Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Ebola viral selenoproteins: a metallomics analysis
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2015(1):1-2. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30161-1
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 541.53 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Ebola virus infection is the present public health problem. The trend of worldwide epidemic becomes the serious consideration for this infection. The Ebola virus infection has main clinical manifestation as acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic episode. The problem of hemostatic disturbance can be seen. Focusing on the pathophysiology, selenium plays an important role in the blood clotting regulation. The study on the selenoprotein of the Ebola virus can be useful for further understanding on the pathology of the infection. Here, the authors use metallomics analysis for assessment of Ebola virus genome. According to this study, the selenoprotein portion within Ebola virus genome can be detected at position 1046-1115.
    2  Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Nikhil Menon Jean Sparks Felix Omoruyi
    2015(1):3-9. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30162-3
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 738.86 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata (K. pinnata) leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/Kg). Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata for 30 d. Serum glucose, proteins, lipid composition, liver and kidney function indices, inflammatory markers, and key enzymes of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were determined. Results: The untreated and treated diabetic groups lost weight and consumed less food compared to the normal group. We noted 37.9% decrease in fasting blood glucose in the treated diabetic group compared to 13.2% and 17.0% increases in normal and untreated diabetic groups respectively. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the untreated diabetic group. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly (P<0.05) elevated in the untreated and treated diabetic groups compared to the normal group. Serum alkaline phosphatase and hepatic pyruvate kinase activities were significantly (P<0.05) elevated in the treated diabetic group. Serum albumin level was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the untreated diabetic group. Serum IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) depressed in the treated diabetic group. Conclusions: The observed decrease in body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol level suggests that the aqueous K. pinnata preparation consumption may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on alkaline phosphatase activity may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and K. pinnata preparation administration.
    3  Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava (L.) Bat. leaves in Wister rats
    Santosh Mazumdar Rasheda Akter Debashish Talukder
    2015(1):10-14. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30163-5
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 662.72 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave (EEPGL) in Wister rats to support its traditional uses. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00, 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively. For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL, castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of 750, 500 and 250 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats (P<0.001). Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively), and 750 mg/kg (P<0.01), 500 and 250 mg/kg (P<0.05) doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals. Conclusions: These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.
    4  In vitro vasodilatory effect of aqueous leaf extract of Thymus serrulatus on thoracic aorta of Guinea pigs
    Bekesho Geleta Mebrahtu Eyasu Selamu Kebamo Asfaw Debella Eyasu Makonnen Abiy Abebe
    2015(1):15-18. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30164-7
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 631.24 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the vasodilatory effect of Thymus serrulatus (T. serrulatus) aqueous leaf extract on KCl (high K+ , 80 mmol/L) induced precontracted isolated thoracic aorta rings on guinea pigs and the role of aorta endothelium on this action. Methods: Guinea pig thoracic aorta was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit solution and aorta contractions were recorded isometrically. Results: The results revealed that T. serrulatus aqueous leaf extract (0.5-5 mg/mL) significantly (P<0.001) reduced KCl-induced contractions of guinea pig thoracic aorta in both intact (n=5) and denuded (n=5) endothelium in a concentration dependent manner, and the vasodilatory effect of the extract on intact endothelium was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that on denuded endothelium. Glibenclamide (10 µmol/L) significantly (P<0.001) increased the vasodilatory effect of extract in intact endothelium as compared to methylene blue (10 µmol/L), atropine (10 µmol/L) and indomethacin (10 µmol/L). The effect was more obvious on intact than that on denuded endothelium. Conclusions: The present findings demonstrate that T. serrulatus aqueous leaf extract has vasodilatory activity which might result in antihypertensive effect and its vasodilatory effect is endothelium-dependent. This might support the traditional claim of the plant in hypertensive.
    5  Phytochemical analysis, hypotensive effect and antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis L. growing in Algeria
    Amel Bouaziz Seddik khennouf Mussa Abu zarga Shtaywy Abdalla Abderahmane Baghiani Noureddine Charef
    2015(1):19-28. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30165-9
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 861.65 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze Myrtus communis chemically and evaluate the hypotensive effects and antioxidant properties of methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts from the leaves of this plant. Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant potential of methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts have been investigated by using different in vitro methods. The hypotensive effects of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were evaluated in anaesthetized rats by using the method of invasive blood pressure recording. Moreover, ethyl acetate extract was subjected to analysis by different chromatographic methods in order to identify new compounds. Results: Chemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of myrecitin-3- O-α-rhamnoside. Ethyl acetate extract was found to have the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents with the values of 435.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried weight and 130.75 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried weight, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract also exhibited the highest activity in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), hydroxyl radical and reducing power; whereas, methanol extract exhibited higher chelating activity than ethyl acetate extract did. Chloroform was found to be strong inhibitor of lipid peroxidation in β-carotene bleaching assay (91.19%), ferric thiocyanate method (87.55%), and thiobarbituric acid method (82.59%) as compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. Intravenous administration of methanol and ethyl acetate extract (0.04 to 12 mg/kg body weight) decreased the maximum mean arterial blood pressure with values of 20.6% and 32.49% at 12 mg/kg body weight, respectively in anesthetized rats. Conclusions: This study provides a scientific basis for the use of Myrtus communis in traditional medicine as hypertensive agent as well as additional resources for natural antioxidants.
