Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 11,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Cryptosporidiosis among children with diarrhoea in three Asian countries: A review
    Baha Latif Nurul Fariza Rossle
    2015(11):885-888. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.021
    [Abstract](35) [HTML](0) [PDF 443.31 K](76)
    This review focuses on studies concerning cryptosporidiosis in three Asian countries. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was investigated in children < 12 years old afflicted with diarrhoea and admitted to the paediatric hospitals in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia. Most of the patients complained of abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea and mild-to-severe dehydration. Stool samples were collected from children and five methods were used to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. including: direct wet mount, Sheather's sugar flotation, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl–Neelsen and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). The infection rate was 8.56, 37.3 and 4.6 in Iraq, Jordan and Malaysia, respectively. A combination of formalin ether sedimentation and acid fast stain was used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts in Iraq. The DFA test showed the highest sensitivity for samples of children in Jordan. In Malaysia, direct wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Ziehl–Neelsen and DFA gave the same results (4.62%) while Sheather's sugar flotation was 3.85%. Source of drinking water appeared to be an important risk factor in transmission of infection. In Jordan, the high rate of infection was recorded in rainy season (January–May).
    2  Conjunctival cytological examination, bacteriological culture, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of healthy Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Southern Italy
    Barbara Lamagna Maria Pia Pasolini Sandra Nizza Karina Mallardo Maurizio Formicola Alessandro Costagliola Gerardo Fatone Filomena Fiorito Orlando Paciello Luisa De Martino
    2015(11):889-895. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.017
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 506.39 K](81)
    Objective: To assess normal conjunctival cytological and bacteriological/fungal flora features in the Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Methods: Swabs were taken from the inferior conjunctival sac of both eyes of 57 healthy female buffaloes aged 24–36 months, with no evidence of ocular disease, farmed in Campania region (Southern Italy), for microbiological analysis. Conjunctival eye specimens of both eyes were subsequently obtained by a cyto-brush, for cytological analysis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates was also determined using the diskdiffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates. Results: Cytological examination of conjunctival swab specimens (114 eyes) revealed epithelial cells (basal, intermediate, columnar and superficial) in all samples, whereas neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present in 70%, 10% and 2% of samples, respectively. Microorganisms, for a total of 261 aerobic bacteria and 6 fungi, were isolated from 112/114 conjunctival samples [98.25%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 93.18– 99.70]. Only two conjunctival swabs did not yield bacteria and/or fungi (2/114, 1.75%; 95% CI: 0.30–6.82). Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured (181/261, 69.35%; 95% CI: 63.31–74.81), with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus lentus predominating. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated as Gram-negative bacteria (80/261, 30.65%; 95% CI: 25.19–36.69). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria showed amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and cephalothin as the least sensitive antibiotics for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: These results provided first information on normal conjunctival ocular microflora and cytological features in Mediterranean buffalo.
    3  Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of five marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC fingerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts
    Davood Mahdian Milad Iranshahy Abolfazl Shakeri Azar Hoseini Hoda Yavari Melika Nazemi Mehrdad Iranshahi
    2015(11):896-901. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.020
    [Abstract](34) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.13 M](76)
    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells. Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata (I. echinata), Dysidea avara, Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf (Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths (254 and 280 nm). Results: Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties. Conclusions: I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.
