Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Key features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: a review
    Zulane Lima Sousa
    2014(11):841-844. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B420
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 304.37 K](132)
    Abstract:
    The current outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has become a devastating problem, with a mortality rate around 51%; over 3 132 deaths have been confirmed and even more are expected in this case. The virus causes a characteristic disease known as hemorrhagic fever. Its symptoms range from nonspecific signs such as fever, to more specific problems such as serious bleeding. Transmission occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated fluids. Treatment is supportive because there are still no specific drugs for use. The present review focuses on the main features related to the Ebola virus, its transmission, pathogenesis, treatment and control forms. There is little in-depth knowledge about this disease, but its severity requires attention and information to prevent a worse scenario than the current.
    2  New Ebola virus in 2014: do identified mutated amino acids in the viral sequences sense?
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(11):845-845. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0459
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 248.16 K](112)
    Abstract:
    3  Binding site prediction within Ebola virus VP40 protein: clue for further drug developmen
    Somsri Wiwanitkit
    2014(11):846. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0431
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 275.96 K](109)
    Abstract:
    4  Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review
    Prameela Kannan Kutty
    2014(11):847-858. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B355
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.02 M](119)
    Abstract:
    Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding, some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits. Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.
    5  Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites
    Abid Ali Khan Nafees Bacha Bashir Ahmad Ghosia Lutfullah Umar Farooq Russell John Cox
    2014(11):859-870. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0230
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 933.53 K](114)
    Abstract:
    Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding, some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits. Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.
    6  Characteristics of bacterial sepsis among patients with visceral leishmaniasis
    Mengistu Endris Yegnasew Takele Desalegn Woldeyohannes Chandrashekhar Unakal Feleke Moges Moges Tiruneh Ermias Diro
    2014(11):871-875. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1133
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 322.65 K](118)
    Abstract:
    Sepsis is one of the major causes and predictors of death in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Globally, incidence rate of sepsis ranged from 56-91 cases per 100 000 people, with a mortality rate of 30%. Incidence of sepsis has been raised due to aging of the population and the higher incidence of immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV, VL and others. The prevalence of sepsis was reported from 4.2% to 32.3% and 14.1% in VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients, respectively. The mortality rate of VL patients with sepsis is greater than 50%. Factors associated with sepsis in VL patients are immune suppression, pancytopenia, HIV co-infection, age <1 year old and >40 years old, indwelling of central venous lines and hospitalization. Although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were not well reported, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from patients with VL. So far, limited information is available on sepsis in VL, especially in VL-HIV coinfected patients. Therefore, further studies about sepsis prevalence, causative agents and their antibiotic patterns, and associated factors among VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients are necessary. This review provides information about bacterial sepsis in patients with VL.
    7  Antimicrobial activity of latex silver nanoparticles using Calotropis procera
    Nadia Hussein Mohamed Mady Ahmed Ismail Wael Moustfa Abdel-Mageed Ahmed Abdelfattah Mohamed Shoreit
    2014(11):876-883. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B216
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.31 M](153)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by green methods using serum latex of Calotropis procera at 80 °C and evaluate them against bacteria, dermatophytes and phytopathogenic fungi comparing with the activity of untreated latex. Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed by mixing 3% latex serum extract with the same volume of silver nitrate (2 mmol/L) solution in round flask and heating in water bath at 80 °C. Characterization of silver particles were determined using UV-vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the green synthesized AgNPs was determined against bacteria, dermatophytes and phytopathogenic fungi and compared to the crude untreated latex by agar-well diffusion methods. Results: Biosynthesis of latex silver nanoparticles was successfully obtained by green method. The formation of AgNPs has been confirmed by UV-vis, TEM microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that synthesized AgNPs are highly stable spherical shaped particles, well dispersed with a diameter ranged from 4 nm up to 25 nm and an average size of 12.33 nm. AgNPs showed strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia sp.) and antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus terreus. Conclusions: It can be concluded that serum latex of Calotropis procera was found to display strong potential for the synthesis of AgNPs as antimicrobial agents through rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). The green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy than crude latex.
