Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2013 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria
    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe AbdulWasiu Oladele Hassan Sunday Olukayode Oladejo Ismail Olaoye Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde Taiwo Adewole
    2013(9):673-677. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60137-9
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 283.33 K](123)
    Objective: To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results: A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.
    2  Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in retail chicken meat and chicken giblets
    Doaa M Abd El-Aziz
    2013(9):678-681. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60138-0
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 304.47 K](125)
    Objective: To detect Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), one of the most frequently isolated serovars from food borne outbreaks throughout the world, in retail raw chicken meat and giblets. Methods: One hundred samples of retail raw chicken meat and giblets (Liver, heart and gizzard) which were collected from Assiut city markets for detection of the organism and by using Duplex PCR amplification of DNA using rfbJ and fliC genes. Results: S. typhimurium was detected at rate of 44%, 40% and 48% in chicken meat, liver and heart, respectively, but not detected in gizzard. Conclusions: The results showed high incidence of S. typhimurium in the examined samples and greater emphasis should be applied on prevention and control of contamination during processing for reducing food-borne risks to consumers.
    3  A comparative study of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic potential of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis
    Shawkat Md. Aminul Islam Kh Tanvir Ahmed Mohammad Kawsar Manik Md. Arif Wahid Chowdhury Shafayat Ibne Kama
    2013(9):682-691. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60139-2
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 515.02 K](119)
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic property of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis (S. dulcis). Methods: Methanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of S. dulcis were partitioned with chloroform and dichloromethane. The antioxidant potential of the crude extract and partitioned fractions were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging potential, reducing potential and total antioxidant capacity by specific standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate. The thrombolytic activity was compared with streptokinase. Results: The methanolic fruit extract exhibited the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, among the other extracts, with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 10 µg/mL (IC50: 1.91 µg/mL) and maximum reducing power at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (EC50: 3.58 µg/mL). Though all extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains, weak or no activity against fungus. The range of LC50 value of all extracts was 1.335-14.057 µg/mL which was far lower than the cut off index for cytotoxicity. All extracts exhibited statistically significant (P<0.001) thrombolytic activity. Conclusions: Our study suggested that S. dulcis exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of strains while it possesses significant antioxidant, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity.
    4  Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay
    Kwan Yuet Ping Ibrahim Darah Yeng Chen Sreenivasan Sasidharan
    2013(9):692-696. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60140-9
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 327.02 K](122)
    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity activity of Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay. Methods: The cytotoxicity of E. hirta extract was investigated by employing brine shrimp lethality assay and the genotoxicity of E. hirta was assessed by using Comet assay. Results: Both toxicity tests exhibited significant toxicity result. In the comet assay, the E. hirta extract exhibited genotoxicity effects against MCF-7 DNA in a time-dependent manner by increasing mean percentage of DNA damage. The extract of E. hirta showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp with an LC50 value of 620.382 μg/mL (24 h). Comparison with positive control potassium dichromate signifies that cytotoxicity exhibited by the methanol extract might have moderate activity. Conclusion: The present work confirmed the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of E. hirta. However, the observed toxicity of E. hirta extracts needs to be confirmed in additional studies.
    5  Pharmacological potential of Populus nigra extract as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective agent
    Nadjet Debbache-Benaida Dina Atmani-Kilani Valérie Barbara Schini-Keirth Nouredine Djebbli Djebbar Atmani
    2013(9):697-704. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60141-0
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 411.34 K](126)
    Objective: To evaluate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities of Populus nigra flower buds ethanolic extract. Methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed using respectively the ABTS test and the animal model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Protection from hepatic toxicity caused by aluminum was examined by histopathologic analysis of liver sections. Vasorelaxant effect was estimated in endothelium-intact and -rubbed rings of porcine coronary arteries precontracted with high concentration of U46619. Results: The results showed a moderate antioxidant activity (40%), but potent anti-inflammatory activity (49.9%) on carrageenan-induced mice paw edema, and also as revealed by histopathologic examination, complete protection against AlCl3-induced hepatic toxicity. Relaxant effects of the same extract on vascular preparation from porcine aorta precontracted with high concentration of U46619 were considerable at 10-1 g/L, and comparable (P>0.05) between endothelium-intact (67.74%, IC50=0.04 mg/mL) and -rubbed (72.72%, IC50=0.075 mg/mL) aortic rings. Conclusions: The extract exerted significant anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and vasorelaxant activities, the latter being endothelium-independent believed to be mediated mainly by the ability of components present in the extract to exert antioxidant properties, probably related to an inhibition of Ca2+ influx.
    6  Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris
    Mohammad Amzad Hossain Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy Afaf Mohammed Weli Qasim Al-Riyami
    2013(9):705-710. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60142-2
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 342.83 K](131)
    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions: The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.
    7  In vitro biological screening of the stem of Desmodium elegans
    Arshad Khan Rabia Usman Ming-Liang Wang Abdur Rauf Naveed Muhammad Akhatar Aman Taha Hussein Musa Tahir
    2013(9):711-715. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60143-4
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 276.76 K](136)
    Objective: To explore the medicinal importance of the stem of Desmodium elegans, methanolic extract, and its different solvent fractions were evaluated for brine shrimp lethality, insecticidal and phytotoxicity, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Methods: The methanolic extract and its solvent fractions were tested for cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial effects using our previous published protocols. Results: The methanolic, DCM, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions exhibited insecticidal effect against Callosobruchus analis and Rhyzopertha dominic. The methanolic extract, n-hexane, DCM ethyl acetate and n-butanol showed 75, 85, 85, 65 and 5% phytotoxicity at the tested concentration of 500 μg/mL respectively. The solvent fractions (DCM and ethyl acetate) were effective against F. solani (10% and 20% inhibition respectively). All the tested samples were devoid of cytotoxic and antibacterial effects. Conclusions: It was concluded that this plant can be practiced for control of weeds and insects.
