/mL). Conclusions: Antifungal and antileishmanial drugs are still limited in the market. Screening of microbes possessing antifungal and antileishmanial activity drug is of prime importance. Cyanobacteria are little explored in this context because most of the drugs in human therapy are derived from microorganisms, mainly bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes. Thus in the present study two cyanobacterial strains from different origins showed potent source of antifungal and antileishmanial biomolecules.
    8  In vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic activities and phytochemical evaluation of methanol extract of the A. philippense L. leaves
    Mohammad Sekendar Ali Mohammad Ruhul Amin Chowdhury Mohammad Imtiaz Kamal Mohammad Aslam Hossain
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 926.09 K](76)
    Objective: To study the leaves of Adiantum philippense L. for their antioxidant, cytotoxicity and thrombolytic activities and to perform phytochemical evaluation. Methods: In-vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The cytotoxic activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity by clot disruption and phytochemical potential by qualitative analysis. Results: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found promising. The reducing power of this crude extract increase with the increase of concentration; IC50 values of DPPH scavenging activity was (140.00±0.86) µg/mL as compared to ascorbic acid [IC50 (130.00±0.76) µg/mL]; Total phenol and total flavonoids content were (148.26±0.24) mg/mL and (163.06±0.56) mg/mL respectively. In cytotoxicity assay the LC50 values of the sample was (106.41±0.78) µg/mL where as for standard vincristin sulphate was (08.50±0.24) µg/mL as a positive control and the extract shows (12.86±1.02)% clot lytic whereas standard streptokinase shows (30.86±0.44% clot lytic activity in thrombolytic assay. The phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of chemical constituents including carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids. Conclusions: This study shows that the methanol extract of leaves of Adiantum philippense L. has bioactivity but further compound isolation is necessary to confirm the activities of individual compounds.
    9  Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats
    Adedayo O Ademiluyi Ganiyu Oboh Tosin R Owoloye Oluwaseun J Agbebi
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.18 K](83)
    Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methods: Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Results: Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues’ malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. Conclusions: These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.
    10  Medicinal activities of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in vitro
    Repon Kumer Sahaa Srijan Acharyaa Syed Sohidul Haque Shovon Priyanka Royb
    2013(6):476-482. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60099-4
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 992.80 K](89)
    Objective: This study is to investigate the medicinal value of methanolic extract of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in Bangladesh. Methods: Several biochemical assays, thin layer chormatogarphy and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compounds in this extract. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Receptor binding activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay were performed by hemagglutination assay and hemolysis assay using erythrocytes. Disk diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect of the extract. Results: Methanolic extract of the leaves showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. The extract showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. Conclusion: Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris can be an useful medicinal plant.
    11  Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India
    Sushma Chhabra Sanjeev Kumar Uppal Lachhman Das Singla
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 781.05 K](77)
    Objective: To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods: Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results: Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non- descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/ inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions: The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.
    12  Correlation between lipid profile and troponinⅠ test results in patients with chest pain in Nepal
    Arun Kumar Brijesh Sathian
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 676.01 K](76)
    Objective: To study the usefulness of traditional lipid profile levels in screening subjects who had developed chest pain due to cardiac event as indicated by a positive troponin Ⅰ test. Methods: In this retrospective study data of the 430 patients presented to the emergency department with symptoms of cardiac ischemia who underwent both troponin and lipid profiles tests were compared with the lipid profiles of 165 normal healthy subjects (controls). The troponin was detected qualitatively when a specimen contains troponin Ⅰ (cTnⅠ) above the 99th percentile (TnI>0.5 ng/mL). The total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol, very low density lipoproteins and triacyl glycerol levels were also analyzed and low density lipoprotein level was calculated using Friedewald’s formula. Results: Patients with chest pain and positive troponin test (with confirmed cardiac event) were found to have significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol levels, low density lipoprotein level and significantly reduced high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels when compared to the patients who experienced only chest pain (negative troponin) and healthy controls. Conclusions: Traditional lipid profile levels is still can be used in screening populations to identify the subjects with high risk of developing cardiac event in case if the laboratory set up has not troponin test facilities.
    13  Seroepidemiology of bluetongue disease in small ruminants of north-east of Iran
    Vahid Najarnezhad Mahin Rajae
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 681.98 K](76)
    Objective: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of bluetongue virus antibody in sheep and goats in 25 townships of Khorasan Razavi. Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod born viral disease of ruminants and has been reported from most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Methods: A total number of 1 034 serum samples from sheep and goats were collected and transmitted to Serological Laboratory of Veterinary Council of Khorasan Razavi. Serums were screened for the presence of group-specific bluetongue virus antibody using competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA). Results: The seropositivity of sheep and goats for bluetongue was found to be 89.2%. The highest prevalence rate was seen in Taybad, Khalil-abad and Torbat-jam (100%) and the least prevalence rate was seen in Jovein (55%). Conclusions: The results showed that the majority of animals in the north-east of Iran are infected with bluetongue virus. High correlation between abortion history and seroposivity emphasize the economical importance of bluetongue virus in the sheep herds of the region.
    14  Outbreaks of salmonellosis in three different poultry farms of Kerala, India
    Ramachandranpillai Rajagopal Mangattumuruppel Mini
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 667.38 K](79)
    Avian salmonellosis is an important disease causing serious impediment to the development of poultry industry especially in developing countries of Asia and Africa. Since no “effective” immunoprophylactic measures are available for the disease till date, strict biosecurity is the only alternative to preclude the disease. For formulating the control measures, an understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, proper diagnosis and identification of the causative agent is quintessential. This report sheds light on three different outbreaks of salmonellosis in three different farms in Kerala (India) describing the disease diagnosis, antibiotic resistance and the suggested control measures. All the three isolates were revealed to be Salmonella gallinarum and were resistant to at least three of the antimicrobial agents tested.
    15  Tegumental histological effects of Mirazid® and myrrh volatile oil on adult Fasciola gigantica
    Ahmad Mohamed Massoud Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby Rabab Mohamed El Khateeb Mona Said Mahmoud Mohamed Abdel Aziz Kutkat
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 995.49 K](83)
    Objective: To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. Methods: The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid®), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. Results: The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid® oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.

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