Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 12,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Cocktail of Theileria equi antigens for detecting infection in equines
    Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed Mohamed Abdo Rizk Mohamed Alaa Terkawi Ahmed Mousa El Said El Shirbini El Said Gehad Elsayed Mohamed Fouda Naoaki Yokoyama Ikuo Igarashi
    2015(12):977-981. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.001
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 551.67 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To use two diagnostic antigens belonging to the frequently associated in Theileria domain, Theileria equi (T. equi) protein 82 (Te 82) and T. equi 104 kDa microneme-rhoptry antigen precursor (Te 43), to diagnose T. equi infection in horses as compared with equi merozoite antigen-2 (EMA-2). Methods: In the current study, we applied a cocktail-ELISA containing two antigens (EMA-2 + Te 82) to diagnose T. equi infection either in experimentally infected horses or in field infection. Results: Our findings have revealed that a cocktail formula of EMA-2 + Te 82 provided a more practical and sensitive diagnostic candidate for diagnosing T. equi infection in horses as compared with Te 82 or Te 43 alone. Conclusions: The ELISA technique using a cocktail formula of EMA-2 + Te 82 offers a practical and sensitive diagnostic tool for diagnosing T. equi infection in horses and using of this promising cocktail formula will be applicable for epidemiological surveys and will help control the infection in horses.
    2  Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India: Their potential for prophylactic use
    Prakash Bangalore Nagendrappa Jean-Fran?ois Franetich Frederick Gay Audrey Lorthiois Padma Venkatasubramanian Dominique Mazier
    2015(12):982-986. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.002
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 423.36 K](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria. Methods: A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha, India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi. Results: The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro (IC50 0.74 mg/mL), a therapeutic index of 9.54. In mice treated with the aqueous extract (2 000 mg/kg/day), peak parasitaemia values were 81% lower in the experimental 2.35% ± 0.14% as compared to controls 12.62% ± 0.52% (P < 0.001), suggesting significant prophylactic activity. Conclusions: The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.
    3  Deletion of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sipC gene
    Maryam Safarpour Dehkordi Abbas Doosti Asghar Arshi
    2015(12):987-991. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.003
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 519.16 K](73)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To construct a novel plasmid as Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) sipC gene knockouts candidate. Methods: In this research, 5’ upstream and 3’ downstream regions of S. typhimurium sipC gene and kanamycin gene were PCR amplified. Each of these DNA fragment was cloned into pGEM T-easy vector. The construct was confirmed by PCR and restriction digest. Results: PCR amplified 320, 206 and 835 bp DNA fragments were subcloned into pET- 32 vector resulting with a plasmid called pET-32-sipC up-kan- sip C down. Conclusions: The new plasmid (pET-32-sipC up-kan- sip C down) is useful for genetic engineering and for future manipulation of S. typhimurium sipC gene.
    4  Anticancer activity of Cyanothece sp. strain extracts from Egypt: First record
    Nermin Adel El Semary Manar Fouda
    2015(12):992-995. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.004
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 395.45 K](67)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the anticancer activity of eight cyanobacterial hydrophilic extracts on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line. Methods: The cyanobacterial strains used in the investigation were collected from diverse habitats in Egypt. The initial cytotoxicity test of cyanobacterial hydrophilic extracts was carried out by MTT assay. The in vitro anticancer activity of the four most active extracts was performed on MCF-7 cells using sulforhodamine B assay. Morphological and molecular techniques were used to characterise identity of the isolate from which the most potent cytotoxic extract was obtained. Results: Extracts from four cyanobacterial strains had higher cytotoxic activities scoring 76.68%, 77.70%, 76.70% and 74.45%, respectively. A considerable anticancer effect was only detected when the concentrated extracts were used. One cyanobacterial extract gave the highest anticancer activity on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (57.6% of inhibition) as compared to control. The isolate was best-matched to Cyanothece sp. with sequence resemblance 98% to Cyanothece sp. strain PCC7564 and the phylogenetic analysis confirmed its close identity to the Cyanothece genus. Conclusions: This is the first study to report the anticancer effect of aqueous extracts derived from the unicellular Cyanothece sp. from Egypt and its potential as a plausible candidate for future mass biotechnological applications.
