Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 7,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind
    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar Visweswaran Navaratnam
    2013(7):505-514. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60105-7
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 712.06 K](76)
    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.
    2  The emergence of drug resistant HIV variants and novel anti-retroviral therapy
    Koosha Paydary Parisa Khaghani Sahra Emamzadeh-Fard SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi Kazem Baesi
    2013(7):515-522. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60106-9
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 361.05 K](84)
    After its identification in 1980s, HIV has infected more than 30 million people worldwide. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, anti-retroviral drug resistance results from insufficient anti-retroviral pressure, which may lead to treatment failure. Preliminary studies support the idea that anti-retroviral drug resistance has evolved largely as a result of low- adherence of patients to therapy and extensive use of anti-retroviral drugs in the developed world; however, a highly heterogeneous horde of viral quasi-species are currently circulating in developing nations. Thus, the prioritizing of strategies adopted in such two worlds should be quite different considering the varying anti-retroviral drug resistance prevalence. In this article, we explore differences in anti-retroviral drug resistance patterns between developed and developing countries, as they represent two distinct ecological niches of HIV from an evolutionary standpoint.
    3  Anti-trypanosomal effect of Peristrophe bicalyculata extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats
    Abdulazeez Mansurah Abimbola Ibrahim Abdulrazak Baba Edibo Zakari Yenusa Sidali Joseph Omanibe Idris Habeeb Oladimeji
    2013(7):523-531. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60107-0
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 462.33 K](71)
    Objective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo effect of whole plant extracts of Peristrophe bicalyculata on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Methods: The experiment was divided into two phases: In the first phase, the anti-trypanosomal activity of the hot water, cold water, methanol and butanol extracts of the whole plant were determined by incubating with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The cold water extract was partially-purified and the anti- trypanosomal activity of the fractions determined. In the second phase, Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats were treated with fraction 2c for nine days. Packed cell volume (PCV), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and direct bilirubin levels were determined at the end of the experiment. Results: Cold water extract immobilized 90% of the parasites after 60 min of incubation, and fraction 2c completely immobilized the parasites after 35 min. It significantly increased PCV in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Decreased TC, TAG, HDL and LDL levels of infected rats increased significantly when rats were treated with the fraction, while elevated levels of total bilirubin and ALT also decreased. The difference in urea, direct bilirubin and ALP was not significant when infected rats were compared to rats in other groups. Conclusions: The ability of the plant to ameliorate the infection-induced biochemical changes calls for detailed investigation of the potentials of the plant for antitrypanosomiasis drug delivery.
    4  Neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria in adults: A pilot study in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola
    Bruno Peixoto Isabel Kalei
    2013(7):532-535. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60108-2
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.14 K](74)
    Objective: To characterize the neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria (CM) in an adult sample of the city of Benguela, Angola. Methods: A neuropsychological assessment was carried out in 22 subjects with prior history of CM ranging from 6 to 12 months after the infection. The obtained results were compared to a control group with no previous history of cerebral malaria. The study was conducted in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola in 2011. Results: CM group obtained lower results on the two last trials of a verbal learning task and on an abstract reasoning test. Conclusions: CM is associated to a slower verbal learning rate and to difficulties in the ability to discriminate and perceive relations between new elements.
    5  Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae over 6 years at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
    Belay Anagaw Mucheye Gezachew Fantahun Biadgelgene Berhanu Anagaw Tariku Geleshe Birke Taddese Birhanu Getie Mengistu Endris Andargachew Mulu Chandrashekhar Unakal
    2013(7):536-541. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60109-4
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 373.94 K](72)
    Objective: To assess the magnitude and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from various clinical specimens. Methods: A record based on retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2007 to January 2012. All patients who visited Gondar University Hospital and provided clinical specimens (body fluids, discharge, swab and blood) for routine bacteriological culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were taken for analysis. Clinical specimens were processed for bacterial culture according to the standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for isolated organisms was done using agar disk diffusion method. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 16 package. Results: One hundred and fifty three Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated from patients who visited Gondar University Teaching Hospital bacteriology laboratory for culture. Majority of the pneumococcal isolates were from inpatients [111(72.5%)], and 74(48.4%) were from body fluids. Out of the total isolates, 93(61%) were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic used for susceptibility testing. Forty eight (43.2%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (resistant to two or more drugs). The resistance rate noted for both ciprofloxacin 17(11.1%) and ceftriaxone 15(9.8%) were alarming. Conclusions: High proportions of the isolates tend to be increasingly resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs. The recommended drug of choice like ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were found to be less susceptible in the study area. Based on the findings, we therefore recommend that antimicrobial agents should be inspected for acceptable activity before they are prescribed and administered empirically. Further study with a better design and survey of antimicrobial susceptibility at large scale shoule be performed to draw advanced information.
