Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia
    Tawisa Jiyipong Sathaporn Jittapalapong Serge Morand Jean-Marc Rolain
    2014(10):757-767. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C742
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 447.27 K](65)
    In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.
    2  Antihyperlipidemic activity of the medicinal plants among Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia: a review
    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
    2014(10):768-779. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1144
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 421.01 K](86)
    Sabah is one of the 13 states within the Federation of Malaysia and is located in the northernmost part of Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia with a landmass of approximately 7.4 million hectares. The total forested area is 4.7 million hectares. Sabah, being part of Borneo, is rich in plant biodiversity. There is also an abundance of medicinal plants and other plants for everyday use. There is a great awarness regarding association between low density lipoprotein reduction and decreased cardiovascular disease mortality. The antihyperlipidaemic activity of herbs plays an important role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, which is the top disease that causes mortality all over the world. Lipid-lowering activity of medicinal plant for phytomedicine research and drug development for such a disease are now focused all over the world. A plant-based diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and legumes and low in saturated fat is an effective prescription for anyone with more severe atherosclerosis. Howerver, there are few herbs available that provide some protection for persons with the above disease. The antihyperlipidaemia property in plant plays a vital role to reduce atherosclerosis. Thus, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this review an attempt has been made to give an overview of the antihyperlipidemic activity in traditional medicinal plants found widely in Kadazan and Dusun communities in Sabah, Malaysia. The antihyperlipidemic activity of the traditional medicinal plants in these communities is more helpful for the development of new drugs used in the protection against dyslipidemia or atherosclerosis.
    3  A review study on medicinal plants used in the treatment of learning and memory impairments
    Nahid Jivad Zahra Rabiei
    2014(10):780-789. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0412
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 403.43 K](76)
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that gradually impairs the person's memory and ability to learn, reasoning, judgment, communication and daily activities. AD is characterized clinically by cognitive impairment and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and the degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain. During the progression of AD patients may produce changes in personality and behavior, such as anxiety, paranoia, confusion, hallucinations and also to experience delusions and fantasies. The first neurotransmitter defect discovered in AD involved acetylcholine as cholinergic function is required for short-term memory. Oxidative stress may underlie the progressive neurodegeneration characteristic of AD. Brain structures supporting memory are uniquely sensitive to oxidative stress due to their elevated demand for oxygen. The neurodegenerative process in AD may involve β amyloid toxicity. Neurotoxicity of β amyloid appears to involve oxidative stress. Currently, there is no cure for this disease but in new treatments, reveals a new horizon on the biology of this disease. This paper reviews the effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for the treatment of AD. The objective of this article was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to determine whether herbs can be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly.
    4  Clinical presentation of the new emerging infectious disease, H6N1 bird flu
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(10):790-790. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1251
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 249.20 K](70)
    5  Acute pancreatitis induced by Viburnum opulus juice in a patient with urolithiasis
    Zuhal Dag Galip Akturk Levent Filik
    2014(10):791-791. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B308
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 258.17 K](74)
    6  Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L.
    Nripendra Nath Biswas Subarna Saha Mohammed Khadem Ali
    2014(10):792-797. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1298
    [Abstract](45) [HTML](0) [PDF 460.67 K](84)
    Objective: To investigate potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. in different in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods: In vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant extract. In vivo analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid-induced writhing test in Swiss albino mice. All studies in mice were undertaken at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Antibacterial activity was studied by disk diffusion assay against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to investigate cytotoxicity effects of the plant extract. Results: The extract showed free radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay (IC50~41 µg/mL) compared to the standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (IC50~19 µg/mL). The extract also produced prominent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydii, Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus aureus compared to standard drug kanamycin at the dose of 30 µg/disc. The extract exhibited lethality against the brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50 values of 40 µg/mL, and also 90% mortality (LC90) value was found to be 160 µg/mL. In analgesic test, the extract demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.01) analgesic effect in acetic acid induced writhing in white albino mice at both dose levels. Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis L. has potential antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and analgesic activities that support the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant.
    7  Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)
    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo Herisolo Andrianiaina Razafindraleva Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina Pierre Hervé Ravelonandro Patrick Mavingui
    2014(10):798-806. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1264
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 385.75 K](73)
    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested. The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.
    8  In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts
    Nadira Binte Samad Trishna Debnath Michael Ye Md. Abul Hasnat Beong Ou Lim
    2014(10):807-815. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1008
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](77)
    Objective: To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, 1,2,2-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid), free radical induced DNA damage, superoxide dismutase-like and catalase assay etc. Furthermore, 1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts. Results: Total phenolic contents were found (115.0±3.0) and (4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts, respectively and flavonoid contents were (1 942.8±7.0) and (1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts, respectively. Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (IC50 at 1.8 mg/ mL and 2.05 mg/mL, respectively), 1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (IC50 at 1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively) and nitrite (IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively) etc. The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.