    4  Molecular study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and associated personnel in Jordan
    Yaser Hamadeh Tarazi Ahmed Mahmoud Almajali Mustafa Mohammad Kheer Ababneh Humam Shawket Ahmed Adnan Saleem Jaran
    2015(11):902-908. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.015
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 853.25 K](76)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence, genetic relatedness, and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA) isolated from household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs, compared to isolates from their associated personnel. Methods: MRSA was isolated from 250 nasal swabs (150 swabs from dogs and 100 swabs from humans). PCR assays were used to detect the presence of both the nuc and mecA genes, which confirmed the identity of S. aureus isolates and the presence of methicillin resistance, respectively. Disk diffusion was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents along with an E-test that determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates from dogs to those from associated and unassociated personnel. Results: The prevalence of S. aureus in dogs and humans was 12.7% and 10.0% respectively, while the prevalence of MRSA isolates in dogs and humans was 5.3% and 5.0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA isolates in household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs was 7.8%, 4.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. MRSA isolates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of multi-resistance against three or more antimicrobial agents than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against all MRSA isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a strong association between dog MRSA isolates and MRSA isolates from strongly associated personnel. Conclusions: MRSA is prevalent in house dogs, as well as in dog rearing centers and among their strongly associated personnel. A strong association was found between the MRSA isolates from dogs and those from humans who are in close contact. In addition, MRSA isolates showed a high rate of multi-resistance compared to MSSA isolates.
    5  ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients
    Bin Wang Li-Hua Huang Ji-Xue Zhao Man Wei Hua Fang Dan-Yang Wang Hong-Fa Wang Ji-Gang Yin Mei Xiang
    2015(11):909-914. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.08.002
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 329.76 K](77)
    Objective: To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans (C. albicans) from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance. Methods: Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected. Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans (2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced. Results: Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2% were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8% and 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total, 27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dosedependent isolates. Among them, Y132H, A114S, and Y257H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464S and F72S also have been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified. Conclusions: Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azoleresistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.
    6  Evaluation of zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed PCR methods
    I Wayan Suardana Dyah Ayu Widiasih I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika Komang Januartha Putra Pinatih Budi Setiadi Daryono
    2015(11):915-920. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.023
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 608.02 K](72)
    Objective: To evaluate the zoonotic potency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR) methods as one of the DNA fingerprinting methods. Methods: A total of 14 isolates consisted of 11 isolates originated from human feces with renal failure symptoms, 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, and 1 control isolate were used in this study. DNA of each isolate was extracted, and their profiles were studied by using AP-PCR method with M13 F and M13 R arbitrary primers. Results: The results founded that all of 14 isolates had similarity range from 54.6% to 88.5%. Isolates KL-106(3) and KL-55(6) originated from humans showed the degree of similarity with isolates SM-25(1) and SM-7(1) originated from cattle as high as 85% and 77%, respectively. Conclusions: The high degree of similarity between isolates originated from cattle and human indicated the high potency of zoonoses. The results also concluded AP-PCR method as a briefly fingerprinting method in order to trace the epidemiological of E. coli O157:H7.
    7  Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of Kang 601 heji, a traditional Chinese oral liquid dosage form
    Raphael Nammahime Alolga Sarah Wambui Amadi Vitus Onoja Assogba Gabin Assanhou Moses Muyaba Said Abasse Kassim
    2015(11):921-927. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.08.001
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 981.89 K](81)
    Objective: To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of Kang 601 heji (K-601) as an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent using appropriate animal models. Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat paw and xylene-induced ear oedemas were models used to investigate anti-inflammatory actions of K-601. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity in Wistar rats. The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic mechanisms were evaluated by detecting prostaglandins E2, nitric oxide, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α levels using appropriate reagents and ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that K-601 reduced the level of inflammations in both anti-inflammatory models in a dose-dependent manner. The same was true for the antipyretic model. The possible mechanisms of actions were through the inhibition of prostaglandins E2, interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide. Conclusions: K-601 has proven anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. The findings provide a scientific basis for the use of K-601 as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agent in traditional Chinese medicinal practice.
    8  Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis Mar?a del Carmen De Lama-Odr?a Jose Camarena-Lizarzaburu Juana del Valle Mendoza
    2015(11):928-931. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.016
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.49 K](74)
    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method. Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.
