Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 10,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion
    Nahid Jivad Zahra Rabiei
    2015(10):789-795. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.015
    [Abstract](36) [HTML](0) [PDF 306.80 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Brain ischemia and reperfusion is the leading cause of serious and long-range disability in the world. Clinically significant changes in central nervous system function are observed following brain ischemia and reperfusion. Stroke patients exhibit behavioral, cognitive, emotional, affective and electrophysiological changes during recovery phase. Brain injury by transient complete global brain ischemia or by transient incomplete brain ischemia afflicts a very large number of patients in the world with death or permanent disability. In order to reduce this damage, we must sufficiently understand the mechanisms involved in brain ischemia and reperfusion and repair to design clinically effective therapy. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.
    2  A method for microbial decontamination of Acanthamoeba cultures using the peritoneal cavity of mice
    Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves Rodrigo Gurgel-Gon?alves Patr?cia Albuquerque Cesar Augusto Cuba-Cuba Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira Selma Aparecida Souza Kuckelhaus
    2015(10):796-800. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.002
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 442.40 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate whether the inoculation of contaminated cultures in the peritoneal cavity of mice could implement decontamination of Acanthamoeba cultures. Methods: Suspensions of Acanthamoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga ATCC 30461, or Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from soil (UnB13 strain) were inoculated in the peritoneal cavity of Swiss mice (n = 24). After 1, 6, 12, or 24 h of exposure the peritoneal cavity was washed and assessed for the presence of bacteria, fungi, and Acanthamoeba. Results: After 1 h of intraperitoneal inoculation at least 97% of the bacteria and 96% of the fungi (P < 0.05) and 99% of the bacteria (P < 0.05) were successfully eliminated from the ATCC 30461 strain and from the soil isolate UnB13 strain, respectively. This method also allowed the recovery of most trophozoites and cysts from both Acanthamoeba cultures at the end of 24 h. Conclusions: Our data demonstrated that this technique has great potential for decontamination of Acanthamoeba cultures in a short period of time.
    3  PAIgG and PAIgM levels in secondary dengue virus infections lead to thrombocytopenia in patients from KP, Pakistan
    Ibrar Alam Said Hassan Iftikhar Alam Rahmat Gul Farhad Ali Ijaz Ali Sana Ullah Imtiaz Ali Khan Aasif Awan
    2015(10):801-805. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.003
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 596.26 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To understand the impact of platelet associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG)/ platelet associated immunoglobulin M (PAIgM) on severity of dengue virus infection leading to thrombocytopenia. Methods: In this study we examined a total of 52 patients who were having secondary infection of dengue in acute phase by using competitive ELISA. Results: A decrease in the platelet count was observed at the acute phase of infection while all along the recovery stage the count of platelet was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed in PAIgG and PAIgM in these subjects. Inverse correlation was found between platelets count and PAIgG/PAIgM among the subjects studied. In the platelets elution from ten subjects, anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were observed. PAIgG and PAIgM with inclined levels were higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever than the classical dengue fever. In the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever PAIgM inclined level was independently associated with high specificity, showing a possible indication of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Conclusions: This study suggests that in secondary dengue virus infection, the PAIgG and PAIgM levels, and the activity of anti-dengue virus play key roles, both in the development and severity of the disease.
    4  Role of Th9 cells and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of malignant ascites
    Xian-Wen Yang Hai-Xing Jiang Xiao-Li Huang Shi-Jia Ma Shan-Yu Qin
    2015(10):806-811. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.013
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.05 M](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the role of Th9 and Th17 cells in malignant ascites (MA). Methods: MA from 30 hepatic carcinoma patients and benign ascites from 30 cirrhotic patients were collected. Corresponding peripheral blood samples from these hepatic carcinoma and cirrhotic patients as well as 30 healthy subjects were collected. The frequency of Th9 and Th17 cells was tested by flow cytometry. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-9 and IL-17 were examined by ELISA. Results: The observed frequency of Th9 and Th17 cells, and the IL-9 and IL-17 serum levels were significantly higher in MA patients than those in cirrhotic patients and healthy control samples (P < 0.05). Moreover, the Th9 cells demonstrated positive correlation with Th17 cells as well as IL-9 in MA patients; however, this positive correlation was not observed in the cirrhotic patients or healthy control samples. The frequency of Th9 and Th17 cells was distinctly higher in MA patients presenting with stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ malignancy and with lymph node or distant metastasis than those in patients in stage Ⅰ or Ⅱ and without distant metastasis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The increased frequency of Th9 and Th17 cells in MA patients suggests that these two T cell subsets play a synergistic role in MA pathogenesis. This study also demonstrated that Th9 and Th17 cells may perform their biological functions in conjunction with IL-9 production.