    6  Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras
    Hussein Farhan Hassan Rammal Akram Hijazi Ahmad Daher Mohamad Reda Hussein Annan Ali Chokr Ali Bassal Bassam Badran
    2013(7):542-548. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60110-0
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 463.29 K](71)
    Objective: To determine the chemical composition, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras (E. macroclada), and to evaluate their antioxidant potential using DPPH, H2O2, and chelating of ferrous ions tests. Methods: Quantification of the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems and the antioxidant activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric analyses. The chemical composition has been estimated using different techniques such as IR, LC/MS and NMR. Results: Ethanolic extract from leaves of E. macroclada was better than aqueous extract and showed higher content in total phenolic and total flavonoid than found in the stems. On the other hand, using DPPH and H2O2 tests, this extract from leaves showed higher antioxidant capacity than aqueous extract. However, using the chelating of ferrous ions test, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of both stems and leaves was stronger than that of ethanolic once. The chemical composition of the whole plant showed the presence of some aromatic compounds and fatty acids. Conclusions: Both ethanolic and water extracts from both parts of this plant are effective and have good antioxidant power. So, this plant can be used in the prevention of a number of diseases related to oxidative stress.
    7  Effect of cytokinins on in vitro multiplication of Sophora tonkinensis
    Sonali Jana Iyyakkannu Sivanesan Byoung Ryong Jeong
    2013(7):549-553. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60111-2
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 369.47 K](77)
    Objective: To determine the effects of different cytokinins at various concentrations on in vitro shoot multiplication of an important medicinal plant. Methods: Nodal explants (1.5-2.0 cm) of Sophora tonkinensis were used. Multiple shoots were induced from nodal explants cultured on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 µmol 2-isopentyladenine (2iP), N6 benzyladenine, kinetin or thiadiazuron. Results: Among the four investigated cytokinins, 2iP showed the best response for shoot multiplication. Maximum shoot induction (75%) was achieved on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µmol 2iP, with a mean number of 5.0 shoots per explant. In comparison to other cytokinins tried, 2iP showed the highest shoot elongation with a mean shoot length of 4.8 cm. Root initiation was observed within 15 d within the transfer of shoots onto the MS basal medium, and the rooting percentage was 100% with a mean number of 5.4 roots per shoot and root length of 6.2 cm over a period of 4 weeks. The healthy plants, hardened and transferred to a greenhouse for proper acclimatization, exhibited 100% survival. Conclusions: It can be summarized that 2iP is the optimal plant growth regulator for Sophora multiplication.
    8  Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract
    Marslin Gregory B. Divya Revina Ann Mary M. M. Hipolith Viji V. K. Kalaichelvan V. Palanivel
    2013(7):554-556. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60112-4
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 296.03 K](70)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods: Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results: Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions: The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids.
    9  Evaluation of anti-resistant activity of Auklandia(Saussurea lappa) root against some human pathogens
    Sidgi Syed Anwer Hasson Mohammed Saeed Al-Balushi KhazinaAlharthy JumaZaidAl-Busaidi MunaSulimanAldaihani Mohammed Shafeeq Othman Elias Antony Said Omar Habal Talal Abdullah Sallam Ali Abdullah Aljabri Mohamed AhmedIdris
    2013(7):557-562. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60113-6
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 458.52 K](74)
    Objective: The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the Auklandia (Saussurea lappa) root plant was investigated to verify its medicinal use in the treatment of microbial infections. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract was tested against clinical isolates of some multidrug-resistant bacteria using the agar well diffusion method. Commercial antibiotics were used as positive reference standards to determine the sensitivity of the clinical isolates. Results: The extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactemase, Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimum inhibitory concentration values obtained using the agar dilution test ranged from 2.0 μg/μL-12.0 μg/μL. In the contrary the water extract showed no activity at all against the tested isolates. Furthermore, the results obtained by examining anti-resistant activity of the plant ethanolic extract showed that at higher concentration of the plant extract (12 μg) all tested bacteria isolates were inhibited with variable inhibition zones similar to those obtained when we applied lower extract concentration using the well diffusion assay. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the crude ethanolic extract of the Auklandia (Saussurea lappa) root plant has a wide spectrum of activity suggesting that it may be useful in the treatment of infections caused by the above clinical isolates (human pathogens).
