Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2014 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Ebola in West Africa: an international medical emergency
    Yasir Waheed
    2014(9):637-674. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B389
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 267.83 K](80)
    Abstract:
    West Africa is facing the worst Ebola outbreak with 3 685 cases and 1 841 deaths reported from Liberia, Guinea, Senegal, Sierra Leona and Nigeria. There is no vaccine or direct treatment available to treat the patients with Ebola. World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the use of experimental drugs for Ebola patients. Health workers are at high risk. The governments and WHO are responsible to provide necessary protective equipment to health workers dealing with Ebola. There is a strong need to identify the invisible chains of virus transmission. World Bank pledges $200 million to fight against Ebola, while WHO said $430 million are needed to control the Ebola outbreak. Ebola can be contained by early detection and isolation of case, contact tracing, monitoring of contacts and adaptation of rigorous procedures for virus control.
    2  Unprecedented scale Ebola epidemic in Guinea: what we should know
    Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2014(9):675-675. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B138
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 226.98 K](71)
    Abstract:
    3  Tamarindus indica and its health related effects
    Pinar Kuru
    2014(9):676-681. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0173
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 429.08 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.
    4  Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview
    Abhay Kumar Pandey Pooja Singh Nijendra Nath Tripathi
    2014(9):682-694. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C77
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 616.63 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn.), Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic) agents.
    5  Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae)
    Ricardo Hernández-Lambra?o Karina Caballero-Gallardo Jesus Olivero-Verbel
    2014(9):695-700. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0178
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 818.58 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two L Methods: epidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm. Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively. Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects. Conclusions: Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.
    6  In vitro cultivation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and establishment of pEGFP/Ang-1 transfection method
    Xiu-Qun Zhang Long Wang Shu-Li Zhao Wei Xu
    2014(9):701-706. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B178
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.96 M](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To obtain the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), complete phenotypic identification and successfully transfect rat BMSCs by recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from bone marrow using density gradient centrifugation method and adherence screening method, and purified. Then the recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1 was used to transfect BMSCs and the positive clones were obtained by the screen of G418 and observed under light microscopy inversely. Green fluorescent exhibited by protein was enhanced to measure the change time of the expression amount of Ang-1. Results: BMSCs cell lines were obtained successfully by adherence screening method and density gradient centrifugation. Ang-1 recombinant plasmid was transfected smoothly into rat BMSCs, which can express Ang-1 for 3 d and decreased after 7 d. Conclusions: Adherence screening method and density gradient centrifugation can be effective methods to obtain BMSCs with high purity and rapid proliferation. Besides, the expression of transfected recombinant plasmid pEGFP/Ang-1 in rat BMSCs is satisfactory.
    7  Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties
    Ezenyi Ifeoma Chinwude Kulkarni Roshan Joshi Swati Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Adeola Emeje Martins
    2014(9):707-713. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2013-0025
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 465.74 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein. Methods: Chloroform portion of P. niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29. Fractions with IC50<10 µg/mL against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity, while cytotoxicity was evaluated using THP-1 cells. Results: Fractions 12-14 were very active (IC50<10 µg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and showed no significant cytotoxicity. Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant (P<0.01) reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22% respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin (65.22%). From fraction 12, a compound was isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P. niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside palmitate as a chemical marker of activity.
    8  Influence of edaravone on growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 expression following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats
    Wei Wang Xiao-Mei Wu Bo Jiang Chun-Yu Wang Hai-Nan Zhang Xiang-Min Shen
    2014(9):714-717. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B291
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 620.42 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the influence of edaravone on the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34). Methods: A total of 108 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and edaravone group (36 cases for each group). Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Then, GADD34 expression was measured with immunohistochemistry at different time-points after reperfusion in the peri-infarct regions of all rats. Results: The GADD34 expression was detected in the peri-infarct regions of rats 1 h after reperfusion, which reached its peak 24 h after reperfusion. And edaravone could significantly down-regulate the GADD34 expression. Conclusions: Edaravon could down-regulate GADD34 expression, which suggests that edaravone may exert an important function in inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by scavenging free radicals in the upper stream.