    8  In vivo analysis of toxic effect of hydrose used in food preparations in Bangladesh
    Tuhin Reza Sharmin Aktar Hasan Al Amin Mashiur Rahman Afroza Arefin Nayan Chandra Mohanto Shahnur Alam Abdullah Al Mamun Anwar Habib Asafudullah Farjana Nikkon Khaled Hossain Zahangir Alam Saud
    2014(11):884-889. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B366
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 605.67 K](119)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose used in the molasses preparation in Bangladesh. Methods: Molasses were collected from open markets in different parts of Bangladesh. The presence of hydrose in selected molasses was detected using commercial kit. To evaluate the toxic effect of hydrose, Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. Group Ⅰ was used as control, while Groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ received hydrose mixing food (5, 10 and 25 g/kg food), respectively, and these supplementations were continued to the end of the study (16 weeks). Blood was collected from thoracic arteries of the mice under ether anesthesia and then organs were taken. To determine the effect of hydrose on host, blood indices related to liver, heart and kidney dysfunctions were measured. Results: Creatinine and urea levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in a dose dependent manner in hydrose treated mice, whereas calcium level was significantly decreased in hydrose exposed mice compared to control mice. Histological study of kidney showed the glomeruler inflammation, increased diameter of renal glomeruli and enlargement of proximal tubular lumen of kidneys of mice exposed to hydrose compared to that of control animals. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that use of hydrose in molasses and other food preparations in Bangladesh may cause kidney impairment.
    9  Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected Thai weed extracts
    Narintorn Rattanata Sakda Daduang Suthep Phaetchanla Wandee Bunyatratchata Bundit Promraksa Ratree Tavichakorntrakool Phangthip Uthaiwat Patcharee Boonsiri Jureerut Daduang
    2014(11):890-895. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0422
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 753.68 K](117)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected weeds commonly found in Northeast Thailand including Ageratum conyzoides L., Alysicarpus vaginalis L., Commelina bengalensis L., Euphorbia hirta L., Hyptis suaveolens L., Parthenocissus quinquefolia L., and Trianthema portulacastrum L. Methods: Ferric reducing antioxidant power and radical scavenging activity of the aqueous and ethanol weed extracts were determined. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were done. Antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Ralstonia spp., Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was performed by disc diffusion assay. Results: The results showed that Euphorbia hirta extract had the highest total phenolic contents and was the most effective against most of the test organisms compared to the other weed extracts. Hyptis suaveolens ethanol extract weakly inhibited Ralstonia spp. and Salmonella spp. (10.42% and 9.84% inhibition, respectively). Trianthema portulacastrum ethanol extract had 20.10% inhibition against Shigella spp. Parthenocissus quinquefolia aqueous extract strongly inhibited Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila with 55.90% and 59.68% inhibition, respectively. Conclusions: These weeds may be serving as a potential source of antibacterial agents.
    10  Effect of Hypericum perforatum L. compared with metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized trial
    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi Zahra Mohammadzadeh Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili Yousef Javadzadeh
    2014(11):896-902. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B160
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 365.93 K](112)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare effect of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) vaginal gel with metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis (BV) in terms of initial response to treatment and preventing recurrence (primary outcomes) and also patient complaints (secondary outcomes). Methods: In this double-blind, double dummy trial, married women aged 18-49 with BV were randomized into two groups and administered 5 g of 3% H. perforatum and placebo of metronidazole (n=82), or 5 g of 0.75% metronidazole and placebo of H. perforatum (n=80) vaginally for 5 d. Amsel criteria were used for diagnosis and assessing cure and recurrence of BV. The comparisons was done using Chi-square, Fisher's exact and logistic regression. Results: At 10-12 d, cure rate was 82% in the H. perforatum and 85% in metronidazole group (risk ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.3). Among the cured women, recurrence rate was 9% in the H. perforatum and 13% in the metronidazole group at the 30-35 d visit (risk ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 1.3). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding any patient complaints, except itching which was less in H. perforatum group (5% vs. 16%, P=0.018 at the first and 13% vs. 43%, P<0.001 at the second follow-up). No significant adverse event was reported at any groups. Conclusions: H. perforatum could be a good option for treatment of BV. However, further studies are needed for its public use.
