Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 3,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Gloves and Ebola virus: a consideration of the penetration possibility based onnanostructure consideration
    Sora Yasri Viroj Wiwanitkit
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 255.53 K](80)
    2  Liver tonics: review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine
    Tahmineh Akbarzadeh Reyhaneh Sabourian Mina Saeedi Hossein Rezaeizadeh Mahnaz Khanavi Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 403.15 K](76)
    Considering the fact that liver is one of the most important organs in our body, it deserves special attention and protection. Among various recommended supplements, complementary and alternative medicines particularly herbal remedies have received much attention owing to their truly healing properties. This review profits from Iranian traditional medicine and presents advantageous herbal guide directions for liver protection. According to credible Iranian medical literature such as Al Qanun Fil Tibb, Al-Havi and Makhzan-al-Aadvia, a wide spectrum of plants have been found to be useful for cleansing and protecting the liver. Some herbs such as ghafes (Agrimonia eupatoria), kasni (Cichorium intybus), anar (Punica granatum), darchin (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), za’feran (Crocus sativus), gole-sorkh (Rosa damascena) and zereshk (Berberis vulgaris) appeared to get strong consideration and were well documented as outstanding liver tonics. We conducted a comprehensive review of available Iranian medical resources such as scientific information database and medical sciences databases which cover all in vitro and in vivo studies of medicinal plants as liver tonics and hepatoprotective candidates. Literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, and Google Scholar.
    3  Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer
    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan Peramaiyan Rajendran Natarajan Nandakumar Boopathy Lokeshkumar Palaniswami Rajendran Ikuo Nishigaki
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 715.22 K](75)
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.
    4  Viral hepatitis in Pakistan: challenges and priorities
    Sadia Ashraf Aftab Ahmad
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 233.74 K](78)
    Hepatitis B and C are big health issues worldwide as more than 400 million people are suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C which result in more than 1.4 million deaths each year. According to a study done by Pakistan Medical Research Council in 2007-08, 7.6% Pakistani population suffered with hepatitis B and C, with around 4.8% with hepatitis C only. Government of Pakistan has taken different initiatives like vaccination, patient safety, blood screening, education and awareness about disease but still there is high prevalence of hepatitis in Pakistan. According to some studies injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the country. The follow-up studies and documentation of hepatitis patients was not very good which need to be improved. There is no recent large scale study on risk factors and prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan so it should be done on an urgent basis. If government set up regional laboratories for prevalence study and also a central institute for hepatitis research and treatment, the disease could be prevented in better and proper way. The treatment of hepatitis is very costly and a developing country like Pakistan cannot afford such high costs. Therefore more focus should be on preventive measures.
    5  Lantana camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles
    Brajesh Kumar Kumari Smita Luis Cumbal Alexis Debut
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 678.61 K](76)
    Objective: To synthesize the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by reduction of silver ions into nano silver, using ripened berry extract of Lantana camara and evaluate its antioxidant activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl. Methods: The prepared AgNPs were characterized by visual, UV-visible spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction. Results: Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the AgNPs are spherical and 75.2 nm average sized. Selected area electron diffraction analysis supports that the obtained nanoparticles were in crystalline form. In addition, the antioxidant efficacy of prepared AgNPs was found to be higher than berry extract against 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl. Conclusions: From the results obtained it is suggested that surface modified AgNPs at lower concentration, showed higher antioxidant activity than berry extract against 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl and could be used effectively in future ethno pharmacological concerns.
    6  Hyoscyamine-producing marine Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon sediment
    Davies Olabisi Flora Adeleye Isaac Adeyemi Wang Peng George
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.59 M](73)
    Objective: To isolate and screen Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for production of bioactive metabolites. Methods: Sediment samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks after which the Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution using the spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 μg/ mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for 1-2 weeks. Isolates were selected based on their colonial characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subcultured using the same media for isolation until pure cultures were obtained and incubated at 28 °C for 3 d. Thereafter, they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated for 8 d. The secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulasenegative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). The antimicrobial metabolites of the Actinomycetes isolates were identified using gas chromatography (GC). Results: Crude extracts of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against some of the test organisms. The GC data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: Analysis of the crude extracts of the isolates using GC method, revealed the presence of antibiotics including an anticholinergic hyoscyamine among other conclusions.