    9  In vitro antibacterial activity of leaf extracts of Zehneria scabra and Ricinus communis against Escherichia coli and methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus
    Bereket Abew Samuel Sahile Feleke Moges
    2014(10):816-820. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B16
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 345.09 K](81)
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the crude leaves extracts of Zehneria scabra (Z. scabra) and Ricinus communis (R. communis) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistance S. aureus. Methods: The crude powdered leaves of Z. scabra and R. communis were extracted successively by organic solvents in increasing polarity [benzene, chloroform:acetone (1:1), 70% alcohol and distilled water]. The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude leaves extracts of were tested against standard strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922) and S. aureus (ATCC 2923) and clinical isolates of E. coli, S. aureus and methicillin resistance S. aureus using agar well diffusion method. Results: In Z. scabra and R. communis leaf extracts, the most sensitive standard strain was S. aureus with an inhibition zone of (14.00±1.20) mm and (15.90±2.13) mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Z. scabra extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 3 in clinical and standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 and 4 in clinical and standard strains of E. coli. The MIC values of R. communis extracts against test organisms ranged from 1.95 mg/mL for extract 2 and 3 standard strains of S. aureus to 250 mg/mL for extract 1 in clinical isolate of E. coli. Most of the minimum bactericidal concentration and MIC values of plant extracts were almost similar particularly in R. communis, or minimum bactericidal concentration equal to one dilution factor less than MIC value of the extracts mainly in Z. scabra. Conclusions: The potency of plant extracts against test organisms were depend on different organic solvents used. Clinical isolate of bacterial pathogens showed less zones of diameter compared to the standard strains. Gram-positive had wide inhibition zones than Gram-negative bacteria. Further studies should be carried out to isolate the pure compounds and standardization of the methods of plant extracts for an in vitro testing.
    10  Some challenges in progressive control of livestock originated zoonotic diseases in Pakistan–a pilot survey
    Furqan Awan Muhammad Muddassir Ali Umair Iqbal Irfan Khattak Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq
    2014(10):821-824. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0001
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 286.01 K](74)
    Objective: To document the recent livestock related practices and possible unhygienic ways of pathogen entry. Identification of the potential risk factors for the spread of infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. Methods: Rapid assessment method was adopted and a purposive sample of 60 dairy farmers were interviewed. The following factors were noted for contributing in primary and secondary transmission of zoonotic infections: (Ⅰ) persons who come in close contact with animals and their secretions, (Ⅱ) management strategies of farm animals (sheds and environment), (Ⅲ) management practices adopted at farms, (Ⅳ) small scale farmers and rural livestock production systems, (Ⅴ) milk collection systems. Results: This research unveiled the certain routes of zoonotic disease transmission. Certain management practices, precautionary measures and strategies were the pivotal risk factors. Conclusions: The study emphasizes the need to educate the poor livestock keepers.
    11  Production and purification of a bioactive substance against multi-drug resistant human pathogens from the marine-sponge-derived Salinispora sp.
    Satyendra Singh Pritesh Prasad Ramesh Subramani William Aalbersberg
    2014(10):825-831. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1154
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 760.44 K](73)
    Objective: To isolate, purify, characterize, elucidate structure and evaluate bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived Salinispora sp. FS-0034. Methods: The symbiotic actinomycete strain FS-0034 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from the Fijian marine sponge Theonella sp. Based on colony morphology and obligatory requirement of seawater for growth, and mycelia morphological characteristics the isolate FS-0034 was identified as a Salinispora sp. The bioactive compound was identified by using various spectral analysis of ultraviolet, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence spectral data. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay were performed to evaluate the biological properties of the pure compound against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Results: Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Salinispora sp. FS-0034 by different chromatographic methods yielded the isolation of an antibacterial compound, which was identified as rifamycin W (compound 1). Rifamycin W was reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, wild type Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 15.62, 7.80 and 250.00 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study reported the rifamycin W from sponge-associated Salinispora sp. and it exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens which indicated that sponge-associated Actinobacteria are significant sources of bioactive metabolites.
    12  Calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)
    Chisoni Mumba David Squarre Maxwel Mwase John Yabe Tomoyuki Shibahara
    2014(10):832-834. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1332
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 933.28 K](81)
    This article reports a first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a captive African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Histopathology demonstrated well defined multiple cystic structures containing granular, dark basophilic materials with peripheral granulomatous reaction, characterized by presence of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by a varying amounts of fibrous connective tissues. Special staining with von Kossa revealed black stained deposits confirming the presence of calcium salts.
    13  Human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by the sheep botfly Oestrus ovis: a case report from Karachi, Pakistan
    Naima Fasih Kanza Noor Qaiser Syeda Aisha Bokhari Bushra Jamil Mohammad Asim Beg
    2014(10):835-837. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C901
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 518.55 K](73)
    Ocular myiasis due to Oestrus ovis larvae infestation is an eye infection in humans. A case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young male from Karachi, Pakistan in winter (December 2012), without history of close proximity to domestic animals or visit to any rural area was reported. The condition is self-limiting and the disease is confined to the conjunctiva. The eye was locally anesthetized and washed with 5% povidine iodine solution. A total number of 27 first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis were removed with fine forceps. The patient received 0.5% moxifloxacin and diclofenac eye drops for one week. His eye was examined after one day, one week and one month and the recovery status was favorable. The present case raise the awareness among ophthalmologists regarding larval conjunctivitis as one of the causes of conjunctivitis and it can occur throughout the year in any season including winter. Moreover, it can occurr in any area either rural or urban with or without close proximity to domestic animals especially in subtropical regions with high parasitic burden.
    14  Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host
    Madan Raj Aryal Paras Karmacharya Amrit Pokharel Smith Giri Ranjan Pathak Richard Alweis
    2014(10):838-840. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0012
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 619.68 K](72)
    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to non-specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

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