Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 2,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Ebola vaccine 2014: remained problems to be answered
    Somsri Wiwanitkit Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2015(2):85-86.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 322.58 K](90)
    Abstract:
    Ebola virus outbreak in Africa in 2014 is a big global issue. The vaccine is the hope for management of the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection. There are several ongoing researches on new Ebola vaccine. In this short manuscript, we discuss and put forward specific remained problems to be answered on this specific issue. Lack for complete knowledge on the new emerging virus, concern from pharmaceutical company and good trial of new vaccine candidates are the remained problem to be further discussed in vaccinology.
    2  Apoptosis-inducing effects of extracts from desert plants in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells
    Deepak Bhatia Animesh Mandal Eviatar Nevo Anupam Bishayee
    2015(2):87-92.
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.13 M](115)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigat the mechanism of antitumor efficacy of Origanum dayi (O. dayi) and Ochradenus baccatus (O. baccatus) extracts by exploring apoptosis-inducing potential. Methods: The aqueous extracts of aerial parts of aforementioned plants were prepared and used for this study. HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations (0, 2 and 5 mg/mL) of each plant extract for 24 or 48 h. Cell apoptosis was measured by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay and flow cytometry. The expression levels of various apoptosisrelated genes were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: O. dayi and O. baccatus extracts exerted apoptotic effects on HepG2 cells for 48 h following treatment. O. dayi extract was found to be a better apoptosis-inducing agent than O. baccatus extract as the former delivered greater efficacy at a lower concentration. Both extracts manifested upregulation of Bax, Bad, cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. Conclusions: The aqueous extracts of O. dayi and O. baccatus are capable of inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through modulation of mitochondrial pathway which explains their antitumor activities. These desert plants may serve as useful resources to develop effective remedies for hepatocellular carcinoma and other human malignancies.
    3  Investigation of antioxidant and antihemolytic properties of Thymus satureioides collected from Tafilalet Region, south-east of Morocco
    Mhamed Ramchoun Khalid Sellam Hicham Harnafi Chakib Alem Mohamed Benlyas Farid Khallouki Souliman Amrani
    2015(2):93-100.
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 592.81 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To examine the antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of the aqueous extract, total polyphenols and total flavonoids of Thymus satureioides (T. satureioides). Methods: This plant was collected from Tafilalet Region of Morocco. The aqueous extract was obtained by cold maceration, and the components were obtained by Soxhlet extraction using solvents of varying polarity. The identification and quantification of phenol (caffeic and rosmarinic acids) and flavones (luteolin 7-glycoside and hesperetin) were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results: Total polyphenol and flavonoids contents in the aqueous extract of T. satureioides were (456.73±6.94) mg caffeic acid equivalent/g of dry plant and (172.79±2.12) mg rutin equivalent/g of dry plant, respectively. Different extracts showed good antioxidant activity. IC50 for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging activity was (0.480±0.010), (0.418±0.005), (43.891±2.467) and (0.510±0.010) mg/mL for the aqueous extract, total polyphenol, flavonoids and trolox, respectively. Also, the extracts showed ferric reducing antioxidant power and the values were (50.79±2.02), (117.51±6.46), (7.03±0.29) and (44.33±7.55) mmol trolox/ g for the aqueous extract, total polyphenol, flavonoids and trolox, respectively. Serum levels of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased in comparison with the oxidized control (P<0.001). They showed good activity against 2,2,-azobis 2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride induced hemolysis in erythrocytes of rabbit blood. In addition, they ameliorate the half time of hemolysis. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that aqueous extract, total polyphenols and total flavonoids of T. satureioides exhibit marked antioxidant and antihemolytic activities, thus confirming and justifying the popular uses of this plant to relieve some pains.
    4  Quantification of total phenol, flavonoid content and pharmacognostical evaluation including HPTLC fingerprinting for the standardization of Piper nigrum Linn fruits
    Aftab Ahmad Asif Husain Mohd Mujeeb Shah Alam Khan Hani Abdullah Anber Alhadrami Anil Bhandari
    2015(2):101-107.