    5  Lethal response of the dengue vectors to the plant extracts from family Anacardiaceae
    Ali Yousaf Wan Fatma Zuharah
    2015(10):812-818. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.016
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 733.79 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the larvicidal activities of different plant parts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora (M. fasciculiflora), Gluta renghas (G. renghas), Anacardium occidentale and Mangifera indica from family Anacardiaceae against the laboratory and field strains of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: Leaves and bark parts of study plants were collected from Taman Nageri, Bukit Pancor and Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Leaves and stem barks were separated, air dried, ground and extracted with methanol by Soxhlet apparatus. Crude extract was obtained by evaporating the extra solvent in rotary evaporator. The 4th instar larvae from laboratory and field strains were exposed to 50–1 300 mg/L concentrations according to World Health Organization standard larval bioassay. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 h of exposure. Results: Highest larvicidal activity was exhibited by G. renghas bark extract against Ae. albopictus laboratory strain at 600 mg/L. G. renghas also showed the highest larvicidal activities for other strains as compared to other plant extracts, followed by Mangifera indica and M. fasciculiflora and Anacardium occidentale. Conclusions: Ae. albopictus has been found to be more susceptible as compare to Aedes aegypti in both laboratory and field strains in this study. G. renghas and M. fasciculiflora were tested for the first time and exhibited prompting larvicidal activities against dengue vectors. These results revealed that all the plants especially G. renghas and M. fasciculiflora have the higher larvicidal activities and can be used for the control of dengue vector as a new environment friendly, target specific and low cost phytochemical.
    6  The leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus and its major active constituent, rutin, suppressed on melanin production in murine B16F1 melanoma
    Junsei Taira Eito Tsuchida Masatsugu Uehara Natsuko Ohhama Wakana Ohmine Takayuki Ogi
    2015(10):819-823. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.017
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 546.23 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To find anti-melanogenesis materials used in whitening cosmetics. Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Mallotus japonicus (M. japonicus) having an anti-melanogenesis activity was separated by a sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Each fraction was measured for its tyrosinase inhibitory activity together with its polyphenol content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The anti-melanogenesis activity of the active fractions was determined by the melanin content in the murine B16F1 melanoma. The active fractions were put together due to similar constituents, and then separated by high performance liquid chromatography using a C-18 ODS column. The major antimelanogenesis compound was identified using 1H and 13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The ethanolic leaf extract of M. japonicus showed an anti-tyrosinase activity with a high polyphenol content, resulting in suppression of melanin production in the B16F1 melanoma. The extract was separated and the active compound was identical as rutin based on the 1H, 13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis data. In addition, the rutin treatment with cells reduced the melanin content in a concentration dependent manner without any cell toxicity. The leaf extract of M. japonicus containing rutin would be useful in whitening cosmetics for protection from UV-light exposure to be limiting the accumulation of melanin in skin. Conclusions: The leaf extract of M. japonicus and/or rutin isolated from the extract as a key whitening agent would be useful as a whitening cosmetic material for protecting against disorder skin due to melanin accumulation.
    7  Frankincense derived heavy terpene cocktail boosting breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) death in vitro
    Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim Mohammed Al-Buloshi Jamal Al-Sabahi
    2015(10):824-828. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.008
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 958.97 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of frankincense derived heavy oil obtained by Soxhlet extraction method on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), and to study its chemical profile using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Methods: Hexane was used to extract heavy oil from frankincense resin. Chemical profiling of heavy oil was done using Perkin Elmer Clarus GC system with mass spectrometer. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different dilutions (1:1 000, 1:1 500, 1:1 750, 1:2 000, 1:2 250, 1:2 500, 1:2 750, 1:3 000, 1:3 250) of heavy oil for 24 h. The cells were observed by using light microscopy. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Results: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry chemical profiling of frankincense derived heavy oil revealed the presence of terpenes such as α-pinene (61.56%), α-amyrin (20.6%), β-amyrin (8.1%), β-phellandrene (1.47%) and camphene (1.04%). Heavy terpene cocktail induced significant MDA-MB-231 cell death at each concentration tested. Noticeably, very low concentration of Soxhlet derived heavy terpenes elicits considerable cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells compared to hydro distillated essential oil derived from frankincense resin. Conclusions: Extracting anti-cancer active principle cocktail by simple Soxhlet method is cost effective and less time consuming. Our in vitro anti-cancer data forms the rationale for us to test heavy terpene complex in breast cancer xenograft model in vivo. Furthermore, fractionation and developing frankincense heavy terpene based breast cancer drug is the major goal of our laboratory.