    9  Anti-malarial effect of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one and green tea extract on erythrocyte-stage Plasmodium berghei in mice
    Phitsinee Thipubon Wachiraporn Tipsuwan Chairat Uthaipibull Sineenart Santitherakul Somdet Srichairatanakool
    2015(11):932-936. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.021
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 474.30 K](75)
    Objective: To examine the efficacy of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2- methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) iron chelator and green tea extract (GTE) as anti-malarial activity in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice. Methods: The CM1 (0–100 mg/kg/day) and GTE (0–100 mg (−)-epigallocatechin 3- gallate equivalent/kg/day) were orally administered to P. berghei infected mice for consecutive 4 days. Parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) were enumerated by using Giemsa staining microscopic method. Results: CM1 lowered percentage of PRBC in dose-dependent manner with an ED50 value of 56.91 mg/kg, when compared with pyrimethamine (PYR) (ED50 = 0.76 mg/kg). GTE treatment did not show any inhibition of the malaria parasite growth. In combined treatment, CM1 along with 0.6 mg/kg PYR significantly inhibited the growth of P. berghei in mice while GTE did not enhance the PYR anti-malarial activity. Conclusions: CM1 would be effective per se and synergize with PYR in inhibiting growth of murine malaria parasites, possibly by limiting iron supply from plasma transferrin and host PRBC cytoplasm, and chelating catalytic iron cstitutive in parasites’ mitochondrial cytochromes and cytoplasmic ribonucleotide reductase. CM1 would be a promising adjuvant to enhance PYR anti-malarial activity and minimize the drug resistance.
    10  Wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis flower mucilage in rabbit full thickness wounds
    Robab Valizadeh Ali Asghar Hemmati Gholamreza Houshmand Sara Bayat Mohammad Bahadoram
    2015(11):937-943. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.018
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.95 M](74)
    Objective: To evaluate and practically demonstrate the influence of Althaea officinalis flower mucilage as a plant known in Iran's and other Middle Eastern countries' traditional medicine for its wound healing properties. Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups of 5 cases including a non-treated group as the negative control group receiving no treatment, a group treated with eucerin as the positive control group, a phenytoin 1% group as a standard group treated topically with phenytoin 1% hand-made ointment, and treatment groups treated with hand-made Althaea officinalis flower mucilage (AFM) ointment in a eucerin base with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%). Results: Among the treatment groups, the AFM 15% ointment showed the best result. Wound healing duration was reduced by the surface application of these groups. Wound closure was completed on Days 14 and 15 in the AFM 15% ointment and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in healing period between these groups. Conclusions: In conclusion, AFM 15% ointment was found to reduce wound healing time without any significant difference with the phenytoin 1% ointment. The authors suggest increased AFM effectiveness in when combined with phenytoin or other effectual plants.
    11  Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.
    Mai Mohammed Farid Sameh Reda Hussein Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim Mohammed Ali El Desouky Amr Mohammed Elsayed Ahmad Ali El Oqlah Mahmoud Mohammed Saker
    2015(11):944-947. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.019
    [Abstract](9) [HTML](0) [PDF 506.47 K](71)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.
    12  Decreasing α-synuclein aggregation by methanolic extract of Centella asiatica in zebrafish Parkinson's model
    Husnul Khotimah Mulyohadi Ali Sutiman Bambang Sumitro Mochamad Aris Widodo
    2015(11):948-954. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.024
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](74)
    Objective: To observe the effects of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) methanolic extract on α-synuclein aggregation and its expression in rotenone-exposed zebrafish. Methods: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 5 μg/L rotenone for 28 days and coincubated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL of C. asiatica methanolic extract. The medium was changed every 48 h for maintain the concentration of rotenone and extract. After 28 days zebrafish were sacrificed on the ice block and protein was isolated from zebrafish brain for ELISA of dopamine and Western blotting of α-synuclein. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to observe the α-synuclein expressions from histopathological preparation of zebrafish brain. The head were soaked in 10% formaline for less than 24 h and embedded onto paraffin block, then sliced for immunohistochemistry using anti α-synuclein antibody. We also measured zebrafish motility for 5 min in each week. Results: C. asiatica has important bioactive compounds such as asiaticoside that has antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. It may inhibit cascade reaction due to oxidative stress induced by rotenone. Decreasing reactive oxygen species proposed probability of radical attack to α-synuclein protein that caused aggregation and increase of its expression. The motility of zebrafish was also maintained in C. asiatica groups due to the increasing dopamine level in rotenone-induced zebrafish. High level of reactive oxygen species inactivated enzyme for dopamine synthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase, and oxidized dopamine itself. Oxidized dopamine increased α-synuclein aggregation. Thus, the dopamine level decreased in rotenone-induced zebrafish, but C. asiatica increased dopamine level. Conclusions: C. asiatica has a potential to be developed as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment due to its capability for minimized the sign of Parkinson's such as α-synuclein aggregation and expression, increasing motility and dopamine as well.
