Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 8,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Epidemiological, laboratory, diagnostic and public health aspects of human brucellosis in western Iran
    Hamid Kassiri Hamid Amani Massoud Lotfi
    2013(8):589-594. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60121-5
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 683.34 K](81)
    Objective: To determine brucellosis's epidemiologic, laboratory, diagnostic and public health features considering brucellosis is endemic in Azna County, western Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was investigated on 43 patients with brucellosis in Azna County. The subjects were the patients with symptoms correspondent with brucellosis and positive Wright and 2ME tests. A questionnaire about demographic, epidemiological and laboratory findings was filled in. Afterwards, patients were treated using usual antimicrobial drugs regimen. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results: Forty-three subjects were found to be positive in laboratory tests. Incidence of Brucellosis was 59.31 per hundred thousand population. About 34.9% of patients were female and 65.1% male. Nearly 95.2 % of human cases were living in rural and 4.8 % in urban areas. Around 20.9% of patients had history of animal contact. The commonest transmission was unpasteurized dairy products (79.1%). The most contagious seasons were summer and spring (60.3%). The most common age group was 15-24 (27.9%), and about 60.5% of the patients were between 15-44 years old. Disease was more common among housewives (30.2%) and farmers (20.9%). The majority of the patients had Wright test titre=1:320 (54.1%) and 2ME test titre=1:160 (56.1%) in serological titration. Doxycycline with Rifampin was used for treatment of the greatest of patients (60.4%). Conclusions: In order to control this zoonotic disease, close cooperation of health and veterinary organizations is necessary.
    2  New scope on the relationship between rotifers and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails
    Shereen Farouk Mossallam Eglal Ibrahim Amer Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga
    2013(8):595-603. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60122-7
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 860.50 K](76)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of rotifer internalization into snail tissue on the development of schistosomes. Methods: Susceptible laboratory-bred Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina) snails were exposed to lab-maintained rotifers; Philodina spp., two weeks before and after being infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) miracidia. The consequent histopathological impact on snail tissues and cercarial biology were investigated before and after emergence from snails. Results: Contamination of B. alexandrina snails with philodina, two weeks before miracidial exposure, was found to hinder the preliminary development of S. mansoni cercariae inside the snail tissues. Furthermore, when snails were contaminated with rotifers two weeks post miracidial exposure; growth of already established cercariae was found to be retarded. The consequent influence of internalized rotifers within the snail tissue was clearly reflected on cercarial emergence, activity and infectivity along the four weeks duration of shedding. In the present study, comparison of snail histopathological findings and altered cercarial biology observed between the experimental and control groups indicated that the rotifers may have affected the levels of snail's energy reservoirs, which eventually was found to have had an adverse impact on reproduction, growth and survival of the parasite within the snail host, coupled with its performance outside the snail. Conclusions: In future biological control strategies of schistosomiasis, ritifers should be considered as a parasitic scourge of humanity.
    3  Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees
    Mohammed Arifullah Nima Dandu Namsa Manabendra Mandal Kishore Kumar Chiruvella Paritala Vikrama Ghanta Rama Gopal
    2013(8):604-610. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60123-9
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 813.49 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods: In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti- oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2- picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results: AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/ mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/ mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion: This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines.
    4  Screening of biological activities of Polygonum maritimum L. from Algerian coast
    Imad Abdelhamid El-Haci Fawzia Atik Bekkara Wissame Mazari Faycal Hassani Mohamed Amine Didi
    2013(8):611-616. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60124-0
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.20 K](75)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and the antibacterial activities of crude extract from aerial part of Polygonum maritimum L. (Polygonaceae) (P. maritimum) and to find new actives biomolecules. Methods: The whole plant was collected from the Rechgoune coast (West of Algeria), and methanolic crude extract of aerial parts of P. maritimum (PMCE) was prepared. The extract was tested against different bacterial strain and tested for his ability to neutralize free radical (DPPH) and to scavenge the H2O2. Results: PMCE had a very high content of total phenol, which was (352.49±18.03) mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalent. PMCE exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, as measured using DPPH and H2O2 scavenging assays. It also showed a high antibacterial activity against gram- positive bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an highest MIC of 120 µg/mL. Conclusions: The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the PMCE is probably due to phenolic compounds present in the extract. The contemporary presence of antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the PMCE suggests that this plant may be a source of bioactive substances with multifaceted activity.
    5  Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma
    Sang Suk Kim Min-Jin Kim Young Hun Choi Byung Kuk Kim Kwang Sik Kim Kyung Jin Park Suk Man Park Nam Ho Lee Chang-Gu Hyun
    2013(8):617-622. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60125-2
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 383.64 K](77)
    Objective: To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods: Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti- melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results: Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose- dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose- dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions: Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.
    6  Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera
    Fatma Alhakmani Sokindra Kumar Shah Alam Khan
    2013(8):623-627. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60126-4
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 316.64 K](79)
    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods: Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results: Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti- inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity.
    7  Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats
    Onakpa Michael Monday Asuzu Isaac Uzoma
    2013(8):628-633. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60127-6
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 538.09 K](73)
    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage Ⅱ glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P<0.01) as well as improving liver, kidney functions and hyperlipidaemia due to diabetes. The extract had a favourable effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes. Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.
    8  Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams
    Prawez Alam
    2013(8):634-638. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60128-8
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 319.83 K](73)
    Objective: To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger- containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. Methods: The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner Ⅲ was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. Results: This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r2=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. Conclusions: The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.
