Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2014 Table of Contents

  • Display Type:
  • Text List
  • Abstract List
  • 1  Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?
    Alexandra Bagley Usman H. Malabu
    2014(2):85-89. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60214-8
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 324.11 K](72)
    Two-third of the world’s population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.
    2  Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice
    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas Claudia Regina Fernandes de Souza Wanderley Pereira Oliveira
    2014(2):90-96. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60215-X
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 345.70 K](84)
    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.
    3  Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)
    Hye-Ryun Kim Il-Doo Kim Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana Mi-Ok Kim Dong-Hyun Shin
    2014(2):97-103. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60216-1
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 342.01 K](80)
    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods: The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results: Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions: The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.
    4  Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections
    Issam Alshami Ahmed E Alharbi
    2014(2):104-108. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60217-3
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 619.47 K](87)
    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.
    5  Lupeol: An antioxidant triterpene in Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Moraceae)
    Librado A Santiago Anna Beatriz R Mayor
    2014(2):109-118. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60218-5
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.66 M](71)
    Objective: To assess the antioxidant activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco (Moraceae) (F. pseudopalma) and characterize the active components present in it. Methods: Column chromatography of crude ethanol leaf extract of F. pseudopalma was performed and seven fractions were obtained, labeled as F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7. DPPH, FRAP, Griess, Fenton and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant ability of the fractions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to identify and characterize the bioactive component present in each fractions of F. pseudopalma. Results: DPPH and FRAP assay showed that F5, F6 and F7 exhibited the good proton accepting ability and reducing power as compared to the other fractions. All fractions exhibited a good nitric oxide radical scavenging activity wherein F1, F2 and F3 showed the highest inhibition. However, all of the fractions exhibited a stimulatory activity on hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Lupeol matched one of the spots on the thin layer chromatography chromatogram of the fractions. Linear gradient high performance liquid chromatography and spiking of lupeol with the fraction revealed the presence of 5.84 mg/L lupeol in F6. Infrared spectra of the fractions revealed the presence of C-C, OH, aromatic C=C and C=O groups. Conclusions: The identified lupeol in F. pseudopalma may be responsible for the exhibited antioxidant property of the plant. Furthermore, knowing the antioxidant capability of the plant, F. pseudopalma can be developed into products which can help prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress related diseases.
    6  Quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol content in cold pressed rice bran oil by TLC-image analysis method
    Apirak Sakunpak Jirapornchai Suksaeree Chaowalit Monton Pathamaporn Pathompak Krisana Kraisintu
    2014(2):119-123. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60219-7
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 805.19 K](84)
    Objective: To develop and validate an image analysis method for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. Methods: TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods were developed, validated, and used for quantitative analysis of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. The results obtained by these two different quantification methods were compared by paired t-test. Results: Both assays provided good linearity, accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity for determination of γ-oryzanol. Conclusions: The TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods provided a similar reproducibility, accuracy and selectivity for the quantitative determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil. A statistical comparison of the quantitative determinations of γ-oryzanol in samples did not show any statistically significant difference between TLC-densitometric and TLC-image analysis methods. As both methods were found to be equal, they therefore can be used for the determination of γ-oryzanol in cold pressed rice bran oil.
    7  Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats
    Okpe Oche Ibrahim Sani Njoku Godwin Chilaka Ndidi Uche Samuel Atabo Samuel
    2014(2):124-130. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60220-3
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 887.08 K](78)
    Objective: To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods: A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results: The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the serum activities of marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in diabetes treated rats, whereas an insignificant increase (P>0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) in total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin compared with treated groups while non-diabetic treated groups showed no significant increase (P>0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion: This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat.
    8  A pharmacobotanical study of two medicinal species of Fabaceae
    Mubo A Sonibare Tolulope A Oke Mike O Soladoye
    2014(2):131-136. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60221-5
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 915.04 K](74)
    Objective: To carry out a pharmacobotanical study of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (Schum & Thonn) Benth (L. cyanescens) and Leptoderris micrantha Dunn (L. micrantha) which are two key medicinal plants from the family Fabaceae. Methods: The epidermal peel was obtained by soaking the leaf in concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) in a petri dish. Both surfaces were carefully mounted on clean glass slides and dehydrated by ethyl alcohol, and stained with safaranin O for 2 min. Transverse sections of plant leaf were obtained by free hand sectioning. Phytochemical screening for various constituents was carried out on the powdered leaves. Other parameters such as, moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, water and alcohol extractive values were obtained by standard techniques. Results: The distinctive features of the species include: the presence of stomata on both surfaces of L. cyanescens and the absence in L. micrantha. Presence of larger epidermal cells in both upper and lower surfaces of L. cyanescens [(35.25±1.64)×(31.25±2.36), (43.0±2.63)×(39.5±5.11)] respectively compared to L. micrantha. Glandular multicellular trichomes are present in L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Numerous trichomes surround the transverse section of the leaf of L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both species contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. Conclusions: The microscopic and phytochemical data provided in this study are useful for the standardization of the medicinal plants.
    9  Investigation of in vivo neuropharmacological effect of Alpinia nigra leaf extract
    Farjana Sharmen Adnan Mannan Md. Mominur Rahman Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury Muhammad Erfan Uddin A. M. Abu Ahmed