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.11 M](91)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To carry out the physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting of Piper nigrum L. (P. nigrum) fruits in order to ascertain the standard pharmacognostical parameters of this king of spices. Methods: Many standardization parameters like extractive values, total ash value, water soluble ash value and acid insoluble ash, moisture content, loss on drying and pH values of P. nigrum L. fruits were analyzed. The method of Harborne was adopted for the preliminary phytochemicals screening. Analysis of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, pesticides residues, aflatoxin and heavy metals were also performed. CAMAG-high performance thin layer chromatography system was used for fingerprinting of methanolic extract of P. nigrum L. fruits. Results: The results of phytochemicals testing indicated the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, saponins, lipids, sterols and tannins in various solvent extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanolic extract were found to be 1.728 1 mg/g and 1.087 μg/g, respectively. Heavy metals concentrations were found to be within standard limits. Aflatoxins and pesticides residues were absent. Conclusions: The outcome of this study might prove beneficial in herbal industries for identification, purification and standardization of P. nigrum L. fruits.
    5  Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy
    Valentina Virginia Ebani Simona Nardoni Giulia Fognani Linda Mugnaini Fabrizio Bertelloni Guido Rocchigiani Roberto Amerigo Papini Francesco Stefani Francesca Mancianti
    2015(2):108-112.
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 374.71 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy. Methods: Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis (B. canis), Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and Leishmania infantum. Results: A total of 48 dogs (41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Tick-borne infections were observed in 64 (54.7%) animals. More in detail, 38 dogs (32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis, 24 (20.5%) for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, 20 (17.1%) for Leishmania infantum, 6 (5.1%) for C. burnetii, 5 (4.3%) for B. canis (3 B. canis vogeli and 2 B. canis canis), 3 (2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and 2 (1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis. Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17 (14.5%) subjects, by 3 agents in 7 (6.0%) dogs, and by 4 agents in 1 (0.9%) animal. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.
    6  Do parental coronary heart disease risk factors (non-modifiable) effect their young ones?
    Arun Kumar
    2015(2):113-123.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 464.46 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the differences between the lipid profiles of the subjects whose parents are having known non-modifiable risk factors such as obesity, hypertension (HTN), myocardial infarction and diabetes, and compare them with the lipid profiles of the subjects whose parents are not having those risk factors. Methods: A total of 402 subjects were recruited to this study. A detailed questionnaire which included information on the past medical history, height, weight, blood pressure, physical activity, smoke, alcohol, family history of coronary heart disease, HTN, diabetics and obesity. Basic demographic data and dietary habits were completed by all participants. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects after 14 h. Lipid profiles were analyzed using automated analyzer. The results were analyzed using SPSS software packages. Results: The mean body mass index of the population was well below the cut-off value of obesity (>24.5 kg/m2 ) and high risk of future cardiovascular disorder (CVD) events in this age group. The mean levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and TC/high density lipoprotein (HDL) were less than the risk levels indicative of future CVD events according to the ATP Ⅲ cut-off values. However the mean HDL level in our population was slightly greater than the cut-off value while the mean low density lipoprotein level was almost similar to the risk level. Differences were observed when the subjects without history of maternal obesity were compared with subjects with history of maternal obesity. The greater percentage of subjects who are having risk levels of body mass index, TC, low density lipoprotein, TG, and TC/HDL indicated that maternal obesity contributed to the greater susceptibility of developing CVD risk in their offspring. Conclusions: Advancing age may result in changes that could be atherogenic in the future. Such atherogenic changes have already initiated when the subjects are about 21 years old. The incidence of atherogenic changes is far greater when mothers who are having any of the risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, HTN and myocardial infarction than that fathers who are having similar risk factors.
    7  Blinding trachoma among refugees: complicating social disaster
    Yeshigeta Gelaw Aemero Abateneh
    2015(2):124-127.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 384.50 K](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia. A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe. The findings were classified by using the World Health Orgnization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 1 054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma, 179 (16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma. About 6 (3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis (TT), 47 (26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126 (70.39%) patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity. All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma (TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity), and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment. Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females, patients in age group of 16-59 years, married patients, illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers (P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees. Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects, and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.
    8  Clostridium difficile in ready-to-eat foods in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran
    Ebrahim Rahimi Zahra Sadat Afzali Zeinab Torki Baghbadorani
    2015(2):128-131.