    5  Influence of CD133+ expression on patients' survival and resistance of CD133+ cells to anti-tumor reagents in gastric cancer
    De-Hu Chen Rui-Qi Lu Xiao-Chun Ni Ju-Gang Wu Shou-Lian Wang Bo-Jian Jiang Ji-Wei Yu
    2015(12):996-1004. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.005
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.01 M](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the influence of CD133+ expression on patients' survival and resistance of CD133+ cells to anti-tumor agents in gastric cancer (GC). Methods: Influence of CD133 expression on prognosis was analyzed employing samples from patients with GC. GC cell lines were utilized to separate CD133+ and CD133 subpopulations by immunomagnetic separation and to analyze the biological features of two subpopulations in vitro and in vivo, especially in resistant to anti-tumor reagents and its apoptotic mechanism. Results: The lower CD133+ group showed a significantly better survival compared with the higher CD133+ group. The highest content of CD133+ subpopulations for KATO-Ⅲ cells had stronger proliferative ability than CD133 subpopulations. A single CD133+ cell was capable of generating new cell colony and the tumorigenicity rate in nude mice was 100% for CD133+ clonal spheres or for CD133+ cells, but 0% for CD133 cells. Furthermore, the higher expression levels of Oct-4, Sox-2, Musashi-1 and ABCG2 in CD133+ clonal spheres were identified compared with CD133+ cells or CD133 cells. Under the treatment of anti-tumor reagents, CD133+ cells had lower suppression rates compared with CD133 cells while lower level of Bcl-2 and higher level of Bax were found in CD133+ cells compared with CD133 cells. Conclusions: The patients with lower CD133+ expression had a better survival. Enriched CD133+ cells in clonal sphere shared the ability to be self-renewable, proliferative, tumorigenic and resistant to anti-tumor agents as probably regulated by Bcl-2 and Bax.
    6  Vascular endothelial growth factor before and after locoregional treatment and its relation to treatment response in hepatocelluar carcinoma patients
    Heba Sedrak Noaman El-Garem Mervat Naguib Heba El-Zawahry Mohamed Esmat Lila Rashed
    2015(12):1005-1009. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.006
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 309.86 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and its relation to treatment response. Methods: A total of 40 patients with unrespectable hepatocelluar carcinoma were assessed clinically. Twenty patients were suitable to be treated by TACE, while other 20 patients were treated with PEI. Serum VEGF levels were measured before and 1 month after each procedure by ELISA. Response was assessed after 1 month according to Union Internationale Contre le Cancer evaluation criteria based on change in tumor size as measured by ultrasound. Results: There was no significant difference between TACE and PEI groups with regard to age, sex, tumor size, response to local therapy, or VEGF and alpha-fetoprotein before and after therapy. VEGF levels after TACE were significantly higher than before TACE [(298.1 ± 123.6) pg/mL vs. (205.8 ± 307.3) pg/mL; P = 0.001]. Also, VEGF levels were significantly higher after PEI than before PEI [(333.8 ± 365.6) pg/mL vs. (245.3 ± 301.8) pg/mL; P = 0.000]. Non-responders of both groups had significantly high VEGF levels than responder's, both before [(985.0 ± 113.2) pg/mL vs. (117.1 ± 75.3) pg/mL; P < 0.001] and after therapy [(1 330.6 ± 495.7) pg/mL vs. (171.0 ± 94.7) pg/mL; P = 0.000)]. Conclusions: Both TACE and PEI were associated with an increase in serum VEGF in hepatocelluar carcinoma patients. Higher levels of VEGF before and after therapy were found in non-responders, suggesting that VEGF is a useful marker in predicting treatment response.
    7  Combined treatment of 3-hydroxypyridine-4-one derivatives and green tea extract to induce hepcidin expression in iron-overloaded β-thalassemic mice
    Supranee Upanan Kanjana Pangjit Chairat Uthaipibull Suthat Fucharoen Andrew T. McKie Somdet Srichairatanakool
    2015(12):1010-1017. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.007
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.01 M](72)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of deferiprone (DFP), 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3- hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) or green tea extract (GTE) in enhancing expression of hepatic hepcidin1 (Hamp1) mRNA and relieving iron overload in β-globin knockout thalassemic mice. Methods: The β-globin knockout thalassemic mice were fed with a ferrocenesupplemented diet for 2 months and oral administration of deionized water, DFP (50 mg/kg), CM1 (50 mg/kg), GTE (50 mg epigallocatechin 3-gallate equivalent/kg), GTE along with DFP (50 mg/kg), and GTE along with CM1 (50 mg/kg) every day for 3 months. Levels of hepatic Hamp1 mRNA, plasma non-transferrin bound iron, plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and tissue iron content were determined. Results: All chelation treatments could reduce plasma non-transferrin bound iron concentrations. Additionally, hepatic Hamp1 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in the mice in a GTE + DFP combined treatment, correlating with a decrease in the plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and tissue iron deposition. Conclusions: The GTE + DFP treatment could ameliorate iron overload and liver oxidative damage in non-transfusion dependent β-thalassemic mice, by chelating toxic iron in plasma and tissues, and increasing hepcidin expression to inhibit duodenal iron absorption and iron release from hepatocytes and macrophages in the spleen. There is probably an advantage in giving GTE with DFP when treating patients with iron overload.