    11  Phenolic composition and inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica and Mucuna urens seeds extracts against key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes
    Emmanuel Anyachukwu Irondi Ganiyu Oboh Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi Aline Augusti Boligon Margareth Linde Athayde
    2014(11):903-910. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B364
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 671.69 K](148)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the phenolic compounds composition and the inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica (M. indica) and Mucuna urens (M. urens) seeds extracts against some key enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase) implicated in the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes in vitro. Methods: Reverse phase chromatographic quantification of the major flavonoids and phenolic acids in the seeds extracts was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. The inhibitory activities of the seeds extracts against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were estimated using soluble starch and ϱ-nitrophenylglucopyranoside as their respective substrates. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by the extracts was assayed using partially purified lens homogenate of normal male rat as source of enzyme; inhibition of Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation by extracts was tested in rat pancreas homogenate. Results: The chromatography result revealed that extracts of both seeds had appreciable levels of some major flavonoids and phenolic acids of pharmacological importance, including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Extracts of both seeds effectively inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities in a dose-dependent manner, having inhibitory preference for these enzymes in the order of aldose reductase>α-glucosidase>α-amylase. With lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase, M. indica had stronger inhibitory potency against these enzymes than M. urens. Extracts of both seeds also inhibited Fe2+ -induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent pattern, with M. indica being more potent than M. urens. Conclusions: The results obtained provide support for a possible use of M. indica and M. urens seeds in managing hyperglycemia and preventing the complications associated with it in type 2 diabetes.
    12  Susceptibility of microorganism to selected medicinal plants in Bangladesh
    S. M. Masud Rana Md. Mustahsan Billah Mohammad Salim Hossain A. K. M. Saifuddin S. K. M. Azizul Islam Sujan Banik Zannatul Naim Golam Sarwar Raju
    2014(11):911-917. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B362
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 359.32 K](119)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some ethno-pharmacologically significant medicinal plants (methanol extract) against the pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans). Methods: The disc diffusion method was applied for antibacterial test and the poisoned food technique was applied for antifungal test. Results: The methanol extract of Terminalia chebula (bark), Phyllanthus acidus (fruits), Sarcochlamys pulcherrima (leaves) and Abelmoschus esculentus (fruits) had significant in vitro antibacterial activity angainst the entire test samples in comparison to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Most of the plant extracts showed low activity against Gram negative bacteria while potential activity against Gram positive bacteria. The antifungal activities of methanol extracts of these plants and standard drug griseofulvin were determined against two pathogenic fungi, and Polygonum lapathifolium (leaves) and Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) showed maximum activity, while Erioglossum rubiginosum (leaves) showed no antifungal activity. Conclusions: Further chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to identify and isolate chemical constituents responsible for these potential bioactivities and thus to determine their full spectrum of efficacy.
    13  Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran
    Hassan Khoramian Mohsen Arbabi Mahmood Mahami Osqoi Mahdi Delavari Hossein Hooshyar Mohammarreza Asgari
    2014(11):918-922. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0157
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.01 K](110)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and economic losses of Fasciola spp. isolates and costs incurred due to liver condemnation from ruminants in Kashan region, center of Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total number of 251 325 slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle (88 939 sheep, 151 924 goats and 10 462 cattle) were examined via necropsy for fasciolasis in industrial Kashan abattoirs located in center of Iran. The average weight was calculated as 1 000 g for sheep, 900 g for goat and 5 000 g for cattle in this study region. Based on market value, the average price of a kilo gram of normal liver at Kashan city during the study period was 8 USD. The amount of main nutrients and vitamins elimination in liver contaminated to fascioliasis was determined. Results: Overall 3.28% of the livers were found to be infected. For total number of sheep, goats and cattle slaughtered annually in region study, it was estimated that 7 505 livers were infected and total annual economic losses of fascioliasis of studied animals was 41 784 USD (based on market prices in study period). Of this, 23 360 USD, 30 240 USD and 15 400 USD were associated with the fascioliasis of sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that the Fasciola sp. clearly remains prevalent and causes considerable economic losses in study region in sheep, goats and cattle and presumably, other areas and hosts of Iran, providing baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic infection in the country.
    14  Multiplex PCR: a powerful and affordable tool for laboratory and field analysis in developing countries
    Mohamed O Ahmed
    2014(11):923-924. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0439
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 254.85 K](108)
    Abstract:

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