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 388.65 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) isolated from ready-to-eat foods of Iran. Methods: From January to August 2013, a total of 368 unpacked ready-to-eat food samples were purchased from randomly selected supermarkets, retail stores and restaurants located in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile. Results: C. difficile spores were detected in 5 (1.36%) of the 368 samples. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in fasl salad (4.29%), followed by yogurt stew (2%), and olovyeh salad (0.93%). All 140 maccaroni salad and falafel sandwich samples were negative for C. difficile. One of the five C. difficile isolates (20%) contained tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and four strains (80%) contained tcdA, and tcdB toxin genes. Also, among the five C. difficile isolates, only three strains were found to be toxigenic for toxin A and/or B by ELISA. Isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, but variably resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Conclusions: This study, combined with studies on other food sources, suggests that widespread contamination of food is common.
    9  Safety evaluation in mice of the childhood immunization vaccines from two south-eastern states of Nigeria
    Oli Angus Nnamdi Agu Remigus Uchenna Oli Ugochukwu Chinedum Nwoye Charles Ugochukwu Ejiofor Obiora Shedrack Esimone Charles Okechukwu
    2015(2):132-137.
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 750.86 K](88)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization. Methods: The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection. They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice. The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi of Anambra State, Nigeria approved the protocol. Results: Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation. The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%, 70%, 64%, 63%, 65% and 68% for oral polio vaccine, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, bacillus Calmette– Guérin, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State. The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine, pentavalent, bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%, 114%, 121%, 116%, 142% and 119% weight gain respectively compared with the control. Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds. Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80% of the control (physiological saline). Conclusions: The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely. The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.
    10  Identification of human cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein 65 in C57BL/6 and BXSB mice as a potential trigger of systemic lupus erythematosus related serum markers
    Yuan Zhang Ting-Ting Jia Yang Pan Wen-Li Li Yu Sun Jin-Ming Li Lu-Nan Wang
    2015(2):138-145.
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.18 M](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization. Methods: The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection. They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice. The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi of Anambra State, Nigeria approved the protocol. Results: Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation. The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%, 70%, 64%, 63%, 65% and 68% for oral polio vaccine, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, bacillus Calmette– Guérin, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State. The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine, pentavalent, bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles, yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%, 114%, 121%, 116%, 142% and 119% weight gain respectively compared with the control. Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds. Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80% of the control (physiological saline). Conclusions: The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely. The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.
    11  Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine
    Majid Asadi-Samani Najme Kafash-Farkhad Nafiseh Azimi Ali Fasihi Ebrahim Alinia-Ahandani Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
    2015(2):146-157.
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 386.67 K](77)
    Abstract:
    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.
    12  Neurobrucellosis in children
    Mohamed Ata Hendaus Rasha Muneer Qaqish Ahmed Hassan Alhammadi
    2015(2):158-161.
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 315.26 K](75)
    Abstract:
    Neurobrucellosis is a complication of brucellosis, which is considered endemic in the Indian subcontinent, Arabian Peninsula and Mediterranean countries. Brucella reaches the central nervous system via hematogenous spread in the infected human being, or through phagocytosis. Neurobrucellosis can present with any neurological symptoms, hence, the index of suspicion must be high enough to make proper diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid studies are usually diagnostic, while imagings including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are of little assistance. As for therapy, a combination of antibiotics must be administered with a goal to reduce relapse or avoid failure. The duration of treatment should be tailored as per clinical signs and symptoms until the cerebrospinal fluid components return to normal, which might be up to six months. In this article, we present an overall view of current understanding of neurobrucellosis in children, its epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tests, and management options.
    13  Effect of cigarette smoking on human health and promising remedy by mangroves
    Chinnappan Ravinder Singh Kandasamy Kathiresan
    2015(2):162-167.
    [Abstract](41) [HTML](0) [PDF 576.86 K](79)
    Abstract:
    This article reviews the evils of cigarette smoking and the promise of mangroves to cure them. Chemicals in cigarette smoke are leading cause of death to both smokers and nonsmokers. Plant is the potential source to produce medicine for almost all the diseases. Mangroves are promising as a novel source of anti-cancer drugs in regulating the cancer pathways and stimulating immunity in the body system. Research on medicine from mangroves for the treatment of cancer has not only been shown to have an effect on cancer, but also provided important methods for the study of cancer therapy and mechanism. This report may help to explore the medicinal properties of the mangroves.

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