Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Ebola: a review on the state of the art on prevention and treatment
    Giuseppe La Torre Vincenzo Nicosia Maurizio Cardi
    2014(12):925-927. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B448
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](175)
    The aim of this paper is to highlight the current development in the research field for helping people just exposed to Ebola virus survive (treatment) and to prevent the disease when given at various times after exposure (vaccine). Concerning the treatment, recombinant anti-Ebola monoclonal antibodies and small interfering RNAs that block the expression of essential viral proteins, are the most promising way in stopping the disease when it has already reached the humans. As far as concerns the prevention field, two candidate vaccines have clinical-grade vials available for phase 1 pre-licensure clinical trials, and demonstrated to have a 100% efficacy in studies on non human primates. Well-informed communities can reduce the main ways of spread the infection, by avoiding unprotected home-based care of people who are infected and also by completely modifying traditional burial practices that are way of diffusion of the contagion.
    2  The Ebola virus: a review of progress and development in research
    Yitades Gebre Teshome Gebre Abena Peters
    2014(12):928-936. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B419
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](161)
    The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.
    3  Ebola virus infection, human Hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p and predicted targets
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(12):937-937. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0484
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](122)
    4  Ramachandran plots of envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus
    Sora Yasri Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(12):938-938. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0465
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](119)
    5  Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(12):939-940. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0477
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](141)
    The drug searching for combating the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection is the urgent activity at present. Finding the new effective drug at present must base on the molecular analysis of the pathogenic virus. The in-depth analysis of the viral protein to find the binding site, active pocket is needed. Here, the authors analyzed the envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus was done. According to this assessment, 7 active pockets with varied druggability could be identified.
    6  Pharmacognostic standardisation of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)
    Isaac Kingsley Amponsah Abraham Yeboah Mensah Antonia Otoo Merlin Lincoln Kwao Mensah Jato Jonathan
    2014(12):941-946. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0416
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](129)
    Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and quality control of Hilleria latifolia (H. latifolia), an important herb in Ghanaian folklore medicine, for the treatment of infections, pain and inflammation. Methods: The macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features, physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H. latifolia were evaluated using standard methods. Results: The plant has simple, alternate leaves with entire margin. The lamina is ovate to broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex. It is hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata. The plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts. Starch grains abound in the roots. The quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard for the correct identification and quality control of H. latifolia.
    7  In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal action of aescin and aescin liposomes against Trypanosoma evansi in experimental mice
    Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera Nathieli Bianchin Bottari Thirssa Helena Grando Roberto Christ Vianna Santos Ana Júlia Figueiró Dalcin Patrícia Gomes Renata Platcheck Raffin Carine Eloise Prestes Zimmerman Janio Morais Santurio Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva
    2014(12):947-951. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0435
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 666.33 K](260)
    Objective: To verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aescin and aescin liposomes against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Aescin and aescin liposomes were used in vitro on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 h). In vivo tests were performed using mice as the experimental model. Trypanosome evansi infected mice were treated with aescin and aescin liposomes with doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg during 4 d. Results: The three concentrations tested in free form and nanoencapsulated showed trypanocidal activity in vitro, completely eliminating the parasites in small concentration after 6 h of assay. Animals treated with aescin (100 mg/kg) and aescin liposomes (100 mg/kg) showed increase in longevity, however without curative effect. Conclusions: Active compounds present in natural products, such as aescin, may potentiate the treatment of trypanosomosis when used in association with other trypanocidal drugs.
    8  Ethnobotanical inventory and medicinal uses of some important woody plant species of Kotli, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan
    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad
    2014(12):952-958. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B381
    [Abstract](54) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](223)
    Objective: To document ethnobotanical informations of useful woody plant species in the region of Kotli, Azad Kashmir. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Kotli. Data were collected by interview and semi structured questionnaire from selected local informants and traditional practitioners as well as by field assessment. Results: The present study documented the etnobotanical uses of 33 woody plant species. Most of the species have been used for dual purpose. Only 5 species are used for one purpose. Study revealed all species have medicinal value, among which 21 were used as fuel wood species, 16 as fodder species, 4 as timber wood species, 12 as edible fruit species, 6 as fence or hedge plant, 7 as ornamental species and 12 species had other uses. Conclusions: Medicinal plants are still widely used for health care by locals of Kotli. Some species of woodlands seem to be vulnerable to overcollection and deforestation. As the young generation is diverted toward allelopathic medicines, ethnobotanical knowledges of important medicinal plants are restricted to the old people only. It is suggested to close the forest of district Kotli for next two to three decades for the conservation of plant biodiversity.