    8  Effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairment induced by scopolamine in rats
    Samira Asgharzade Zahra Rabiei Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
    2015(10):829-833. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.006
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 400.41 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of chamomile on balance and motor learning in rats receiving scopolamine and intact rats. Methods: Fourty-two rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 7). Control group received distilled water. Rats in Group 2 were given 1 mg/kg scopolamine. Groups 3 and 4 received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and scopolamine simultaneously for 20 days. Intact groups (Groups 5 and 6) only received chamomile extract 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Motor coordination of rats was assessed with rotarod apparatus. Results: According to the obtained results, compared with the control group, scopolamine significantly decreased time spent on rotarod performance (P < 0.001). Compared with scopolamine group, the strength and staying on rotarod apparatus in Group 3 significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results of this research showed that intact groups that received only chamomile extract at doses of 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly increased time spent on rotarod, compared with scopolamine group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study indicated the high antioxidant property and protective effect of chamomile extract on motor coordination in the groups that received scopolamine.
    9  Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968
    Su Chern Foo Fatimah Md. Yusoff Maznah Ismail Mahiran Basri Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong Kim Wei Chan Sook Kun Yau
    2015(10):834-840. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.003
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 686.46 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH˙and ABTS˙+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) scavenging (DPPH˙, ABTS˙+ ) and iron chelating activities. Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.
    10  Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients
    Zong Ning Yu-Long Bai Hua Lu Kang-Lin Mo
    2015(10):841-844. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.011
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 480.15 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat, CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan–Meier method and a log-rank test. Results: Plasma CRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with plasma paraquat level (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that plasma CRP level was an independent prognostic marker of mortality within 30 days. The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated that area under curve of plasma CRP level was 0.867 (95% CI: 0.81–0.93), and the cut-off value was 18 mg/L, and patients with CRP level over this value had a poor survival time compared with those with less than this value. Conclusions: These results suggest that plasma CRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasma CRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.
    11  Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris extract on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rat
    Zahra Rabiei Shiva Mokhtari Samira Asgharzade Mostafa Gholami Samira Rahnama Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei
    2015(10):845-851. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.006
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 743.44 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) on learning and memory functions in scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats. Memory enhancing activity in scopolamine-induced amnesic rats was investigated by assessing the Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigm. Methods: A total of 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 6 equal groups as follow: control group: received water, scopolamine treated group: received scopolamine 1 mg/kg for 15 days, two scopolamine + T. vulgaris treated groups: received scopolamine and T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days, two intact groups: received T. vulgaris extract 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 15 days. Results: Administration of T. vulgaris extract significantly restored memory and learning impairments induced by scopolamine in the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Conclusions: T. vulgaris extract has repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by scopolamine and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
    12  PPARγ expression by rambutan peel extract in obesity rat model-induced high-calorie diet
    Sri Rahayu Lestari Muhammad Sasmito Djati Achmad Rudijanto Fatchiyah Fatchiyah
    2015(10):852-857. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.01.030
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To monitor the physiological characteristics and genes expression of obesity rat model after rambutan peel extract (RPE) treatment. Methods: Twenty-four 12-week-old male rats were divided into 4 groups: normal, obesity, obesity treated with ellagic acid (O-EA) and obesity treated with RPE30 (O-RPE30). Physiological characteristics were monitored by measuring body weight, calorie intake, size of adipocyte and level of triglyceride. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) expression were observed using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR methods. Results: Body weight gain of O-EA and O-RPE30 rats were lower than obesity group and size of adipocyte cells were smaller than obesity group (P < 0.05), but when we compared to normal group, those groups had higher body weight gain and larger adipocyte cells. The level of triglycerides, protein expression of PPARγ and mRNA level of FABP4 genes were significantly downregulated on O-EA and O-RPE30 compared to obesity group (P < 0.05). Our results indicated that RPE had potential substance as inhibitor of body weight gain, declining of size of adipocyte, level of triglycerides, PPARγ expression and mRNA level of FABP4 gene on obesity rat model. Conclusions: RPE have anti-obesity activity by inhibiting body weight gain, declining size of adipocyte, decreasing triglyceride, PPARγ expression and mRNA level of FABP4 gene on obesity rat model.
    13  Identification of medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases in Urmia, northwest of Iran
    Mahmoud Bahmani Kourosh Saki Somayeh Shahsavari Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei Reza Sepahvand Ahmad Adineh
    2015(10):858-864. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.004
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.53 K](92)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases. Methods: Initially, we obtained a list of herbalists and traditional healers from Food and Drug Deputy. Direct observations and interviews as well as collection of herbarium specimens of indigenous medicinal plants effective in infectious diseases of urinary tract, reproductive, digestive, respiratory and skin systems were performed. This study was conducted through questionnaires and interviews; the questionnaires were distributed among traditional healers and simultaneous interviews were also run. The plants were herbariumized, herbarium specimens were authenticated, and their species were determined by using reliable flora and other sources. Finally, the data were input into Excel 2010 and analyses were performed. Results: Out of the studied plants, 35 native medicinal plants belonging to 17 families were effective in the treatment of various diseases and infections. In this study, the Lamiaceae family had the highest frequency of plants for the treatment of infections. Traditional healers of Urmia in 24% of cases used the leaves of medicinal herb to treat patients. In 68% of cases, they prescribed medicinal herbs in the boiled forms. Most medicinal herbs showed therapeutic effect on the digestive system. Conclusions: Traditional medicinal sources, valuable knowledge of traditional healers in Urmia, the scientific investigation of the effects of the herbs offered in this study and their effects in traditional medicine may provide a good source for new drugs in modern medicine.
