Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Bovine salmonellosis in Northeast of Iran: Frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.
    Hessam A. Halimi Hesam A. Seifi Mehrnaz Rad
    2014(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60199-4
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 883.29 K](76)
    Objective: To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from healthy, diseased and necropsied cows and calves in this observational study. Methods: Nineteen isolates recovered from feces and tissues of salmonellosis-affected animals of two commercial farms in north-east of Iran. In second part of the study, the two farms were sampled 4 times with an interval of 2 month. The samples included calves’ feces, adult cows’ feces, feeds, water, milk filters, and milk fed to calves. Five Salmonella were isolated from 332 fecal samples collected from calves and peri-parturient cows. No Salmonella was recovered from water, feed, milk filers and milk fed to calves. Results: Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolate among all sero-groups. S. Dublin was only accounted for 8% (two out of 24) of isolates. Isolated Salmonella strains were used for the ERIC PCR DNA fingerprinting assay. Our results grouped Salmonella isolates into 3 clusters, suggesting that specific genotypes were responsible for each sero-group of Salmonella. The results also revealed diversity among Salmonella isolates in cluster Ⅲ (sero-group B). Eighteen out of 19 Salmonella spp. were resistant to oxytetracycline. Five isolates out of 19 showed more than one drug resistance. Multi-drug resistance was seen only among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Enrofloxacin was the most susceptible antibiotic against all isolates in this study. Conclusion: The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background.
    2  Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens
    Mohamed-Wael Abdelazeem Mohamed Moemen Abdel Azeem Mohamed Abdel Mageed
    2014(1):8-12. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60200-8
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](78)
    Objective: To characterize Pasteurella isolated from backyard chickens using whole cell protein lysate profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to show their genetic relationship because Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important cause of fatal infections in backyard chickens. Methods: Twenty one P. multocida isolates were recovered previously from clinical cases of fowl cholera belonging to individual owners and phenotypically analyzed using biochemical tests and serotyping were used for the genetic characterization. Results: Phylogenetic study based on both methods revealed that the recovered population of P. multocida isolated from backyard chickens differs markedly, constituting a well-separated cluster and appearance of 3 distinguishing lineages with greater discrimination shown by RAPD- PCR that resulted in two suclusters in cluster A and three subclusters in cluster B and were related greatly with capsular serogroups for the examined strains. The whole cell protein revealed the presence of dominant protein bands at approximately 41 and 61 kDa in all of the examined isolates that may be a virulent proteins share in the increasing of its pathogenicity. Clear distinctive bands ranged from 123 to 1 554 bp. Conclusions: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird types and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission.
    3  Morphological study of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of the flatfish common solea (Solea solea) and its relation to the type of feeding
    Neveen El Said Reda El Bakary
    2014(1):13-17. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60201-X
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.03 M](76)
    Objective: To investigate the surface architecture of the asymmetrical buccal cavity of Solea solea which are considered one of the most important predators in benthic communities. Methods: Adult Solea solea were obtained from Mediterranean Sea near Damietta. The heads were removed and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Its buccal cavity is asymmetrical and divided into roof and floor and the tongue for histological studies. Results: The buccal cavity roof is formed from upper jaw, velum and the palate. The upper jaw has several wing like processes with teeth arranged in several rows which may help in cutting and pushing the food to the entrance of the digestive canal while the floor is formed from the lower jaw and the tongue. The tongue is divided into apex, body and root. There is a gradual decrease of goblet cells in the tongue from anterior to posterior. These goblet cells function in protection of the epithelium. Conclusions: Teeth in the floor of the buccal cavity and taste buds can be considered adaptive changes of the oral cavity related to the feeding habits and was a source to identify new and better methods of nutrition in aquaculture of Solea solea.
    4  Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots
    Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin Sm Faysal Bellah Sarder Mohammad Raussel Rahman Ahmed Ayedur Rahman Gazi Mohammad Monjur Murshid Talha Bin Emran
    2014(1):18-24. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60202-1
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 819.47 K](75)
    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods: Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions: The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.
    5  Potential in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Holigarna arnottiana (Hook F)
    Aseer Manilal Akbar Idhayadhulla
    2014(1):25-29. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60203-3
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.03 M](81)
    Objective: To explore the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Holigarna arnottiana (H. arnottiana) against human and shrimp pathogenic bacteria and use GC-MS analysis to elucidate its antimicrobial principles. Methods: In the present study, organic extract of H. arnottiana was examined for in vitro antimicrobial potency against five clinical human pathogens, seven species of human type culture pathogens, six pathogenic Vibrio strains isolated from moribund tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and seven type cultures (Microbial Type Culture Collection, MTCC) of prominent shrimp pathogens. Results: The extraction of H. arnottiana with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that efficiently repressed the growth of all tested pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, shrimp pathogens were the most susceptible organisms while clinical pathogens were found to be a little resistant. The chemical constituents of the H. arnottiana were analysed by GC-MS which revealed the presence of major compounds such as 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-o1 (42.1%), 1-lodo-2-methylundecane (34.5%) and squalene (11.1%) which might have a functional role in the chemical defence against microbial invasion. Conclusions: Based on the finding it could be inferred that H. arnottiana would be a reliable source for developing shrimp and human bio-therapeutics in future.