    8  Effects of high voltage electrical stimulation on the rate of pH decline, meat quality and color stability in chilled beef carcasses
    Ehsan Gharib Mombeni Manoochehr Gharib Mombeini Lucas Chaves Figueiredo Luciano Soares Jacintho Siqueira Debora Testoni Dias
    2013(9):716-719. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60144-6
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 772.37 K](124)
    Objective: To determine the effects of high voltage electrical stimulation (HVES, 800 Voltage) on rapid decreases in pH values and improvements in meat quality. Methods: A total of 50 beef carcasses were applied, divided into two groups, one as a control and another for HVES. Meat quality was evaluated based on M. longissimus dorsi by examining pH and temperature levels at 1, 2, 5, 10 and 24 h, while color stability was examined seven days after slaughter. Results: HVES decreased the pH values of the meat and accelerated rigor mortis (P<0.05). HVES caused differences in instrumental color values compared with the control groups across the ageing period at 4 °C. Conclusion: the HVES had positive effects on meat quality and color stability, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.
    9  Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model
    Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka Dharmarathna Susiji Wickramasinghe Roshitha Nilmini Waduge Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe Rajapakse Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne
    2013(9):720-724. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60145-8
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 747.38 K](123)
    Objective: To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods: In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/ mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results: Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35) ×105/µL (P=0.000 04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000 03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions: Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify those chemicals of C. papaya leaves as it can be recommended to be used as a medication to boost thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis in humans and in animals in which these cell lineages have been compromised.
    10  Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria
    Berhanu Andualem
    2013(9):725-731. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60146-X
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 970.82 K](120)
    Objective: To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20 ±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30± 1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.
    11  The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria
    Adel Hamidi Reza Mirnejad Emad Yahaghi Vahid Behnod Ali Mirhosseini Sajad Amani Sara Sattari Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian
    2013(9):732-736. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60147-1
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 682.86 K](115)
    Objective: To determine lactic acid bacteria’s capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods: In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results: Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4% and 34.7% of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions: Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.
    12  Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection
    Ponmurugan Karuppiah Muhammed Mustaffa
    2013(9):737-742. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60148-3
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 746.42 K](128)
    Objective: To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. Methods: The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. Results: All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. Conclusions: The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi- drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.
    13  Detection of class 1 integron in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected from nine hospitals in Turkey
    Aysegul Copur CiCek Azer Ozad Duzgun Aysegul Saral Tuba Kayman Zeynep Cizmeci Pervin Ozlem Balci Tuba Dal Mehmet Firat Ismail Tosun Yasemin Ay Alitntop Ahmet Caliskan Yelda Yazici Cemal Sandalli
    2013(9):743-747. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60149-5
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](119)
    Objective: To investigate the antibiotic resistance genes inserted into class 1 and class 2 integrons in Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) isolates obtained from nine different cities in Turkey. Methods: A collection of 281 A. baumannii clinical isolates were collected from nine diferent state hospitals in Turkey and were confirmed as A. baumannii by conventional biochemical, API testing and bla-OXA-51 specific PCR. The isolates were examined by PCR for existence of class 1 and 2 integron gene cassettes. Results: They were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the highest resistance rates were determined for piperacillin (90.03%), ciprofloxacin (87.54%), cefepime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (81.13%). The lowest resistance rates was for cefotaxime (3.55%). class Ⅰ integrons were detected in 6.4% (18/281) of A. baumannii strains and no class 2 integron was detected. The gene cassettes of class 1 integrons AacC1-AAC(3)I-aadA1, AacC1-aadA1, AAC(3)-Ⅰ, AAC(3)-Ⅰ -AAC(3)-Ⅰ -aadA1, TEM-1, AAC(3)-Ⅰ-aadA1 - AAC(3)-Ⅰ -AAC(3)-I, AAC(3)-Ⅰ -AAC(3)-Ⅰ -AAC(3)-Ⅰ -aadA1, AAC(3)-Ⅰ - aadA1, AAC(3)-Ⅰ-AAC(3)-Ⅰ, AAC(3)-Ⅰ-aadA1- AAC(3)-Ⅰ-aadA1, AAC(3)-Ⅰ- AAC(3)-Ⅰ- aadA1-AAC(3)-Ⅰ-aadA1 were detected in eighteen strains. The aac genes family were most frequently found integrated into the class 1 integrons and it was followed by aadA genes and TEM-1 genes. Conclusions: This is an extensive study on the distribution of class 1 integron among A. baumannii in Turkey. In addition to these, two new alleles were observed. Their percentage rates of similarity to other cassettes are 95% aadA1 ( TKA18) and 89% aadA1 (ANKA3).
    14  A case of misdiagnose of malaria infection
    Mahdavi Seif Ali Raeesi Ahmad Faraji Leyla Youssefi Mohammad Reza Rahimi Mohammad Taghi
    2013(9):748-750. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60150-1
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 662.19 K](122)
    A case of malaria infection in a 42-year-old woman in rural area of Mahmodabad, Mazandaran Province, North Iran was reported and discussed elaborately. She was complaining about recurrent fevers, sweating, headache and myalgia in back. After her first admission to hospital due to misdiagnose she did not receive proper treatment and the patient suffered from clinical manifestations again. Eventually in the second admission to another hospital, after a precise examination on her thick and thin blood smear the agent of disease was recognized appropriately as Plasmodium vivax and treated accordingly.
    15  Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response
    Chuchard Punsawad
    2013(9):751-756. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60151-3
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 352.57 K](119)
    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

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