    14  Searching for the best agarose candidate from genus Gracilaria, Eucheuma, Gelidium and local brands
    Ferry Efendi Retno Handajani Nursalam Nursalam
    2015(10):865-869. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.009
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 849.54 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To explore the potential of local agar of genus Gracilaria, Eucheuma, Gelidium and local brands as an alternative for imported agarose for DNA electrophoresis, and to examine their ability related to separation and migration of DNA fragments in DNA electrophoresis. Methods: Their performance at various concentrations were compared via an experimental study with a specific brand of imported commercial agarose used in molecular biology research. The measured variables were separation and migration during electrophoresis of a DNA fragment. Results: The local agar genus Gracilaria gigas, Gelidium, brand “B” and brand “S” could separate DNA fragments at a concentration between 1% and 2%, with an optimum concentration of 2% w/v, as good as a specific brand of imported commercial agarose. Conclusions: Their performance were very close to that of commercial agarose and can still be improved by further agar purification as well as by pH and sulfur control.
    15  Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria
    Mohammed Djellouli Houcine Benmehdi Siham Mammeri Abdellah Moussaoui Laid Ziane Noureddine Hamidi
    2015(10):870-873. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.007
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 623.79 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.
    16  Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on antioxidant system in the brain of diabetic rats
    Mohamed Afifi Aaser Mohamed Abdelazim
    2015(10):874-877. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.010
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 296.02 K](85)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To test the ability of both zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to ameliorate the oxidative stress resulted from diabetes in diabetic rats. Methods: Fifty male albino rats were used; ten of them were served as control group and forty, as the experiment group, were injected with streptozotocin at the single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg. Then, the experiment group was subdivided into, diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs, diabetic + SNPs and diabetic + insulin groups. The activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in brain tissues. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, zinc and silver concentrations were estimated in the brain tissues of all rats. Results: A significant increase in the activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase was shown. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased while there was a significant increase in the zinc, silver concentrations and total antioxidant capacity in brain of ZnONPs and SNPs treated rats, compared with diabetic or diabetic + insulin group and their control group. Conclusions: ZnONPs and SNPs can be used to ameliorate the oxidative stress in brain resulted from diabetes mellitus.
    17  Neurological symptoms in psoriasis patients under treatment with infliximab
    Elham Behrangi Amir Houshang Ehsani Forouzandeh Sadrzadeh Gholamhossein Ghaffarpour Shooka Esmaeeli Mansour Deylami Romina Espahbodi Zahra Azizian
    2015(10):878-879. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.020
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 265.52 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the neurological symptoms of psoriasis patients who used infliximab. Methods: We studied psoriasis patients who used infliximab in two referral general hospitals in Tehran from January 2013 to January 2014. We completed neurological symptoms checklists by questioning the patients. Results: Sixty patients with psoriasis were included in this study. Among them, 3 patients had sensory symptoms as side effect and one patient showed motor symptoms as side effect. There was no statistically significant difference between age, gender, and session count with the sensory and motor side effects (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Neurological symptoms can be detected among 6% of patients under treatment with infliximab and there is no significant association between symptoms and gender, duration of drug use as well as age.
    18  A comparative UV−HPLC analysis of ten brands of ibuprofen tablets
    Sylvester Okhuelegbe Eraga Mathew Ikhuoria Arhewoh Rosemary Ngozi Chibuogwu Magnus Amara Iwuagwu
    2015(10):880-884. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.005
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 365.25 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the pharmaceutical equivalence of ten brands of ibuprofen tablets (400 mg) purchased from pharmacies in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: The drug samples were subjected to uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, melting point, disintegration and dissolution tests following acceptable and official protocols. The ibuprofen content was determined using UV and high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: Crushing strength values of the drug samples ranged between 6 and 16 kp while the disintegration times were between 7.43 and 10.40 min (for uncoated tablets) and 3.25–37.32 min (for coated tablets). Friability values were less than 1% and the melting points of recrystallized ibuprofen from the samples ranged from 73.5 to 76.0 ℃. The amount of ibuprofen released within 1 h ranged between 18% and 102% and two brands failed the content of active ingredient in the UV method of assay while all the brands passed the test using HPLC. Conclusions: Ibuprofen (400 mg) tablets marketed in Benin City, Nigeria vary in pharmaceutical quality.

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