    6  Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes
    Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke Ovie Princewill Okoro Shola Hezekiah Awojide Ilias Olufemi Awoniyi
    2014(1):30-34. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60204-5
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](74)
    Objective: To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method: The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC- MthSe wlahrvilaee t hofe Ala. raveigcyidpatil abnioda Css.a qyu winaqsu cefaarsrcieiadt uosu ti nu saicncgo rddiaffnecreen wt icthon tcheen sttraantidoanrsd o pf rtohteo cooill.s against Results: The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) tarsi mitest hpyriln (c2i7p.1al constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4- %) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control.
    7  Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)
    Savitri Shrestha Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha Latha Muuaiah Ramanna Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa
    2014(1):35-39. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60205-7
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.23 M](71)
    Objective: To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions: The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.
    8  In vitro callus induction and plantlet regeneration of Achyranthes aspera L., a high value medicinal plant
    Monokesh Kumer Sen Shamima Nasrin Shahedur Rahman Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal
    2014(1):40-46. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60206-9
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 426.49 K](79)
    Objective: To study callus induction from different explants (internode, leaf, root) and in vitro plantlets propagation from medicinally important plant Achyranthes aspera L. Methods: Sterilized explants were prepared by using 0.1% HgCl2 and 0.5% Bavistin and callus was obtained when cultured onto Murashige Skoog’s (MS) medium by using different concentrations and combination of 2,4-D, NAA, BAP, IAA, IBA with 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar. Induced callus was immediately transferred to MS medium containing at different concentrations of phytohormones for shootlets and rootlets induction respectively. Results: Sterilization treatment of 0.1% HgCl2 for 2-3 min and Bavistin 0.5% for 10-12 min showed the highest percentage of asepsis and survival rate. Maximum induction of callus was obtained from a combination of 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L NAA from leaf. Highest shootlets number (4.83±0.17) and length (3.8±0.16) cm were observed on full strength MS medium when fortified with BAP 4.0 mg/L and KIN 0.5 mg/L. Concerted efforts of BAP 2.0 mg/L and NAA 0.5 mg/L on full strength MS medium showed highest leaf number (6.77±0.94). In vitro raised shoots were allowed to root on different strengths of MS medium fortified with IAA and IBA at different concentrations. Experimentally, 3.0 mg/L IBA was enabled to induce maximum rootlets number (10.0±9.82) on full strength MS medium. Afterwards, regenerated shoots with well developed roots were successfully subjected to hardening process and were acclimatized. The survived plantlets showed 66.67% survival frequency without any morphological abnormality. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that different explants were good source of callus induction, morphology analysis as well as indirect plantlets regeneration.
    9  Molecular characterization, biological forms and sporozoite rate of Anopheles stephensi in southern Iran
    Ali Reza Chavshin Mohammad Ali Oshaghi Hasan Vatandoost Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd Ahmad Raeisi Fatemeh Nikpoor
    2014(1):47-51. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60207-0
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 855.84 K](79)
    Objective: To identify the biological forms, sporozoite rate and molecular characterization of the Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) in Hormozgan and Sistan-Baluchistan provinces, the most important malarious areas in Iran. Methods: Wild live An. stephensi samples were collected from different malarious areas in southern Iran. The biological forms were identified based on number of egg-ridges. Molecular characterization of biological forms was verified by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ and Ⅱ (mtDNA-COI/COII). The Plasmodium infection was examined in the wild female specimens by species-specific nested–PCR method. Results: Results showed that all three biological forms including mysorensis, intermediate and type are present in the study areas. Molecular investigations revealed no genetic variation between mtDNA COI/COII sequences of the biological forms and no Plasmodium parasites was detected in the collected mosquito samples. Conclusions: Presence of three biological forms with identical sequences showed that the known biological forms belong to a single taxon and the various vectorial capacities reported for these forms are more likely corresponded to other epidemiological factors than to the morphotype of the populations. Lack of malaria parasite infection in An. stephensi, the most important vector of malaria, may be partly due to the success and achievement of ongoing active malaria control program in the region.
    10  Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats
    Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed Haggag Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
    2014(1):52-58. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60208-2
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 901.01 K](75)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods: The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group Ⅰ), margarine (Group Ⅱ), olive oil (Group Ⅲ), sunflower oil (Group Ⅳ) and corn oil (Group Ⅴ) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups Ⅳ and Ⅴ when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.