    2014(2):137-142. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60222-7
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 473.88 K](80)
    Objective: To analyze in vivo neuro-pharmacological effects of Alpinia nigra as anxiety is a particular form of behavioral inhibition that occurs in response to novel environmental events. Methods: In present study, the extract of Alpinia nigra was evaluated for its central nervous system depressant effect using mice behavioral models, such as hole cross, open field and thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests for its sedative properties and an elevated plusmaze test for its anxiolytic potential, respectively. Results: In anxiolytic study, the extract displayed increased percentage of entry into open arm at the dose of 400 and 200 mg/kg. The extract produced a significant (P<0.01) increase in sleeping duration and reduction of onset of sleep compared to sodium thiopental at both doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) also showed a dose-dependent suppression of motor activity and exploratory activity of the mice in both open field and hole cross test. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the treated extract has significant central nervous system depressant effect. Further studies on active constituent of the extract can provide approaches for therapeutic intervention.
    10  Ameliorative effect of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (Poir.) Hook. f. & Thoms. roots (ACP) on APAP/CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and in vitro free radical scavenging property
    Varghese Jancy Shine Panikamparambil Gopalakrishnan Latha Somasekharan Nair Rajam Suja Gangadharan Indira Anuja Gopan Raj Sreedharan Nair Rajasekharan
    2014(2):143-151. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60223-9
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 924.78 K](88)
    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (C. peltata) against paracetamol/carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats. Methods: In vivo paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats, in vitro free radical scavenging studies, HPTLC estimation of tetrandrine and direct analysis in real timemass spectrometry of alkaloid extract of C. peltata were used for the validation. Results: The results showed that pretreatment with alkaloid extract of C. peltata caused significant reduction of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol, liver malondialdehyde levels. The reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase levels in liver were increased with alkaloid extract of C. peltata treatment. These results were almost comparable to silymarin and normal control. Histopathological studies also substantiated the biochemical findings. The in vitro hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH scavenging study of alkaloid extract of C. peltata showed significant free radical scavenging property. Conclusions: The hepatoprotective property of alkaloid extract of C. peltata against paracetamol/ carbon tetrachloride may be due the synergistic action of alkaloids especially tetrandrine, fangchinoline through free radical scavenging and thus preventing oxidative stress.
    11  Anti-inflammatory activity and qualitative analysis of different extracts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. by high performance thin layer chromatography method
    Mohamed F. Alajmi Perwez Alam
    2014(2):152-157. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60224-0
    [Abstract](48) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.14 M](80)
    Objective: To perform aqueous ethanol soluble fraction (AESF) and dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Maytenus obscura (A. Rich.) Cuf. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and to test anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts. Methods: HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat Ⅳ applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with formalin in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1 h later formalin injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg 1 h before formalin administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, phenol, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid and anthraquinone in both extracts. Chromatography was performed on glass-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the green solvents toluene: ethyacetate: glacial acetic acid (5:3:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. HPTLC finger printing of AESF revealed major eight peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.28 to 0.80 and the dichloromethane revealed major 11 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.12 to 0.76. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Treatment of rats (i.p.) with AESF and dichloromethane in doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg inhibited singnificantly (P<0.05, n=6) formalin-induced inflammation by 50%, 55.9%, 45.5%, and 51.4%, respectively. Conclusions: HPTLC finger printing of AESF and dichloromethane of Maytenus obscura revealed eight major spots for alcoholic extracts and nine major spots for dichloromethane extracts. These HPTLC profiles may be of great usefulness in the quality control of herbal products containing these extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of both extracts also revealed the medicinal importance of these extracts. The plant can be further explored for the isolation of phytoconstituents having anti-inflammatory activity.
    12  Inhalation of Shin-Ⅰ essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise
    Hsuan-Ying Chen Ming-Fu Wang Jun-Ying Lin Ying-Chieh Tsai Fu-Chou Cheng
    2014(2):158-163. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60225-2
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](72)
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-Ⅰ essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-Ⅰ group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-Ⅰ essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%- 65% of the basal level in the Shin-Ⅰ group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-Ⅰ essential oil inhalation. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-Ⅰ essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.
    13  Prevalence and antibiogram of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Dessie Health Research Laboratory, Ethiopia
    Mulugeta Kibret Bayeh Abera
    2014(2):164-168. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60226-4
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 328.73 K](80)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from suspected urinary tract infections. Methods: A retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility was done on urine samples at Dessie Regional Laboratory in the period 2003 to 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using disc diffusion technique as per the standard of Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The male to female ratio of the patients was 1:1.96. Of the total 1 404 samples, 319 (22.7%) were culture positive. Escherichia coli was the dominant isolate (63.6%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (8.5%) and Proteus spp. (8.2%). The overall resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin, and tetracycline were 85.6%, 88.9% and 76.7%, respectively. The three most frequently isolated bacteria had resistance rates of 80.1%-90.0% to, amoxycillin, and tetracycline and sensitivity rates of 0 to 25% to nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Antibiogram of isolates showed that 152 (47.85%) isolates were resistance to two and more antimicrobials. Conclusions: In the study area resistance rates to erythromycin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were high. Since most isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and gentamicin, they are considered as appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment urinary tract infections.

    Current Issue

    Volume , No.

    Table of Contents Archive



    Most Read

    Most Cited

    Most Downloaded

    Academic misconduct statement

      Peer review


      Mobile website