    9  Studies on the anti-diarrheal properties of leaf extract of Desmodium puchellum
    Md. Khalilur Rahman Soumitra Barua Md. Fokhrul Islam Md. Rafikul Islam Mohammed Abu Sayeed Mst. Shahnaj Parvin Md. Ekramul Islam
    2013(8):639-643. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60129-X
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 295.37 K](74)
    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological activity against diarrhea of methanol and petroleum ether extract of Desmodium puchellum (Family: Fabaceae) leaves. Methods: The extract was evaluated for castor oil-induced diarrhea and enteropooling as well as intestinal motility in rats. Both of the extracts were given to the rats at 200 mg/kg orally. Loperamide was used as a standard drug for diarrhea. Results: The diarrheal severity was reduced significantly (P<0.05) by methanol and petroleum ether extracts by 31.95% and 28.33%, respectively, whereas 54.75% inhibition was found for standard drug loperamide at 5 mg/kg. The two extracts also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the intestinal volume in case of castor oil induced enteropooling. Conclusions: It is concluded that both fractions contain some biologically active ingredients that are active for anti-diarrheal actions whereas methanol fraction has better potential.
    10  Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate
    Meltem Demirel Kars Ufuk Gündüz Kamil üney Ahmet Levent Ba?
    2013(8):644-649. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60130-6
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 402.95 K](80)
    Objective: To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods: Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results: Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/ Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions: As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells.
    11  Statistical optimization and anticancer activity of a red pigment isolated from Streptomyces sp. PM4
    Valliappan Karuppiah Chandramohan Aarthi Kannan Sivakumar Lakshmanan Kannan
    2013(8):650-656. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60131-8
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 373.72 K](83)
    Objective: To enhance the pigment production by Streptomyces sp. PM4 for evaluating its anticancer activity. Methods: Response surface methodology was employed to enhance the production of red pigment from Streptomyces sp. PM4. Optimized pigment was purified and evaluated for the anticancer activity against HT1080, Hep2, HeLa and MCF7 cell lines by MTT assay. Results: Based on the response surface methodology, it could be concluded that maltose (4.06 g), peptone (7.34 g), yeast extract (4.34 g) and tyrosine (2.89 g) were required for the maximum production of pigment (1.68 g/L) by the Streptomyces sp. PM4. Optimization of the medium with the above tested features increased the pigment yield by 4.6 fold. Pigment showed the potential anticancer activity against HT1080, HEp-2, HeLa and MCF-7cell lines with the IC50 value of 18.5, 15.3, 9.6 and 8.5 respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed that the maximum amount of pigment could be produced to treat cancer.
    12  Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of Balanites aegyptiaca
    Eshetu Molla Mirutse Giday Berhanu Erko
    2013(8):657-662. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60132-X
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 331.39 K](77)
    Objective: To assess the molluscicidal and cercariacidal activities of aqueous extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (B. aegyptiaca) against Ethiopian Biomphalaria pfeifferi (B. pfeifferi), Lymnaea natalensis (L. natalensis) and Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) cercariae. Methods: Extracts of seeds, endocarp, mesocarp, and fruit of B. aegyptiaca were tested for their activities against adult B. pfeifferi and L. natalensis. The cercariacidal activity of the seeds of the plant was also evaluated against S. mansoni. Bioassays were carried out following the methods recommended by WHO. Snail mortalities were compared between each plant part and snail species, and LC50 and LC90 values for the plant parts tested were computed. The cercariacidal activity of the plant was assessed by exposing the mice to the cercariae pre-exposed to aqueous extract of B. aegyptiaca seeds. Results: For the molluscicidal activities of seeds, endocarp, mesocarp and whole fruit, the LC50 values against B. pfeifferi were 56.32, 77.53, 65.51 and 66.63 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 77.70, 120.04, 89.50 and 97.55 mg/L. Similarly, the LC50 values for the seeds, endocarp, mesocarp and whole fruit against L. natalensis were 80.33, 92.61, 83.52 and 87.84 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 102.30, 138.21, 115.42 and 127.69 mg/ L. B. pfeifferi were found to be more susceptible to B. aegyptiaca than L. natalensis. S. mansoni cercariae exposed to 15 mg/L of extract of seeds were incapable of infecting mice. The mean egg load of tissue was reduced in mice infected with the cercariae exposed to 5 and 10 mg/L of the extract. Conclusions: The aqueous extracts of different parts of B. aegyptiaca exhibited reasonable molluscicidal activity against B. pfeifferi and L. natalensis, as well as cercariacidal activity against S. mansoni cercariae. However, comprehensive laboratory evaluation is recommended prior to field tests of the plant parts since their impact on other aquatic biota is not known.
    13  Antimicrobial activity of green tea extract against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Maksum Radji Rafael Adi Agustama Berna Elya Conny Riana Tjampakasari
    2013(8):663-667. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60133-1
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.24 K](76)
    Objective: To evaluate antibacterial activity of the Indonesian water soluble green tea extract, Camellia sinensis, against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa). Methods: Antimicrobial activity of green tea extract was determined by the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the twofold serial broth dilutions method. The tested bacteria using in this study were the standard strains and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, obtained from Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. Results: The results showed that the inhibition zone diameter of green tea extracts for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and MRSA were (18.970±0.287) mm, and (19.130±0.250) mm respectively. While the inhibition zone diameter for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and MDR-P. aeruginosa were (17.550±0.393) mm and (17.670±0.398) mm respectively. The MIC of green tea extracts against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and MRSA were 400 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL, respectively, whereas the MIC for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and MDR-P. aeruginosa were 800 µg/mL, and 800 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Camellia sinensis leaves extract could be useful in combating emerging drug- resistance caused by MRSA and P. aeruginosa.
    14  Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana
    Sathyanarayana Bhat Kumaraswamy Udupa
    2013(8):668-672. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60134-3
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 293.62 K](77)
    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

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