    11  Serum uric acid level in newly diagnosed essential hypertension in a Nepalese population: A hospital based cross sectional study
    Bibek Poudel Binod Kumar Yadav Arun Kumar Bharat Jha Kanak Bahadur Raut
    2014(1):59-64. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60209-4
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 754.41 K](74)
    Objective: To develop the missing link between hyperuricemia and hypertension. Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Nephrology Unit of Internal Medicine Department. Hypertension was defined according to blood pressure readings by definitions of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee. Totally 205 newly diagnosed and untreated essential hypertensive cases and age-sex matched normotensive controls were enrolled in the study. The potential confounding factors of hyperuricemia and hypertension in both cases and controls were controlled. Uric acid levels in all participants were analyzed. Results: Renal function between newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and normotensive healthy controls were adjusted. The mean serum uric acid observed in newly diagnosed hypertensive cases and in normotensive healthy controls were (290.05±87.05) µmol/L and (245.24±99.38) µmol/L respectively. A total of 59 (28.8%) participants of cases and 28 (13.7%) participants of controls had hyperuricemia (odds ratio 2.555 (95% CI: 1.549-4.213), P<0.001). Conclusions: The mean serum uric acid levels and number of hyperuricemic subjects were found to be significantly higher in cases when compared to controls.
    12  Prevalence of HIV infection and the correlates among homeless in Tehran, Iran
    Abbas Ostad Taghi zadeh SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi Farshad Fakhimi Hassanzad Mehdi Hajizadeh SeyedNajmeddin Mohamadi Sahra Emamzadeh-Fard Koosha Paydary Mostafa Hosseini
    2014(1):65-68. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60210-0
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 712.88 K](79)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among homeless men and women and the related risk behaviors in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In 2007-2008, Tehran municipality stacked up 10 657 homeless men and women for assessment of HIV and began collaboration with Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA) departments to conduct HIV infection prevalence surveys in homeless populations. The results were analyzed for associations with demographic information, family support, status of drug abuse and relation with family and friends. Results: Overall HIV prevalence was 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.4-1.9). Factors independently associated with HIV infection included history of using drugs [AOR 8.15 (4.86-13.67)], older age [AOR 1.80 (1.08-2.99) for 40- 55 yr], occupation [AOR 1.64 (1.19-2.24) for unemployed], and no relation with family [AOR 1.82 (1.30-2.54)]. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that injection drug use is contributing to the increased spread of HIV among Iranian homeless. Harm reduction programs should be expanded, particularly among homeless injection drug users.
    13  Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Doudou Yobi Renaud Piarroux Coralie LOllivier Jacqueline Franck Hypolite Situakibanza Hypolite Muhindo Patrick Mitashi Raquel Andreia Inocêncio da Luz Marc Van Sprundel Marleen Boelaert Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden Pascal Lutumba
    2014(1):69-74. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60211-2
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 670.69 K](74)
    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results: A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion: In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo- infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
    14  Coexistence of pneumothorax and chilaiditi sign: A case report
    Tangri Nitin Singhal Sameer Sharma Priyanka Mehta Dinesh Bansal Sachin Bhushan Neeraj Singla Sulbha Singh Puneet
    2014(1):75-77. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60212-4
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 929.90 K](87)
    We present a case of 50 year old male patient with coexistence of Pneumothorax and Chilaiditi sign. Chilaiditi sign is an incidental radiographic finding of a usually asymptomatic condition in which a part of intestine is located between the liver and diaphragm; however, the term “Chilaiditi syndrome” is used for symptomatic hepatodiaphragmatic interposition. The patient had no symptoms of abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, or emesis. Incidentally, Chilaiditi sign was diagnosed on chest radiography. Pneumothorax is defined as air in the pleural space. Pneumothoraces are classified as spontaneous or traumatic. Spontaneous pneumothorax is labelled as primary when no underlying lung disease is present, or secondary, when it is associated with pre-existing lung disease. Our case is the rare in the literature indicating the coexistence of Chilaiditi sign and pneumothorax.
    15  Herbal antioxidant in clinical practice: A review
    Shashi Alok Sanjay Kumar Jain Amita Verma Mayank Kumar Alok Mahor Monika Sabharwal
    2014(1):78-84. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60213-6
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 744.51 K](75)
    Antioxidant-the word itself is magic. Using the antioxidant concept as a spearhead in proposed mechanisms for staving off so-called "free-radical" reactions, the rush is on to mine claims for the latest and most effective combination of free-radical scavenging compounds. We must acknowledge that such "radicals" have definitively been shown to damage all biochemical components such as DNA/RNA, carbohydrates, unsaturated lipids, proteins, and micronutrients such as carotenoids (alpha and beta carotene, lycopene), vitamins A, B6, B12, and folate. Defense strategies against such aggressive radical species include enzymes, antioxidants that occur naturally in the body (glutathione, uric acid, ubiquinol-10, and others) and radical scavenging nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and carotenoids. This paper will present a brief discussion of some well- and little-known herbs that may add to the optimization of antioxidant status and therefore offer added preventive values for overall health. It is important to state at the outset that antioxidants vary widely in their free-radical quenching effects and each may be individually attracted to specific cell sites. Further evidence of the specialized nature of the carotenoids is demonstrated by the appearance of two carotenoids in the macula region of the retina where beta-carotene is totally absent.

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