    9  In vitro anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L.)
    Wanigasekera Daya Ratnasooriya
    2014(12):959-963. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0462
    [Abstract](68) [HTML](0) [PDF 623.63 K](508)
    Objective: To access the anti-hyaluronidase activity of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox orange pekoe (OP) grade black tea with a view to develop an anti-aging skin formulation. Methods: Five concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500, 1.000 and 2.000 mg/mL) of black tea brew (BTB) were made using a freeze dried sample of Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea which was prepared according to international organization for standardization specification. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was used as the reference agent (concentrations tested: 0.012, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100 and 0.200 mg/mL). Anti-hyaluronidase activity of BTB and EGCG in vitro were ascertained spectrometrically using hyaluronic acid (from rooster comb) and bovine testicular hyaluronidase. Results: The results revealed that BTB had moderate [IC50= (1.09±0.12) mg/mL] and dose dependent (r 2 =0.94) anti-hyaluronidase activity. EGCG also exhibited dose dependent (r 2 =0.93, P <0.05) anti-hyaluronidase activity which was superior [IC50= (0.09±0.00) mg/mL] to BTB. Conclusions: Sri Lankan low grown orthodox OP grade black tea has promising anti hyaluronidase activity in vitro and has the potential to be used as an anti-aging cosmaceutical. In addition, it may prove useful as a beverage in the management of allergy, some joint diseases and envenomation.
    10  GC-MS analysis, determination of total phenolics, flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activities of various crude extracts of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori leaves
    Mooza Al-Owaisi Nora Al-Hadiwi Shah Alam Khan
    2014(12):964-970. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B295
    [Abstract](76) [HTML](0) [PDF 715.06 K](282)
    Objective: To perform phytochemical screening, estimate total phenolics, flavonoids and to evaluate antioxidant potential of Moringa peregrina (M. peregrine) leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of M. peregrina (150 g) were extracted exhaustively by Soxhlet with ethanol and then fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethy alacetate and methanol. All the prepared extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify and characterize the chemical compounds present in the crude extracts. Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were used to estimate total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts. Hydrogen peroxide and 1,1 diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl were used to determine in vitro antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results revealed presence of 19 phytoconstituents in hexane extract, 6 in ethyl acetate and 7 compounds in methanolic extract. Methanol extract was found to contain the highest phenolic content and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activities of all crude extracts were significant and comparable with the standard ascorbic acid. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the leaves of M. peregrina are the rich source of phenolic compounds that can play an important role in preventing the progression of many diseases.
    11  In vitro germination and propagation of a threatened medicinal orchid, Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. through artificial seed
    Shreeti Pradhan Babulal Tiruwa Bijay Raj Subedee Bijaya Pant
    2014(12):971-976. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0369
    [Abstract](49) [HTML](0) [PDF 651.92 K](208)
    Objective: To study the in vitro germination and plantlet regeneration from artificial seeds of Cymbidium aloifolium (C. aloifolium), a highly threatened medicinal orchid of Nepal. Methods: Artificial seeds were produced in vitro by encapsulation of protocorms with 4% sodium alginate and 0.2 mol/L calcium chloride solution. In vitro germination and plantlet regeneration of the artificial seeds were tested by culturing them on different strength of Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) and MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid. Freshly produced artificial seeds were stored up to 28 d at 4 ºC. In order to check the viability, storage artificial seeds were treated with five different sterilization techniques (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) and inoculated on full strength (1.0) of MS liquid medium after each 7 d of interval upto 28th days. Results: The highest percentage of germination (100%) of artificial seed was obtained on quarter (0.25), half (0.5) and full (1.0) strength of MS liquid medium. Experimentally, full strength of MS liquid medium was more effective for earlier seedling development of C. aloifolium. Artificial seeds were successfully stored at 4 ºC till 28th days. Treatments T1 and T2 showed 97.5% viability of storage artificial seeds and hence considered as the most effective sterilization techniques to recover the plant from storage artificial seeds. Plantlets developed from artificial seeds were successfully acclimatized in potting mixture containing cocopeat, litter and sphagnum moss with 85% survival rate. Conclusions: The present study revealed that artificial seeds are the good alternative explants for in vitro mass propagation and short term conservation of C. aloifolium.
