Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 4,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Ebola outbreak in West Africa: a neglected tropical disease
    Alcides Troncoso
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 250.90 K](83)
    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa’s poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world´s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it´s a poverty crisis. The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.
    2  Ebola viral disease: a review literature
    Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam Negar Omidi Samaneh Bayrami Sepideh Jamali Moghadam SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 298.78 K](76)
    Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 to 7 d and approximately 95% of the patients appear signs within 21 d after exposure. Typical features include fever, profound weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramping, nausea and vomiting for 3-5 days and maybe persisting for up to a week. Laboratory complications including elevated aminotransferase levels, marked lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia may have occurred. Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than half of patients and it takes place most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms progress over the time and patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. The most general assays used for antibody detection are direct IgG and IgM ELISAs and IgM capture ELISA. An IgM or rising IgG titer (four-fold) contributes to strong presumptive diagnosis. Currently neither a licensed vaccine nor an approved treatment is available for human use. Passive transfer of serum collected from survivors of Junin virus or Lassa virus, equine IgG product from horses hypervaccinated with Ebola virus, a “cocktail” of humanized-mouse antibodies (ZMapp), recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor, activated protein C, RNA-polymerase inhibitors and small interfering RNA nano particles are among the therapies in development. Preclinical evaluation is also underway for various vaccine candidates. One is a chimpanzee adenovirus vector vaccine; other vaccines involve replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus.
    3  Control of pain with topical plant medicines
    James David Adams Jr. Xiaogang Wang
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 261.51 K](86)
    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.
    4  Toxocara infection in gardener
    Beuy Joob Viroj Wiwanitkit
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 215.02 K](78)
    5  Applications of snake venoms in treatment of cancer
    Vagish Kumar Laxman Shanbhag
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 218.79 K](77)
    Snake venoms are folk medicines used since ages. The components of snake venoms have high specific affinity and actions on cells and cell components. Also snake venoms are largely cytotoxic to tumor cells than normal cells. In addition to these, they have several therapeutic actions that make them an attractive option in the management of cancer. The advent of modern technologies has greatly helped in extracting and identifying new components of therapeutic interests in short time. The article highlights the importance of snake venoms in the management of cancer, so as to motivate curious researchers to devote their skills in this fascinating area. This in turn may bring hope, smile and relief to several cancer patients in future.
    6  In vivo sedative and muscle relaxants activity of Diospyros lotus L
    Abdur Rauf Ghias Uddin Bina Shaheen Siddiqui Haroon Khan
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.59 K](75)
    Objective: To evaluate the sedative effect of Diospyros lotus L (D. lotus) extract in mice using the open field and Rota rod tests. Methods: For the sedative and muscle relaxants activities of extract/fractions of the plant, in vivo open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time were used, while the Roda rod test was employed in animals for the assessment of muscle relaxant activity. Results: Results from this investigation revealed that the extracts of D. lotus have exhibited significant sedative effect in mice (45.98%) at 100 mg/kg i.p. When the extract was partitioned with different solvents, the n-hexane fraction was inactive whereas the chloroform fraction was the most active with 82.67% sedative effect at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. On the other hand, the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions displayed significant sedative effects (55.65% and 40.87%, respectively) at 100 mg/kg i.p. Among the tested extract/fractions, only chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed significant (P < 0.05) muscle relaxant activity in the Rota rod test. Conclusions: In short, our study provided scientific background to the traditional uses of D. lotus as sedative.
    7  Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity
    Chen-Kai Chang Shu-Chen Wang Chih-Kwang Chiu Shih-Ying Chen Zong-Tsi Chen Pin-Der Duh
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 501.08 K](85)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them, strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells; strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16S rDNA analysis. Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.
    8  Toxicity of Mexican native plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Rosario Ruiz-Guerrero Mario Alberto Rodríguez-Pérez Mariano Norzagaray-Campos
    [Abstract](39) [HTML](0) [PDF 311.28 K](83)
    Objective: To evaluate five indigenous Mexican plants [Hippocratea excelsa, Hippocratea celastroides, Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana), Tagetes lucida, and Pseudosmodingium perniciosum (P. perniciosum)] toxicity against the fourth instar larvae of the dengue primary vector, Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti). Methods: Each plant part was treated successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol to extract potential active components of the plants against the dengue vector. Results: There was a range of toxicity at 24 or 48 h post-exposure for the different plant parts and organic solvent used (LC50 values ranged between 20 and 890 μg/mL). Extracts from seeds of A. mexicana (hexane washing with methanol and acetone) and stem-bark of P. perniciosum (hexane) showed highest toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae at 48 h post-exposure (LC50 values were 80, 50, and 20 μg/mL, respectively), thus making them potential candidates as biolarvicides. Efforts are on-going to characterize the bioactive components of the extracts, through chromatography, for their use as biological tools for the control of the primary dengue vector. Conclusions: A. mexicana and P. perniciosum are good candidates to combat the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti, as they were highly toxic to the larvae.
    9  Ethnobotanical profiling and floristic diversity of Bana Valley, Kotli (Azad Jammu and Kashmir), Pakistan
    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 285.85 K](84)
    Objective: To document the medicinal and other folk uses of native plants of the Bana Valley of district of Kotli-Azad Jammu Kashmir with a view to preserve the ethnobotanical knowledge of this area and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods: The fieldwork was conducted during a period of one year. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and interview of the informants including indigenous people, tribal people, and traditional health practitioners residing in the study area. Results: The present study documented etnobotanical uses of 86 plant species belonging to 81 genera and 47 families. This study revealed that most of the species were used medicinally (74 spp; 42.29%). Leaves found to be the most frequently used part (56 spp., 36.13%) for preparation of indigenous recipes and fodder purpose. Conclusions: The current research provides a huge lump of ethnobotanical knowledge and depicts strong human-plant interaction. It is an urgent need to document indigenous uses of plants for future domestication.