    7  Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium xiaoi in goat kids in Bangladesh by nested PCR amplification of 18S rRNA gene
    AMAM Zonaed Siddiki Sohana Akter Mina Zinat Farzana Bibi Ayesa Rasel Das Mohammad Alamgir Hossain
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 474.87 K](72)
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in goat kids in selected areas of Bangladesh and to elucidate the potential zoonotic hazards. Methods: In the present study, we have used Ziehl-Neelsen staining and nested PCR approach to identify and characterize the Cryptosporidium sp. from diarrhoeic feces of goat kids. A total of 100 diarrhoeic feces samples were collected from Chittagong region in Southern Bangladesh. For nested PCR analysis, specific primers for amplification of 581 base pair fragments of 18S rRNA gene were used. Results: A total of 15% and 3% samples were found positive in microscopic study and in nested PCR analysis respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data showed similarity with that of Cryptosporidium xiaoi recorded from sheep and goat. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cryptosporidium xiaoi responsible for diarrhoea in goat kids in Bangladesh. Further study can highlight their zoonotic significance along with genetic diversity in other host species inside the country.
    8  Identification of chloroquine resistance Pfcrt-K76T and determination of Pfmdr1-N86Y copy number by SYBR Green I qPCR
    Addimas Tajebe Mulugeta Aemero Kimani Francis Gabriel Magoma
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.57 M](75)
    Objective: To identify prevalence of chloroquine resistance point mutation at (Pfcrt, K76T) and (Pfmdr1, N86Y) copy number variation. Methods: SYBR Green I based real time PCR was used. One hundred and thirty-three samples were analyzed for (Pfcrt, K76T) and (Pfmdr1,N86Y) copy number from dried blood spot. Parasite DNA was extracted using high pure DNA preparation kit. The amplification of DNA was done by using AccuPower 2× GreenStarTM qPCR Master mix. For quantification purpose a new primer pair was designed for 178 base pair template from complete genome sequence of Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 at NCBI. Absolute quantification method was used to determine the Pfmdr1-N86Y copy number variations. Standard curve was built from strain 3D7 gDNA since it has single copy of Pfmdr1 per haploid genome. The known positive controls with single and multi-copy number of Pfmdr1 gene were included in each experiment. The copy number ratio of the samples to the standard calibrator was made to obtain the fold difference among the samples with respect to copy number variation. Results: Out of 133 samples 73 (54.89%) were confirmed as mutant (Pfcrt, 76T) and the remaining 60 (45.11%) were genotyped as wild type (Pfcrt, K76). The (Pfmdr1, N86Y) copy number variation was determined for 133 clinical samples. Out of these samples 61 (45.86%) had single copy and the remaining 72 (54.14%) had multi-copy numbers higher than 1.5 copies per genome. Thirty-four (25.56%) multi-copies were between 1.5 and 2.5 copies per genome while 38 (28.57%) were more than 2.5 copies per genome. The minimum and maximum copies per genome were 0.474 and 4.741, respectively. Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence level and fixation of Pfcrt, 76T mutation after chloroquine withdrawal. The prevalence of Pfmdr1 copy number variant suggested that the presence of modulating factor for emergence of Plasmodium falciparum strains with higher copy numbers. However, the prevalence level was not statistically significant.
    9  Protective effect of Tetracera scandens L. leaf extract against CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats
    Tung Bui Thanh Hai Nguyen Thanh Hue Pham Thi Minh Huong Le-Thi-Thu Huong Duong Thi Ly Loi Vu Duc
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 452.76 K](77)
    Objective: To investigate the protective potential of ethanolic extracts of Tetracera scandens L. (T. scandens) against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in liver tissues. Methods: Dried leaf powder of T. scandens was extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg of ethanolic extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Various assays, such as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation (carbonyl protein group), tumor necrosis factor alpha, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, were used to assess damage caused by CCl4 and the protective effects of the ethanol extract on liver tissues. Results: Hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 was evidenced by a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl group, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, as well as decreased activity of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase). Treatment with ethanolic T. scandens extracts prevented all of these typically observed changes in CCl4- treated rats. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that T. scandens has a significant protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rat, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.