    6  Hematological effects of Ipomoea batatas (camote) and Phyllanthus niruri (sampa-sampalukan) from Philippines in the ICR mice (Mus musculus)
    Jessa Fidel Montejo Juan Arturo Burgos Mondonedo Matthew Genesis Aguila Lee Michael Bagui Ples Rodel Jonathan Santos Vitor Ⅱ
    2015(1):29-33. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30166-0
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 637.25 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze the hematological effects of administering Ipomoea batatas (I. batatas) and Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) in the ICR mice. Methods: Powdered leaves of I. batatas and P. niruri were fed to mice for 4 weeks. A total of six groups were used to determine the effect of the plants to the complete blood count of the mouse. Group A (blank control) mice were feed with pellets only; Group B (negative control) mice were fed with pellets coated with honey; Group C (low dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of I. batatas at 10 g/kg body weight of the mouse; Group D (high dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of I. batatas at 20 g/kg body weight of the mouse; Group E (low dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of P. niruri at 10 g/kg body weight of the mouse; and Group F (high dosage) mice were fed with honey-coated pellets and powdered leaves of P. niruri at 20 g/kg body weight of the mouse. Complete blood count was performed on Days 0, 14 and 28. Results: It was shown that I. batatas can increase the values of hematocrit and hemoglobin on both the low dose and high dose at Day 28 and red blood cells (RBC) on both Days 14 and 28 of testing. On the other hand, P. niruri can increase RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin on Day 28 with only the low dose. There were no significant differences with white blood cell, absolute granulocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte, and platelet counts observed for both plant samples. Conclusions: I. batatas and P. niruri have effects on the hematocrit, RBC and hemoglobin levels in mice.
    7  Epidemiological assessment of intestinal parasitic infections in dogs at animal shelter in Veracruz, Mexico
    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel Dora Romero-Salas Mariel Aguilar-Domínguez Anabel Cruz-Romero Nelly Ibarra-Priego Adalberto ángel Pérez-de-León
    2015(1):34-39. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30167-2
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.33 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites in 101 dogs in an animal shelter in Veracruz, Mexico, and investigate whether any general characteristics of the dogs were associated with infections. Methods: Parasitological examination of fecal samples from the dogs was performed by means of centrifuge-flotation using Sheather’s sucrose and zinc sulfate flotation media. In addition, hematocrit was determined in each canine blood sample. Results: Intestinal parasites were found in 99 (98.0%) of the 101 dogs studied. About five different intestinal parasites were identified: Ancylostoma caninum in 89 dogs (88.1%), Giardia canis in 46 (45.5%), Uncinaria stenocephala in 43 (42.6%), Trichuris vulpis in 19 (18.8%) and Strongyloides canis in 16 (15.8%). Multivariate analysis showed: 1) Giardia infection was associated with young age and mixed breed; 2) Ancylostoma was associated with young age and no rabies vaccination; and 3) Strongyloides was associated with no rabies vaccination. Uncinaria and Trichuris infections were not associated with the variables assessed. Conclusions: A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in the dogs studied. This suggests that the environment is highly contaminated with intestinal parasites. Preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken against infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in this region.
    8  Study on Leishmania infection in cats from Ahar, East Azerbaijan Province and North West Iran by parasitological, serological and molecular methods
    Taher Nemati Majid Khanmohammadi Ahad Bazmani Nasrin Mirsamadi Mohammad Hassan Kohansal Koshki Mehdi Mohebali Mohammad Fatollahzadeh Esmail Fallah
    2015(1):40-43. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30168-4
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 643.01 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study Leishmania infection in cats and its potential role in transmission of the disease to human by parasitological, serological and molecular methods in Ahar District, East Azerbaijan Province. Methods: In this study, 65 cats from different parts of Ahar Province were trapped. The cats were anesthetized with chloroform and blood samples were taken from jugular vein and tested by direct agglutination test. Spleen and liver smear samples were prepared in order to microscopically examine these organs, and also cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle and Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1 640 media. Finally, spleen tissue DNA was extracted to perform polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results: In direct agglutination test, 4 (6%) cats had a positive titer, while 14 (22%) cats had a titer of 1:80 which was suspected for an infection and 47 (72%) cats were negative. Culture results were negative and in polymerase chain reaction no amplification was observed. Conclusions: We found no case of feline visceral leishmaniasis. It needs more extensive studies by using a larger number of cats to firmly establish leishmaniasis in this area.