    10  Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats
    Hassan El-Sayyed Gamal Badawy Sobhy Hassab Elnabi Ibrahim El-Elaimy Eman Al Shehari
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.58 M](74)
    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba (M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication. Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation. Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M. alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration. Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.
    11  In vivo anti-salmonella activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (Euphorbiaceae) and its toxicological evaluation
    Donald Sédric Tala Donatien Gatsing Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop Charles Fokunang Fabrice Kengni Merline Namekong Djimeli
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 748.82 K](86)
    Objective: To investigate the in vivo anti-salmonella activity and the safety of aqueous extract of Euphorbia prostratra (E. prostratra), a plant commonly used in Cameroon by traditional healers. Methods: A Salmonella typhimurium-infected rat model was used for the study. The physiological, biochemical and histopathological markers of possible side effects of this extract were studied using standard methods. Results: The extract had a significant effect on the number of viable Salmonella typhimurium recovered from faeces, and could stop salmonellosis after 8 and 10 days of treatment for male and female rats, respectively, with non-toxic doses. However, the biochemical and histopathological analyses revealed that at relatively high doses (≥ 73.48 mg/kg for female and ≥ 122.71 mg/kg for male) the extract could induce liver damage, as illustrated by a rise of serum transaminases’ levels and significant inflammation of the parenchyma and portal vein. Side effects were also observed on the kidneys, as shown by both serum and urinary creatinine, and urinary proteins. Conclusions: The overall results indicate that the aqueous extract of E. prostrata has the potential to provide an effective treatment for salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. However, it is necessary to extrapolate these results in large animals, in further studies.
    12  Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves (Allium sativum) in the Sprague-Dawley rat
    Adejoke Elizabeth Memudu Ibukun Dorcas Akinrinade Olalekan Michael Ogundele
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 973.07 K](83)
    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels. Methods: Twenty (20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used. Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control (10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum (garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively. Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels. Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.
    13  Synergetic effect of Egyptian propolis in immunization of BALB/c mice against bovine cysticercosis
    Omnia Mohamed Kandil Somia Ayesh Nassar Soad Mohamed Nasr Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby Seham Hendawy Faragalla Mohamed Moghazy
    [Abstract](33) [HTML](0) [PDF 533.64 K](84)
    Objective: To evaluate the synergetic effect of an ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis in immunization of BALB/c mice with Taenia saginata (T. saginata) crude antigen against bovine cysticercosis, with reference to its effects on liver and kidney functions. Methods: Sixty female mice BALB/c strain weighing 20 to 25 g and 6-8 weeks old were randomly allocated into six groups of ten mice each. Mice in groups 1 and 2 (G1 and G2) were immunized intraperitoneally with 100 µg of T. saginata crude antigen in 100 µL phosphate buffer saline emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Besides, the mice in G2 were administered with propolis extract simultaneously with immunization. Control mice were either administered with propolis extract (G3) or injected with the same volume of phosphate buffer saline emulsified in Freund’s adjuvant (G4). The mice in G5 were non-immunized infected control while, those in G6 were non-immunized non-infected control. Two weeks after the last immunization, each mouse was challenged intraperitoneally with 5000 oncospheres except those of G6. Ethanolic extract of propolis was prepared at a dose 50 mg/kg body weight. Results: After 24 weeks of challenge, the mice in G2 showed the highest level of protection (100%), with no cyst being detected rather than mice in G1 (33.3% protection). Additionally, the ELISA results, in this study, showed higher antibody titer in G2 with reduction the alteration in liver and kidney functions compared to G1. Conclusions: Egyptian propolis could increase the level of protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs when administered simultaneously with immunization. Furthermore, it could enhance the production of antibodies to immunized antigen and decrease the alteration in liver and kidney functions.
    14  Mycetoma at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: correlation of histopathological and clinical findings
    Shagufta Tahir Mufti Hessa Aljhdali
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.30 M](88)
    Objective: To present the histopathological and clinical correlation of mycetoma among patients attending King Abdulaziz University Hospital between 1998-2013. Methods: The data of all histopathologically diagnosed mycetomas in the period between January 1998 and January 2013 were collected through a computerized database search of the anatomic pathology archives at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. The collected data were analysed. Identification of species were performed for five patients using 16S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer 2. Results: There were 19 patients with mycetoma with an average age of 44.26 years and male: female ratio of 4:1. Actinomycetoma were 63.15% and eumycetoma were 36.84%. All patients presented with the classic lesions; presenting as painless subcutaneous mass, sinuses and discharge containing grains. The swellings were of slow evolution, with preferential foot localization. Species specification performed for samples from five patients with active lesions revealed species of Actinomyces israelii and Madurella mycetomatis in respective cases. Conclusions: Actinomycetoma is more common than eumycetoma in this region. The fact that one of the patients with eumycetoma was a Saudi national raises the possibility of an indigenous species similar to Maduraella mycetomatis to be further explored for characteristics and pathogenesis. The disease has to be prioritized again and more robust and quick molecular diagnostic tools should be made available in order to save patients form disfiguring amputations.

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