    10  Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco
    Naima Chahmi Jaouad Anissi Sanae Jennan Abdellah Farah Khalid Sendide Mohammed El Hassouni
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 761.75 K](79)
    Objective: To investigate antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol (E) and ethyl acetate (A) extracts of Inula viscosa aerial parts selected from three regions of Morocco (Imouzzer, Sefrou and Taounate). Methods: Antioxidants properties were measured by three different test systems of assay namely free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, total antioxidant capacity and iron-reducing capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by FolinCiocalteu reagent. Results: All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activities and contained important levels of phenols. The ethanol extract (0.3 mg/mL) from Sefrou showed the greatest antioxidant capacity in the three systems of assay, which was probably due to its high content of polyphenols (274.39±6.94) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract. Total flavonoid content was found equal for all extracts. Conclusions: Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants. The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.
    11  Ethnobotanical inventory and folk uses of indigenous plants from Pir Nasoora National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad Muhammad Arshad Rahmatullah Qureshi
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 335.42 K](86)
    Objective: To document the medicinal and other folk uses of native plants of the area with a view to preserve the ethnobotanical knowledge associated with this area. Methods: The fieldwork was conducted during a period of one year. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire and interviews with indigenous tribal people and traditional health practitioners residing in the study area. Results: The present study documented ethnobotanical uses of 104 plant species belonged to 93 genera and 51 families. Results revealed that most of the documented species were used medicinally (78 spp., 44.07%). Leaves were found to be the most frequently used part (69 spp., 42.86%) for the preparation of indigenous recipes and for fodder. Conclusions: The current research contributes significantly to the ethnobotanical knowledge, and depicts a strong human-plant interaction. There is an urgent need to further document indigenous uses of plants for future domestication.
    12  Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae)
    Kiessoun Konaté Kassi Yomalan Oksana Sytar Marian Brestic
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 394.29 K](75)
    Objective: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the bioactive fraction of Trichilia emetica in order to provide a scientific basis for the management of gastroenteritis in Burkina Faso. Methods: To do this, polyphenols content of extract and fractions were investigated. FolinCiocalteu, AlCl3 methods and tannic acid respectively were used for polyphenols content. The in vivo antidiarrhoeal activity was done using Swiss albino mice of both sexes. In vitro antimicrobial activity (disc-diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration or minimal bactericidal concentration) was assessed using seven bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Results: About our study, it was found that ethyl acetate fraction effective attenuation factior (EAF) elicits the higher total phenolics and total flavonoids contents compared to the extracts of leaves of Trichilia emetica. EAF of Trichilia emetica Vahl., has positive effects in a dose dependent manner against diarrhoea induced by castor oil in experimental mice. The bioactive fraction also showed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria strains. It was shown that experimental bacteria strains were more sensitive to the EAF effect compared to the ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica. Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.
    13  Cytotoxicity study of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis (Garcinia cowa Roxb.) on T47D breast cancer cell line
    Elidahanum Husni Faras Nahari Yan Wirasti Fatma Sri Wahyuni Dachriyanus
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.22 M](82)
    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of the stem bark of asam kandis [Garcinia cowa Roxb. (G. cowa)] on T47D breast cancer cell line. Methods: The cytotoxicity of ethanol extract was carried out against human breast cancer cell line (T47D) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/mL). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death after 24 h treatment with the extract. Cell morphological changes were observed by using inverted microscope. Results: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that ethanol extract of G. cowa exhibited significant cytotoxic effect on T47D with IC50 value of (5.10±1.68) μg/mL. Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure to ethanol extract of G. cowa was observed under phase contrast microscope in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: The results suggest the possible use of ethanol extract of asam kandis for preparing herbal medicine for cancer-related ailments.

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