    13  A novel HPTLC method for quantitative estimation of biomarkers in polyherbal formulation
    Zeeshan Ahmed Sheikh Sadia Shakeel Somia Gul Aqib Zahoor Saleha Suleman Khan Faisal Haider Zaidi Khan Usmanghani
    2015(11):955-959. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.016
    [Abstract](11) [HTML](0) [PDF 601.88 K](74)
    Objective: To explore the quantitative estimation of biomarkers gallic acid and berberine in polyherbal formulation Entoban syrup. Methods: High performance thin layer chromatography was performed to evaluate the presence of gallic acid and berberine employing toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol 12:9:4:0.5 (v/v/v/v) and ethanol: water: formic acid 90:9:1 (v/v/v), as a mobile phase respectively. Results: The Rf values (0.58) for gallic acid and (0.76) for berberine in both sample and reference standard were found comparable under UV light at 273 nm and 366 nm respectively. The high performance thin layer chromatography method developed for quantization was simple, accurate and specific. Conclusions: The present standardization provides specific and accurate tool to develop qualifications for identity, transparency and reproducibility of biomarkers in Entoban syrup.
    14  Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Launaea lanifera Pau grown in Algerian arid steppes
    Tarek Benmeddour Hocine Laouer Salah Akkal Guido Flamini
    2015(11):960-964. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.025
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 329.56 K](84)
    Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and the antibacterial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Launaea lanifera Pau (L. lanifera), grown in arid steppe regions. Methods: L. lanifera essential oil was isolated from aerial parts by steam distillation and its chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry. Furthermore, its in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacterial strains was tested following the agar disk diffusion method. Results: This species had a very low essential oil yield (0.005%). Twenty-four (92.6%) individual components were identified. The main constituents were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (31.6%), (E)-β-ionone (8.5%), (E)-β-damascenone (7.0%), 2-methyltetradecane (3.8%), n-heptadecane (3.8%), limonene (2.8%) and β-caryophyllene (2.8%). No noteworthy antimicrobial activity was observed on the tested bacteria, neither Gram negative nor Gram positive. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antibacterial activity of L. lanifera. The studied essential oil does not possess significant activity against the tested microorganisms.
    15  High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand: A cluster randomized controlled trial
    Napadol Sudsom Kuaanan Techato Suwich Thammapalo Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong Theerakamol Pengsakul
    2015(11):965-970. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.022
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 1006.66 K](71)
    Objective: To examine the resurgence rate, house density index (HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team, and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume (SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team. Methods: Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters (6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared. Results: The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups. Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations. However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.
    16  Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs
    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta Armando Emiliano Gonzalez Cesar Gavidia Viterbo Ayvar Hector Hugo Garcia Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina
    2015(11):971-973. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.03.013
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 416.07 K](76)
    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups; untreated group (n = 142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n = 506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5% (39/142) and 2.0% (10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.
    17  Mathematical model explaining iron change in patients with thalassemia
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2015(11):974-975. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.017
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 654.61 K](77)

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