Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 5,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Review of the anticancer activities of bee products
    Pongsathon Premratanachai Chanpen Chanchao
    2014(5):337-344. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1262
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Bee products have long been used in traditional medicine. The raw materials, crude extracts and purified active compounds from them have been found to exhibit interesting bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In addition, they have been widely used in the treatment of many immune-related diseases, as well as in recent times in the treatment of tumors. Bee product peptides induce apoptotic cell death in vitro in several transformed (cancer) human cell lines, including those derived from renal, lung, liver, prostate, bladder and lymphoid cancers. These bioactive natural products may, therefore, prove to be useful as part of a novel targeted therapy for some types of cancer, such as prostate and breast cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the in vivo and in vitro potential of selective bee products against tumor cells.
    2  High prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Southern Belize-highlighting opportunity for control interventions
    Rina Girard Kaminsky Steven K. Ault Phillip Castillo Kenton Serrano Guillermo Troya
    2014(5):345-353. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B3
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods: Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis; Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions; P<0.05 was considered of statistical significance; descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages. Results: A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40% and 82% among schools, with a median of 59.2%; the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2% high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old; hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P≤0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions: High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.
    3  Seroprevalence of bovine leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test in Southeast of Iran
    Mohammad Khalili Ehsanollah Sakhaee Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian Gholamreza Abdollahpour Saeed Sattari Tabrizi Elham Mohammadi Damaneh Sajad Hossini-nasab
    2014(5):354-357. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1206
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To evaluate serological findings of bovine leptospirosis which is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by Leptospira interrogans. Methods: One hundred and sixty seven sera were collected from 9 commercial dairy herds in jiroft suburbs, from July to October 2011. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was used to evaluates serological findings of bovine leptospirosis in Jiroft suburb dairy farms, Kerman province, Iran. Results: Antibodies were found by MAT at least against one serovar of Leptospira interrogans in 29 samples (17.36%) among 167 sera at a dilution 1:100 or higher, and Leptospira pomona was the most prevalent serovar. Positive titers against more than one serovar were detected in 6 sera of the positive samples. Conclusion: This study is the first report of leptospirosis in Southeast Iran and showed that Leptospira pomona was the most and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae the least prevalent serovars in Southeast Iran.
    4  Antibacterial properties of lucifensin in Lucilia sericata maggots after septic injury
    Ivana Valachova Emanuel Prochazka Jana Bohova Petr Novak Peter Takac Juraj Majtan
    2014(5):358-361. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1134
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of lucifensin in maggots of Lucilia sericata after septic injury. Methods: In our preliminary study we have shown that injuring the maggots with a needle soaked in lipopolysaccharide solution induced within 24 h lucifensin expression in the fat body and in the grease coupler of the salivary glands. It is assumed that lucifensin is secreted solely from this tissue into the haemolymph (similar to other insect defensins) and not into secreted/ excreted products. We used high‐performance liquid chromatography fractionation and radial diffusion assay to investigate the antibacterial properties of haemolymph extracted from larvae after septic injury. Results: After septic injury, production of lucifensin in the haemolymph is increased. This led to higher antibacterial activity of such haemolymph in comparison to non-stimulated larvae. Coclusions: These results suggest that beside the previously demonstrated role of lucifensin in the debridement therapy, lucifensin is simultaneously important as a part of the systematic immune response.
    5  Geophagy (rock eating), experimental stress and cognitive idiosyncrasy
    Kirill Golokhvast Alexander Sergievich Nikolay Grigoriev
    2014(5):362-366. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1197
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To discusse the impact of geophagy on behavior and conditioned-reflex activity of Wistar rats subjected to instrumental stress under experimental conditions. Methods:Experimental geophagy was simulated by adding zeolite-containing tuff (clinoptilolite) to animal feed, the amount relating to 2% of body mass. Tuff was obtained from areas where animals usually eat subsurface rock. Search activity of animals and peculiarities of information and emotional stress were studied through the use of a universal problem chamber. Results: The results of this experimental study showed the negative impact of instrumental stress on laboratory animals, manifested in behavioral dysfunction, in the form of changes in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of search activity. Experimental geophagy contributed to significant improvement in behavioral parameters, confirming the anti-stress effects of the use of natural ingredients. Conclusions: These results suggest that, in natural environmental conditions, "edible" rocks serve as an adaptive tool for recovery from various types of environmental stresses, and are examples of self-medication.