    9  Partial characterization of superoxide dismutase activity in the Barber pole worm-Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus and abomasal tissue extracts
    Sadia Rashid Malik Irshadullah
    2014(9):718-724. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0099
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 688.80 K](84)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue. SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products. The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD. Conclusions: Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.
    10  Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Eastern China
    Qing-Xin Liu Shuai Wang Li-Qun Wang Jun Xing Wen-Jue Gao Guo-Fang Liu Bin Zhao Hai-Bin Zhang Li-Hua Gao
    2014(9):725-728. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTD-2014-0109
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China, and to evaluate the main associated risk factors relating to exposure to T. gondii in this region. Methods: Sera from 160 dogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using ELISA. The seropositivity by area of activity, sex and age was analyzed. Results: Overall, 21 dogs (13.1%) and 24 cats (20.7%) had antibodies to T. gondii. The infection rate in stray dogs (38.7%) and cats (28.6%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in household dogs (6.9%) and cats (18.2%). The seroprevalence in male dogs (14.8%) and cats (21.05%) were slightly higher than their female counterparts (11.4% in dogs and 20.0% in cats), but were not significantly differenent (P>0.05). A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T. gondii (20.0%) while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age (33.3%). Conclusions: The prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high, which is probably the main source of T. gondii infection in this area.
    11  Formulation and evaluation of novel stomach specific floating microspheres bearing famotidine for treatment of gastric ulcer and their radiographic study
    Rishikesh Gupta Sunil Kumar Prajapati Snigdha Pattnaik Peeyush Bhardwaj
    2014(9):729-735. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B73
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.76 M](87)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To develop and characterize multiple-unit-type oral floating microsphere of famotidine to prolong gastric residence time and to target stomach ulcer. Methods: The floating microspheres were prepared by modified solvent evaporation method. Eudragit S-100 was used as polymer. Microspheres were characterized for the micromeritic properties, floating behavior, entrapment efficiency and scanning electron microscopy. The in-vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied for all the batches. Selected formulations were also subjected for X-ray radiographic study. Results: Floating microspheres were successfully prepared by modified solvent evaporation technique. Microspheres showed passable flow properties. The maximum yield of microspheres was up to (95.11±0.35)%. On the basis of optical microscopy particle size range was found to be ranging from (52.18±182.00) to (91.64±5.16) µm. Scanning electron microscopy showed their spherical size, perforated smooth surface and a cavity inside microspheres. Microspheres were capable to float up to 20 h in simulated gastric fluid. X-ray radiographic studies also proved its better retention in the stomach. Conclusions: On the basis of the results, such dosage forms may be a good candidate for stomach targeting and may be dispensed in hard gelatin capsules.
    12  Rate of carcass and offal condemnation in animals slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, central Iran
    B Hajimohammadi A Oryan A Zohourtabar M Ardian M Shokuhifar
    2014(9):736-739. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1201
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 285.67 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the rate of carcass and offal condemnation in the animals slaughtered at Yazd slaughterhouse, Yazd, Iran. Methods: In a nine-month retrospective survey from June 2011 to March 2012, all the carcasses and offal condemnations for large animals (cattle and camels) and small animals (sheep and goats) in Yazd Slaughterhouse were carefully recorded daily. Results: In total, 2 741 large animals (cattle and camels) and 77 515 small animals (sheep and goats) were slaughtered during the period of this survey. Six carcasses (0.21%) of the large animals and 18 carcasses (0.02%) of the small animals were condemned. For large animals, condemnations in summer and autumn were significantly greater than winter (P<0.05). Condemnation rate of liver, lungs and kidneys for the large animals were 5.36%, 21.23% and 3.68% respectively and for the small animals were 4.37%, 5.46% and 0.51% respectively. The main recorded reasons for carcass condemnations in both large and small animals were icterus and cachexia. The most prevalent lesion resulting in offal condemnation was due to parasitic infection specially metacestods. Conclusions: This study aimed to show the efficiency of documentation records during meat inspection at slaughterhouses to monitor the amount of condemnation and possible approaches to better awareness about the future preventive programs. Considering the percentage of condemnation of carcass and offal in the present study and their price in Iranian markets, the overall economic losses seems to be notable at Yazd slaughterhouse.