    9  Preliminary study on association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer in Iran
    Narges Kalantari Salman Ghaffari Masomeh Bayani Maryam Mitra Elmi Daryush Moslemi Novin Nikbakhsh Fariedh Ghavipanjeh
    2015(1):44-47. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30169-6
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 627.75 K](88)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the possible association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and breast cancer by examining the seropositivity and serointensity rate of anti-T. gondii antibodies in breast cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study was carried out on 66 women with breast cancer which consists of 29 newly diagnosed patients (Group 1) and 37 cases undergoing treatment and regular checkups (Group 2). Also, 60 healthy women (Group 3) with no history of cancer confirmed by clinical examination and imaging participated in this study. The participants were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results: The mean age of Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 43.3±6.8, 41.8±5.5 and 42.3±4.9, respectively (P=0.72). Overall, 104 (82.5%) and 8 (6.3%) out of 126 women were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Higher seropositivity rate of anti-T. gondii antibodies (IgG) was seen in breast cancer patients (86.4%) compared with control group (78.3%) (P=0.24). IgG antibodies were detected in 89.2% of cancer patients under treatment, 82.7% of newly diagnosed patients (P=0.18). IgM antibodies were found in 3 (10.3%), 2 (5.4%) and 3 (5%) in Groups 1, 2 and 3. No significant difference was found between the mean titers of T. gondii IgG antibody among these groups (P=0.87). Conclusions: This study did not find any significant association between toxoplasmosis and breast cancer besides higher rates of seropositivity and serointensity in patients compared with healthy volunteers.
    10  Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes
    Nurul Hikmah Harun Abdi Wira Septama Ibrahim Jantan
    2015(1):48-53. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30170-2
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 719.58 K](85)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis. Methods: The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isothiocyanate and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer. Results: About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly (P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/11a expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner. The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd. at dosage 100 μg/mL. Moreover, the Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq (O. aristatus). showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Other than that, four plant extracts significantly (P≤0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner. However, Annona muricata L. and O. aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 μg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Citrus aurantifolia, Alpinia galangal, O. aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.
    11  Endogenous endophthalmitis and liver abscess syndrome secondary due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: report of three cases from Qatar
    Ahmed AR Mohamad Al Ani Abdel-Naser Elzouki Ali Rahil Fouad Al-Ani
    2015(1):54-59. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30171-4
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 804.89 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating disease that may frequently result in visual loss despite appropriate and early antibiotic treatment. Recent reports have suggested an increased incidence of endogenous endophthalmitis in East Asia, particularly in Taiwan, where the major source of infection has been liver abscess secondary to Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we report three cases who presented in Qatar with severe endogenous endophthalmitis associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae septicemia secondary to pyogenic liver abscess in a diabetes mellitus underlying.
    12  Approach to pharmacological and clinical applications of Anisi aetheroleum
    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
    2015(1):60-67. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30172-6
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 715.02 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Anisi aetheroleum is the oil obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) by steam distillation. P. anisum seeds were air-dried, and then the dry seeds were crushed, pulverized, and weighed in sequence for anise oil preparation. P. anisum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that belong to family Apiaceae. The fruit of P. anisum is harvested in August and September. P. anisum is widespread in Asia, Africa and Europe. Local names of P. anisum include anise, anisoon, roomy, saunf, sweet cumin and yansoon. The anise oil odour is aromatic while the oil tastes sweet. The average daily dose of Anisi aetheroleum is 0.3 g. transAnethole is the major ingredient of the anise oil. Anisi aetheroleum also displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. In addition, Anisi aetheroleum increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat. The plant oil have pharmacological (antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, estrogenic, expectorant and insecticidal) effects and clinical effects on nausea, constipation, menopausal period, virus, diabetes, obesity and sedative action. Owing to the wide application of Anisi aetheroleum in pharmacological and clinical fields, it is recommended for more clinical trails to discover a new medication from the active constituents of the plant oil in the future to treat human diseases especially chronic ones.
    13  Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy
    Rohit Sharma Hetal Amin Galib Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
    2015(1):68-78. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30173-8
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 692.93 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Currently, available conventional options for diabetes mellitus have certain limitations of their own, and options from medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being searched to meet the need. Antidiabetic properties of Tinospora cordifolia are highly appreciated in Ayurveda and even in recent modern researches. Several studies on its extracts (viz. immunemodulatory, anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, hormone regulator etc.) and isolated phytoconstituents (like tinosporin, berberine, jatrorrhizine etc.) have reported that it is a preventive and curative antidiabetic herb, which are substantiated by clinical trials. Scattered information pertaining to antidiabetic potential of Tinospora is reported. Present review encompasses (i) in-depth information of reported antidiabetic activities of the plant in light of available experimental and clinical studies, and (ii) understanding on the possible mechanism of its action in combating the complex pathology of diabetes.
    14  Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers: critical appraisal and role in therapy
    Jitin Rahul Manish Kumar Jain Shishu Pal Singh Rakesh Kant Kamal Anuradha Aliya Naz Anup Kumar Gupta Sujeet Kumar Mrityunjay
    2015(1):79-84. DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30174-X
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 767.67 K](89)
    Abstract:
    Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa. Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food, clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties. The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates, fibers, potassium, proteins and lipids content, which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, iron, manganese, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-malarial, diarrhoea, anaemia, asthma, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information, taxonomic description, medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

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