    6  Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum connatum affect human trophoblast-like cells differentiation and Ca2+ influx
    Aline O. da Concei??o Gilsane Lino von Poser Benoit Barbeau Julie Lafond
    2014(5):367-373. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1100
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To study the effect of crude methanol and n-hexane extracts of Hypericum connatum (H. connatum) and Hypericum caprifoliatum on trophoblast-like cells. Methods: BeWo and JEG-3 trophoblast-like cells were submitted to different extract concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/mL) and evaluated in relation to cell viability and in vitro trophoblast differentiation and function. Cell viability was evaluated using WST-1 reagent. Differentiation was measured by luciferase production, hCG production/release, and mitogenactivated protein kinase signaling pathway activation. The function of the trophoblast-like cells was measured by 45Ca2+ influx evaluation. Results: The results showed a decrease in cell viability/proliferation. Both plants and different extracts induced a significant decrease in hCG production/release and luciferase production. H. connatum did not cause mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway disturbance; however, Hypericum caprifoliatum n-hexane extract at 15 µg/mL inhibited extracellular signalregulated kinase 1/2 activation. The significant increase in Ca2+ influx by JEG-3 cells was seen after short and long incubation times with H. connatum methanolic extract at 15 µg/mL. Conclusions: The results indicated that these two Hypericum species extracts can interfere on trophoblast differentiation and Ca2+ influx, according to their molecular diversity. Although in vivo experiments are necessary to establish their action on placental formation and function, this study suggests that attention must be paid to the potential toxic effect of these plants.
    7  Isolation of antileishmanial, antimalarial and antimicrobial metabolites from Jatropha multifida
    Abiodun Falodun Vincent Imieje Osayewenre Erharuyi Ahomafor Joy Peter Langer Melissa Jacob Shabanna Khan Mohammed Abaldry Mark Hamann
    2014(5):374-378. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1312
    [Abstract](43) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate the antileishmanial, antimicrobial and antimalarial activities of the pure metabolites from Jatropha multifida used in African ethnomedicine. Methods: The methanolic stem bark extract of Jatropha multifida used in Nigerian folk medicine as remedy against bacterial infections was subjected to column chromatography and HPLC analyses to obtain three known metabolites, microcyclic lathyrane diterpenoids (1-3). Structures were confirmed by comparison of 1D and 2D spectral data with literature. Results: The three compounds exhibited inhibition of antileishmanial, antimalarial and antimicrobial actions against the tested organisms with compouds 2 and 3 active against Cryptococcus neoformans at IC50 of 8.2 and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The research lends support to the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in combating microbial infections, leishmaniasis and malarial infections.
    8  Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress
    Oranuch Nakchat Nonthaneth Nalinratana Duangdeun Meksuriyen Sunanta Pongsamart
    2014(5):379-385. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C806
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods: Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results: TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.
    9  Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Litsea elliptica Blume and Litsea resinosa Blume (Lauraceae)
    Mui-Hung Wong Li-Fang Lim Fasihuddin bin Ahmad Zaini bin Assim
    2014(5):386-392. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1129
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two plant species, Litsea elliptica (L. elliptica) and Litsea resinosa (L. resinosa). Methods: In vitro method -2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay was conducted for antioxidant activity determination while antimicrobial assay consisted of agar well diffusion assay and mycelial radial growth assay. Results: Methanol extracts of root and stem of L. elliptica and L. resinosa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with EC50 of 23.99, 41.69, 11.22 and 35.48 mg/L respectively. All methanol extracts of L. resinosa as well as root extracts from L. elliptica showed significant scavenging activity. Hexane extract from stem of L. resinosa presented the largest inhibition zone in Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli while chloroform extract from inner bark of L. resinosa showed major inhibition towards Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils from the root of both species showed significant antifungal activities which are 80.11% and 66.85% respectively. Conclusions: Overall, methanol extracts from root and stem of both species showed antioxidant activity comparable to standard butylated hydroxytoluene. Extracts from L. resinosa demonstrated stronger antimicrobial properties compared to that from L. elliptica.
    10  Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)
    Dorothée Dinangayi Tshilanda Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko Blaise Mavinga Mbala Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Damien Sha Tshibey Tshibangu Matthieu Kokengo Bokolo Kalulu Muzele Taba Teddy Kabeya Kasonga
    2014(5):393-398. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1329
    [Abstract](44) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods: The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions: The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.