    8  Anti-breast cancer properties and toxicity of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract in BALB/c mice
    Latifah Saiful Yazan Yong Sze Ong Nur Elena Zaaba Razana Mohd Ali Jhi Biau Foo Yin Sim Tor
    2015(12):1018-1026. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.008
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.07 M](68)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the anti-breast cancer activities and the safety oral consumption of Dillenia suffruticosa root aqueous extract (DRAE) in BALB/c mice. Methods: In the anti-breast cancer study, female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups (n = 12), which were (1) positive control (with breast cancer, untreated), (2) negative control (without breast cancer, untreated) and other three groups of mice with breast cancer treated with 1 000, 500 and 250 mg/kg of DRAE, respectively, by oral gavage for 28 days. All mice except from the negative control group were injected into the mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells (1 × 105 4T1 cells/0.1 mL of phosphate buffer solution). DRAE was administered orally on Day 11 after the tumor has developed. Results: The tumor volume of the 1 000 mg/kg of DRAE group reduced significantly compared to the positive control while treatment with 500 mg/kg of DRAE had significantly inhibited metastasis to the heart. In the acute toxicity study, treatment with up to 5 000 mg/kg of DRAE was not toxic to the animals, indicating its safety when a large amount of this plant extract was ingested. Based on the sub-acute toxicity study, treatment of the highest dose of DRAE (1 000 mg/kg) had mild liver toxicity indicated by mild focal hemorrhage. Conclusions: DRAE possesses anti-breast cancer properties but at the same time it shows mild toxicity to the liver. The non observable adverse effect dose for DRAE is 500 mg/kg.
    9  Effect of sucrose and potassium nitrate on biomass and saponin content of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. hairy root in balloon-type bubble bioreactor
    Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara Alfinda Novi Kristanti Edy Setiti Wida Utami Arif Yachya
    2015(12):1027-1032. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.009
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.18 M](68)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To increase biomass and saponin production in hairy root culture of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. (T. paniculatum) in balloon-type bubble bioreactor (BTBB). Methods: Hairy roots which were collected from leaf explants of T. paniculatum were infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain LB510. The hairy roots were cultivated at 400 mL Murashige and Skoog liquid medium without growth regulator (MS0) in 1 000 mL BTBB. Each BTBB had 2 g hairy roots as initial inoculum and these cultures were treated with various concentrations of sucrose (3%, 4%, 5%, 6% w/v) and potassium nitrate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 strength of MS medium). Cultures were maintained for 14 days. Fresh and dry weights of hairy roots at the end of culture were investigated. Results: Various concentrations of sucrose influenced the biomass accumulation of hairy roots. Maximum biomass was reached by MS medium supplemented with 6% sucrose and it was approximately threefold higher than control. Culture supplemented with potassium nitrate at 2.0 strength of MS0 could increase biomass accumulation of hairy roots until 0.14 g dry weight and it was almost threefold higher than control. However, the maximum saponin content was obtained by MS medium supplemented with 5% sucrose and 2.0 strength potassium nitrate of MS. Conclusions: Based on this research, those conditions can be used to produce biomass and saponin of hairy root of T. paniculatum in the large scale.
    10  Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oil from Trigonella foenum-graecum
    Moniruzzaman Shahinuzzaman Ahsanul Haque Rahima Khatun Zahira Yaakob
    2015(12):1033-1036. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.010
    [Abstract](32) [HTML](0) [PDF 656.39 K](68)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds powder, and identify the compounds from the extracted oil. Methods: The seeds powder of Trigonella foenum-graecum was subjected to Clevenger extractor. Seven strains of bacteria were used to test antibacterial activity of the extract. The activity against bacteria was tested by disk diffusion method using Whatman No. 1 filter paper. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was performed with an Agilent7890/5975B-gas chromatography/mass selective detector. Results: The hydrodistillation of seeds powder yielded 0.285% (v/w) of oil. Disk diffusion of the oil showed bactericidal activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria of tasted strains. The inhibition zone ranged from (8 ± 0) mm to (15.0 ± 0.7) mm depending on microbial strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed 14 different compounds. The total compounds represented 80.96% of the oil. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity is due to the effects of different biological active compounds present in the extract. Identification of the compounds may help to develop new effective antimicrobial agent(s). Further researches on purification, characterization and toxicology of the active compounds are needed.