    10  Sensibility of male rats fertility against olive oil, Nigella sativa oil and pomegranate extract
    Sherif W. Mansour Sibghatullah Sangi Sree Harsha Mueen A. Khaleel A. R. N. Ibrahim
    2013(7):563-568. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60114-8
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 333.78 K](77)
    Objective: To clarify the modulatory effects of daily consumption of pomegranate extract (PE), olive oil (OO) and Nagilla sativa oil (NSO) on antioxidant activity, sperm quality and pituitary- testicular axis of adult male wistar rats. Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups, eight rats each. Using rat gastric tubes, 1.0 mL distilled water, 1.0 mL PE, 0.4 mL NSO and 0.4 mL OO were orally administered daily for 6 weeks in the first, second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Reproductive organs, body weight, sperm criteria, testosterone, FSH, LH, inhibin-B, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. At the end of the study protocol, analyses occurred at the same time. Data were analysed by ANOVA test and P<0.05 was considered to be a significant value. Results: In all studied groups, malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased accompanied with an increases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione. Rats treated with PE showed an increase in catalase activities accompanied with an increase in sperm concentration which was also observed in NSO group. In PE treated group, sperm motility was also increased accompanied with decreased abnormal sperm rate. NSO, OO and PE treated groups shows an insignificant effect on testosterone, inhibin-B, FSH and LH in comparison with control group. Conclusions: These results show that administration of PE, NSO and OO could modify sperm characteristics and antioxidant activity of adult male wistar rats.
    11  Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model
    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim Abubakar Babando Aliyu Kayode Meduteni Isa Yunusa
    2013(7):569-572. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60115-X
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 842.39 K](68)
    Objective: To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods: A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results: The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions: It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.
    12  Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats
    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr Mohamed El-said Zoil Samraa Samy El-shafey
    2013(7):573-579. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60116-1
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 590.09 K](70)
    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ was considered as control. Group Ⅱ was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group Ⅲ was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.
    13  An overall assessment of circumanal gland adenoma in a terrier mix breed dog
    Javad Javanbakht Abbas Tavassoli Farhang Sasani Atefeh Sabbagh Mehdi Aghamohamad Hassan Shohreh Alian Samakkhah Radmehr Shafiee Meysam Jani Samad Alimohammadi Reza Samani Fardin Barati Vahideh Rahmani Ghalee
    2013(7):580-583. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60117-3
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 285.00 K](90)
    In September 2012, a 10-year-old, intact male, terrier mix breed dog was evaluated because of multiple, 0.5 to 1.2 cm in diameter, round, intradermal nodules around the anus. It had surgery to excise a firm, painful swelling in the left ventrolateral perianal region and the excision part was observed under light microscopy. The mass spreading in to sub acute was of left hind leg out from the ventro-lateral of anus, 1.2 cm×1 cm/ 0 cm×0.5 cm in size and 125 g in weight. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Significant laboratory data demonstrated microcytic anemia (hemoglobin of 6.4 mg/dL) and normal coagulation times. No remarkable abnormalities were found in the complete blood count and an ionized calcium of 1.91 mmol/L (reference range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L) was confirmed hypercalcemia. On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, evaluation of the aspirate revealed a prominent population of round-to-polygonal nucleated cells arranged as cohesive groups with isolated individual cells. A mild degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was observed. In addition, smaller reserve type cells, with darker cytoplasm and a higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The adenomas generally retain the lobular architecture, but some may contain focal areas of cellular pleomorphism. These changes may suggest malignant transformation and have led to discordant interpretations, the well-developed stroma surrounding the lobules and hepatoid cells was noted. Ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and secondary infection with inflammatory cell infiltrates are common. These cytology and histopathology features are consistent with hepatoid gland adenoma.
    14  H7N9 influenza-the laboratory presentations: A letter to editor
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2013(7):584-585. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60118-5
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 225.72 K](73)
    15  Definition of hyperparasitemia in severe falciparum malaria should be updated
    Polrat Wilairatana Noppadon Tangpukdee Srivicha Krudsood
    2013(7):586-586. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60119-7
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 613.22 K](71)
    16  Time of foaling in Arabian mares raised in Tiaret, Algeria
    Samia Meliani Bouabdellah Benallou Miloud Halbouche Zohra Haddouche
    2013(7):587-588. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60120-3
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 242.24 K](73)
    Objective: To enhance effectiveness of reproduction management in Arabian mares, factors influencing the time of foaling were investigated in this study. Methods: Data were collected at the National Haras of Tiaret in Algeria from 2003 to 2010. The foaling time of 255 Arabian pure bred mares, aged from 3 to 20 years were used for this study. Results: A total of 78.07% of foaling happens between 7 pm and 6 am. Conclusions: The influence of the month of foaling and the sex of the foal, on the time of foaling was statically significant

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