    12  Expression of p-PPARγ in the aging thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone
    Hai-Feng Yuan Xiao-Lin Niu Deng-Feng Gao Guang-Hua Hao An-Qi Song Jin Wei
    2014(12):977-981. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B416
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 762.48 K](229)
    Objective: To investigate the expression of phosphorylated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ) in the aging thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on the phosphorylation of PPARγ. Methods: 16, 32 and 64 week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were randomly and respectively divided into WKY, SHR and SHR+rosiglitazone group (9 in each group). The rats in SHR+rosiglitazone group were treated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 56 d, whereas normal saline was applied in WKY and SHR groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was measured by tail cuff method. Histopathological damage of thoracic aorta was analyzed using Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot were performed to test the level of p-PPARγ protein in the thoracic aorta arising from each group. Results: The SBP in 16, 32 and 64 week-old SHR were significantly higher as compared with those in matched WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). HE staining showed increased content of smooth muscle cell, wrinkled lining endothelium and increased thickness of internal elastic lamina in the thoracic aorta of SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot indicated that the levels of p-PPARγ in the thoracic aorta arising from SHR were obviously higher than those in the thoracic aorta arising from WKY rats (P<0.05, respectively). Importantly, the high SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and elevated p-PPARγ expression were prominently abrogated by rosiglitazone treatment in SHR (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, the SBP, histopathological abnormalities of the thoracic aorta and p-PPARγ expression were positively correlated with age in SHR (P<0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The PPARγ phosphorylation was observed in the thoracic aorta of SHR and its expression was increased by the increase of age. Furthermore, rosiglitazone inhibited the PPARγ phosphorylation and suppressed vascular aging in SHR.
    13  Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes and lung cancer susceptibility in the Bangladeshi population
    Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
    2014(12):982-989. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0476
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 713.22 K](227)
    Objective: To verify possible associations between polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase Mu (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase θ (GSTT1) and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) genes and susceptibility to lung cancer. Methods: A total of 106 lung cancer patients and 116 controls were enrolled in a case-control study. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 were analyzed using PCR while GSTP1 was analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Risk of lung cancer was estimated as odds ratio at 95% confidence interval using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and tobacco use. Results: GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes did not show a significant risk for developing lung cancer. A significantly elevated lung cancer risk was associated with GSTP1 heterozygous, mutant and combined heterozygous+mutant variants of rs1695. When classified by tobacco consumption status, no association with risk of lung cancer was found in case of tobacco smokers and nonsmokers carrying null and present genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1. There is a three-fold (approximately) increase in the risk of lung cancer in case of both heterozygous (AG) and heterozygous+mutant homozygous (AG+GG) genotypes whereas there is an eight fold increase in risk of lung cancer in cases of GG with respect to AA genotype in smokers. Conclusions: Carrying the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype is not a risk factor for lung cancer and GSTP1Ile105Val is associated with elevated risk of lung cancer.
    14  Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses
    Amir Kamali
    2014(12):990-994. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B378
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 787.18 K](229)
    Objective: To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.
    15  Seroprevalence of syphilis in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Southern India
    Sadia Khan
    2014(12):995-997. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B413
    [Abstract](62) [HTML](0) [PDF 587.12 K](265)
    Objective: To report our experience with two tests, anti-cardiolipin antibody test [venereal disease reasearch laboratory (VDRL) test] and specific treponemal test (Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay), used for screening antenatal, high risk cases and cases from sexually transmitted infection in a tertiary care hospital from January 2006 till December 2008. Methods: A total of 14639 samples received from various patient groups including antenatal cases, patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, blood donors and HIV positive patients were screened. Results: Among the 14639 samples collected, 103 were positive by VDRL test. Of these 89 cases were confirmed by quantitative VDRL test and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. The cumulative seroprevalence over two years was found to be 0.61% in this study. The syphilis seroprevalence reduced from 0.88% in 2006 to 0.40% in 2008. Among the various sub-populations studied, patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic showed a seroprevalence of 2.62%. The seroprevalence decreased significantly from 4.00% in 2006 to 1.39% in 2008. Conclusions: Our study showed a statistically significant declining rate of syphilis in STD clinics as well as the overall seroprevalence. These findings could be interpreted as indicators of improved programmes for prevention and management of STDs.
    16  An unusual cause of optic neuritis: rickettsiosis disease
    Loukil Hanen
    2014(12):998-1000. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0359
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 576.87 K](212)
    Optic neuritis (ON) may be associated to a range of autoimmune or infectious diseases. We report herein a case of ON induced by Rickettsia conorii. A 53-year-old woman presented with a recent decrease in visual acuity and headache. ON was diagnosed on the basis of ophthalmologic examination and flash visual evoked potentials. Etiological investigation made in our department eliminated first autoimmune disorders (vasculitis and connective tissue diseases). Rickettsial optic neuritis was confirmed by detection of specific antibodies in serum and the negativity of other serologic tests. An association between corticosteroids and cyclines was prescribed with improvement of visual acuity.
    17  Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks
    Arun Kuma
    2014(12):1001-1008. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B401
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 678.88 K](373)
    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

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