    11  Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts and fractions from Premna odorata (Blanco), Artocarpus camansi (Blanco) and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) against selected human cancer cell lines
    Ourlad Alzeus G. Tantengco Sonia D. Jacinto
    2015(12):1037-1041. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.011
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 625.47 K](67)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic activities of Premna odorata (P. odorata) leaves and bark, Artocarpus camansi (A. camansi) and Gliricidia sepium against selected human cancer cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Methods: The crude extracts of P. odorata, A. camansi and Gliricidia sepium were subjected to liquid–liquid partitioning by using hexane and ethyl acetate to separate compounds based on their polarity. The fractions were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human colon cancer cell line (HCT116), breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and Chinese hamster ovary cell line (AA8) by using MTT assay. Results: Based on the standard values of toxicity set by the study of Suffness and Pezzuto, P. odorata leaves and P. odorata bark hexane fractions and A. camansi leaves were all considered highly cytotoxic against the selected human cancer cell lines. P. odorata bark hexane extract exhibited the highest selectivity index for HCT116, MCF- 7 and A549 cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that P. odorata leaves and bark and A. camansi leaves have excellent cytotoxic activity and warrant further studies to isolate novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.
    12  Screening for anti-pancreatic lipase properties of 28 traditional Thai medicinal herbs
    Ananya Dechakhamphu Nattapong Wongchum
    2015(12):1042-1045. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.012
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 487.03 K](69)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To screen the effect of 28 medicinal plants on inhibition of pancreatic lipase and evaluate the phytochemical contents of extracts. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of 28 traditional Thai herbal medicines were assayed for their in vitro activities against porcine pancreatic lipase using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as a substrate. Quantitative estimation of flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids was done. Results: Extracts from four herbs, Memecylon edule Roxb., Garcinia vilersiana Pierre, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl., at a concentration of 100 μg/mL, strongly inhibited porcine pancreatic lipase by 90.97%, 92.04%, 94.64% and 95.38%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between phenolic content and inhibition activity. Inhibition activity was significantly correlated with flavonoid and with alkaloid contents. Conclusions: From this result, it could be concluded that herbs represent a rich of antipancreatic lipase compounds, in particular, Cryptolepis elegans Wall. and Phyllanthus chamaepeuce Ridl. It is suggested that the phytochemical compounds from these plants may be applied for the prevention and treatment of obesity or hyperlipidemia.
    13  Qualitative analysis of catechins from green tea GMB-4 clone using HPLC and LC-MS/MS
    Erna Susanti Ciptati Retty Ratnawati Aulanni'am Achmad Rudijanto
    2015(12):1046-1050. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.013
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 421.07 K](131)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the bioactive compounds in catechins isolation and its components from green tea GMB-4 clone. Methods: Green tea GMB-4 clones were extracted with distilled water at 90 ℃. Samples were eluted into the column with 10% ethanol. Subsequently, the column was eluted with 95% ethanol and evaporated separately. Green tea extract was identified by thin layer chromatography. Catechins were separated by the stationary phase in column chromatography using polyamide with 10% ethanol eluent and 95% ethanol. The results of isolations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and LC-MS/MS. Analysis of catechins by HPLC was done by external standard. Results: Fraction from 10% ethanol showed that four major peaks at retention time of 1.663, 2.367, 2.950 and 4.890, indicated the presence of four catechins components including catechin, epicatechins, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin. Whereas, fraction from 95% ethanol showed two main peaks at retention time of 5.167 and 9.82, which indicated the presence of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG). EGCG (m/z 459), epigallocatechin (m/z 307), ECG (m/z 443), and epicatechin (m/z 291) were isolated and separated successfully using HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Conclusions: The HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods were successfully tuned for the qualitative analysis of green tea extract with EGCG and ECG. Four major catechins were separated and identified by LC-MS/MS, such as EGCG, epigallocatechin, ECG and epicatechin. The result of HPLC analysis showed that EGCG and ECG were main components from catechins isolation of green tea GMB-4 clone.