    11  Salvia fruticosa reduces intrinsic cellular and H2O2-induced DNA oxidation in HEK 293 cells; assessment using flow cytometry
    Saleem Bani Hani Mekki Bayachou
    2014(5):399-403. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1270
    [Abstract](42) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate the role of water-soluble extract of Salvia fruticosa (Greek sage) (S. fruticosa) leaves in reducing both intrinsic cellular and H2O2-induced DNA oxidation in cultured human embryonic kidney 293 cells. S. fruticosa, native to the Eastern-Mediterranean basin, is widely used as a medicinal herb for treatment of various diseases. Methods: Dried leaves of S. fruticosa were extracted in phosphate buffer saline and purified using both vacuum and high pressure filtrations. Each mL of the preparation contained (7.1±1.0) mg of extract. HEK-293 cells were incubated in one set with S. fruticosa extract in the presence of 0.1 mmol/L H2O2, and in the other set with the addition of the extract alone. The DNA oxidation was measured using fluorescence upon fluorescein isothiocyanate derivatization of 8-oxoguanine moieties. The fluorescence was measured using flow cytometry technique. Results: Cells incubated 3 h with 150 µL extract and exposed to 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 showed lower intensity of fluorescence, and thus lower DNA oxidation. Moreover, cells incubated 3 h with 100 µL of the extract showed lower intensity of fluorescence, and thus lower intrinsic cellular DNA oxidation compared to control (without S. fruticosa). Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that the water-soluble extract of S. fruticosa leaves protects against both H2O2-induced and intrinsic cellular DNA oxidation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.
    12  Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number)
    Dehghan fatemeh Zolfaghari Mohammad Reza Arjomandzadegan Mohammad Kalantari Salomeh Ahmari Gholam Reza Sarmadian Hossein Sadrnia Maryam Ahmadi Azam Shojapoor Mana Najarian Negin Kasravi Alii Reza Falahat Saeed
    2014(5):404-409. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C896
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To analyse molecular detection of coliforms and shorten the time of PCR. Methods: Rapid detection of coliforms by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a multiplex PCR reaction was designed and performed in comparison with most probably number (MPN) method for 16 artificial and 101 field samples. The molecular method was also conducted on isolated coliforms from positive MPN samples; standard sample for verification of microbial method certificated reference material; isolated strains from certificated reference material and standard bacteria. The PCR and electrophoresis parameters were changed for reducing the operation time. Results: Results of PCR for lacZ and uidA genes were similar in all of standard, operational and artificial samples and showed the 876 bp and 147 bp bands of lacZ and uidA genes by multiplex PCR. PCR results were confirmed by MPN culture method by sensitivity 86% (95% CI: 0.71-0.93). Also the total execution time, with a successful change of factors, was reduced to less than two and a half hour. Conclusions: Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It’s recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.
    13  Pharmacognostic studies of stem, roots and leaves of Malva parviflora L.
    Shehla Akbar Uzma Hanif Jaffar Ali Saiqa Ishtiaq
    2014(5):410-415. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1107
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To establish quality control parameters of a locally occurring medicinal plant, Malva parviflora which is utilized as folk medicine in Sialkot area in Pakistan. Methods: In pharmacognostic studies different types of evaluations were carried out that focus on microscopic, macroscopic, fluorescence analysis and organoleptic evaluations. Results: The distinguishing characters of stem were the presence of parenchyma, cork cells, irregular shape calcium oxalate crystals, simple and compound starch granules and fusiform fibers with pits. Root microscopic characters were presence of simple and spherical starch granules with rounded or slit hilum, groups of lignified xylem fibers, reticulate vessels, and sieve tissues. Leaves microscopy indicated the presence of paracytic stomata, lignified fibers having pits, spiral and annular vessels, numerous sclereids while in fruit microscopy epicarp, thin walled cells endocarp, thin walled parenchyma and collenchyma of mesocarp and abundant thick walled endospermic cells containing aleurone grains and micro rosette crystals. Macroscopic study of leaves showed, 5-7 lobed reniform-shape, glabrous-surface, reticulate-venation in the leaves. Macroscopic features of roots showed type of root-taproot, surface-glabrous and stem was 1-10 dm tall simple to branched and may be prostrate or ascending. Similarly fruit was of schizocarp type. Conclusions: This study provides the scientific data for the proper identification and establishment of standards for the use of Malva parviflora.
    14  Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal
    Sumana Sarkhel
    2014(5):416-420. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1120
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Objective: To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods: The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results: The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions: The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

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