    13  Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray dry flowers
    Robson Miranda da Gama Marcelo Guimar?es Luiz Carlos de Abreu José Armando-Junior
    2014(9):740-742. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0055
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.55 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of dried flowers of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray (T. diversifolia) dry flower-a shrubby plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and very common in Brazil, providing data to help prevent premature aging skin. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included total phenols, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. The active antioxidant was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl method. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. diversifolia dry flowers revealed the presence of phenolic compounds (tannins, flavonoids and total phenols), while alkaloids and saponins were not detected. The IC50 values showed a strong antioxidant activity of the plant extracts. Conclusions: Therefore, this study suggests the possibility of using dry flowers extracts of T. diversifolia for the prevention of cell aging, as was shown to have significant antioxidant activity.
    14  Hematological and serum biochemical aspects associated with a camel (Camelus dromedarius) naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi with severe parasitemia in Semnan, Iran
    Mahmood Ahmadi-hamedani Khosro Ghazvinian Mohammad Mehdi Darvishi
    2014(9):743-745. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0053
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 419.57 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the presence of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) and the effect of trypanosomosis on hemato-biochemical profile of dromedary camels in Semnan, Iran, which has not been reported yet. Methods: To perform this project, blood samples were collected by venipuncture into plain and EDTA-K2-containing vacutainer tubes from 21 dromedary camels (12 males and 9 females) aged 3-18 years, from 4 different regions of Semnan. Results: Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears revealed the presence of T. evansi in one of the samples. However, it should be noted that this sample showed a very high parasitemia (more than 5 trypomastigote were visible per microscopic field with MGG, 1 000×). This heavy parasitemia was associated with an 18-year-old female camel that showed symptoms of corneal opacity, intense emaciation and pale mucous membranes. Comparison of hematologyical and serum biochemical profiles between the camel infected by T. evansi and uninfected camels indicated anemia, leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, reduction A/G ratio, increased α1, β and globulins and decreased of α2 globulins and increased the concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase enzyme. Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that trypanosomosis was present in dromedary camels of Semnan, Iran (infection rate is 4.76%) and hemato-biochemical parameters were markedly affected by camel trypanosomosis.
    15  Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Fouad El-Akhal Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami Yassine Ez Zoubi Hassane Greche Raja Guemmouh
    2014(9):746-750. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0392
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 382.14 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results: This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L. Conclusions: The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents.
    16  Acute brucellosis as unusual cause of immune thrombocytopenia: a case report and review of the literature
    Tajeldin Mohammedien Abdallah Omer Mohammed Abd elbagi Abuelgasim OsmanKaroum Abdel Aziem Abdallah Ali
    2014(9):751-754. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1324
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 745.97 K](84)
    Abstract:
    A 25 year-old male patient was admitted to the causality with complaints of fever, joints pain, epistaxis and gingival bleeding, for the last week, the complete blood count revealed pancytopenia. Serological test for brucella was reported positive as 1/320, but the patient failed to respond to brucella treatment for 4 d. On day 5th the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia was confirmed after bone marrow aspiration. Steroid was initiated on 6th day after admission and on the 3rd day of steroid therapy thrombocytes count was raised to 55×109/L and came up to 180×109/L on 12th day after admission. Brucella-induced immune thrombocytopenia should be considered in patient presenting with bleeding and febrile illness especially in endemic region.
    17  A case report of cutaneous larva migrans in a Mexican population of high marginalization
    Isaac Aguirre Maldonadoa Silvia Cruz Duartea Felipe González Velázqueza Alfonso Alexander Aguilerab
    2014(9):755-756. DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2014-0119
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 485.16 K](74)
    Abstract:
    The creeping verminous dermatitis or cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitosis caused by percutaneous penetration and migration of larval nematode parasites characterized by producing one or more serpiginous erythematous, indurated, raised and pruritic lesion. The most common cause of cutaneous larva migrans is the Ancylostoma braziliense located in warm climate zones. In the present study, authors reported a case of cutaneous larva migrans with a characteristic clinical picture: erythematous-papular and vesicular lesion and serpiginous path, with progressive, and pruritic growth and it shown that a living area with immigration, tropical weather conditions and poverty may lead to this common infection.

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