    14  Evaluation of febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in a hematology clinic
    Mucahit Goruk Mehmet Sinan Dal Tuba Dal Abdullah Karakus Recep Tekin Nida Ozcan Orhan Ayyildiz
    2015(12):1051-1054. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.014
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 344.93 K](66)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene standards. Methods: A total of 124 patients with hematological malignancies (69 male, 55 female) hospitalized in hematology clinic with poor hygiene conditions depending on hospital conditions, between January 2007 and December 2010, were evaluated, retrospectively. Results: In this study, 250 febrile neutropenia episodes developing in 124 hospitalized patients were evaluated. Of the patients, 69 were men (56%) and 55 women (44%). A total of 40 patients (32%) had acute myeloid leukemia, 25 (20%) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 19 (15%) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 10 (8%) multiple myeloma, and 8 (8%) chronic myeloid leukemia. In our study, 56 patients (22%) were diagnosed as pneumonia, 38 (15%) invasive aspergillosis, 38 (15%) sepsis, 16 (6%) typhlitis, 9 (4%) mucormycosis, and 4 (2%) urinary tract infection. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from 52% (n = 20), while Gram-negative bacilli 42% (n = 16) and yeasts from 6% (n = 2) of the sepsis patients, respectively. The most frequently isolated Gram-positive bacteria were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 18), while the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacteria was Escherichia coli (n = 10). Conclusions: Febrile neutropenia is still a problem in patients with hematological malignancies. The documentation of the flora and detection of causative agents of infections in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy. Infection control procedures should be applied for preventing infections and transmissions.
    15  The frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial pathogens recovered from cancer patients and hospital environments
    Aymen Mudawe Nurain Naser Eldin Bilal Mutasim Elhadi Ibrahim
    2015(12):1055-1059. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.014
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 314.57 K](66)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance rates of nosocomial pathogens isolated from cancer patients and hospital environments. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2010 to May 2013 at Radiation and Isotopes Centre of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 1 503 samples (505 clinical and 998 environmental) were examined. Isolates were identified, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using standard laboratory procedures. Results: Out of 505 clinical samples, nosocomial pathogens were found as 48.1%. Among hospital environment samples, bacterial contaminants were detected in 29.7% of samples. The main microorganisms recovered from cancer patients were Proteus spp. (23.5%), Escherichia coli (22.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (21.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%). The most frequent isolates from hospital environments were Bacillus spp. (50.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.2%) and P. aeruginosa (11.5%). The proportions of resistance among Gram-negative pathogens from cancer patients were high for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Moderate resistance rates were recorded to ciprofloxacin, such as 51.0% for P. aeruginosa, 21.7% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 55.5% for Escherichia coli. Except Klebsiella, there were no significant differences (P  0.05) of resistance rates between Gram-negative isolates from cancer patients to those from the hospital environments. The proportions of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates from cancer patients were not differ significantly (P = 0.763) from those collected from the hospital environments (49.2%; 91/ 185 vs. 47%; 32/68). Conclusions: The prevalence of nosocomial infection among cancer patients was high (48.1%) with the increasing of antimicrobial resistance rates. Hospital environments are potential reservoirs for nosocomial infections, which calls for intervention program to reduce environmental transmission of pathogens.
    16  Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in blood donors in Jahrom District, Southern Iran
    Mohammad Hassan Davami Morteza Pourahmad Rasoul Baharlou Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi Abbass Ahmadi Vasmejani Kavous Solhjoo Hamid Reza Fallah Mohsen Kalantari
    2015(12):1060-1064. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.016
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 493.82 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To identify the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies from blood donors who referred to blood transfusion bases of Jahrom County, using ELISA method. Methods: Based on the prevalence and characteristics method, 400 serum samples were collected from blood donors referred to Jahrom blood transfusion bases, Southern Iran, during 2010–2011, designed at testing by ELISA. IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were tested using ELISA kits (Dia-Pro) on serums. The data were analysed by SPSS 19 software. Results: Review of 400 cases, 54 of them were IgG positive for parasites (13.5%) and 346 of those with negative IgG (86.5%). In IgM examination, 1.75% of them have been positive IgM (7 cases) and 98.25% of them were IgM negative (393 cases). By comparing the different group ages, 40–50 year age group had the highest prevalence of IgG positive (17.9%) and the age group of 30–40 years had the highest incidence of IgM negative (2.5%). Conclusions: Due to the serological infection rate of toxoplasmosis obtained from this study, toxoplasmosis should be considered as a significant transfusion risk factor in Jahrom and also in any region with similar situations.

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