Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 7,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Nosocomial infections and their control strategies
    Hassan Ahmed Khan Aftab Ahmad Riffat Mehboob
    2015(7):509-514. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.001
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 635.49 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel's skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.
    2  Occurrence and characterization of toxigenic Bacillus cereus in food and infant feces
    Sameer Rushdi Organji Hussein Hasan Abulreesh Khaled Elbanna Gamal Ebrahim Haridy Osman Manal Khider
    2015(7):515-520. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.004
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 490.67 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the true incidence of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in food and children diarrhea cases. Methods: A total of 110 samples of various dairy products such as raw milk, long life pasteurized milk, yoghurt and infant powdered milk formulas, raw rice, and feces were examined for the presence of B. cereus by selective plating on mannitol-egg-yolkpolymyxin agar. Confirmation of B. cereus was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Identification of non-B. cereus isolates was carried out by 16S rDNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by disk diffusion method. Results: Overall 35 samples (31.8%, n = 110) yielded Bacillus-like growth. Of which 19 samples (54.28%) were positive for B. cereus. All isolates were positive for enterotoxin production. No psychrotolerant B. cereus strains were detected in all samples. All B. cereus isolates were resistant to penicillin G, but susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the importance of including B. cereus in disease control and prevention programs, as well as in routine clinical and food quality control laboratories in both Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
    3  Amelioration of paracetamol hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress on mice liver with silymarin and Nigella sativa extract supplements
    Reham Zakaria Hamza Mohammad Salem Al-Harbi
    2015(7):521-531. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.03.011
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.49 M](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorator property of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced injury in male mice at the biochemical, histological and ultrastructural levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group). The first group was served as control. While, the second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa extract alone respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa extract respectively. The seventh group was treated with combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa extract) with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose to mice led to an alteration of liver functions, increased the alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels, decreased total protein level as well as increasing the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde while decreased catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reduced activities. The levels of APAP on the biochemical parameters of mice were dose-dependent. Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa extract to APAP treated mice attenuates the toxicity of this compound, objectified by biochemical, histological and ultrastructural improvement of liver. But the alleviation was more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Conclusions: The synergistic effect of silymarin and N. sativa extract is the most powerful in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the liver functions and antioxidant capacities of mice.
    4  Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of Philippine medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria
    Demetrio L. Valle Jr. Jeannie I. Andrade Juliana Janet M. Puzon Esperanza C. Cabrera Windell L. Rivera
    2015(7):532-540. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.005
    [Abstract](47) [HTML](0) [PDF 562.60 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activities of crude ethanol extracts of 12 Philippine medicinal plants. Methods: Crude ethanol extracts from 12 Philippine medicinal plants were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Results: The leaf extracts of Psidium guajava, Phyllanthus niruri, Ehretia microphylla and Piper betle (P. betle) showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. P. betle showed the highest antibacterial activity for these bacteria in the disk diffusion (16– 33 mm inhibition diameter), minimum inhibitory concentration (19–156 μg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (312 μg/mL) assays. P. betle leaf extracts only showed remarkable antibacterial activity for all the Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria (extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing) in the disk diffusion (17–21 mm inhibition diameter), minimum inhibitory concentration (312–625 μg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (312–625 μg/mL) assays. Conclusions: P. betle had the greatest potential value against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria. Favorable antagonistic activities were also exhibited by the ethanol extracts of Psidium guajava, Phyllanthus niruri and Ehretia microphylla.
    5  Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca roots and its fractions and compounds isolated from the most active ethyl acetate fraction
    Dildar Ahmed Ramsha Saeed Nasir Shakeel Khaizran Fatima Aneela Arshad
    2015(7):541-545. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.006
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 476.03 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanolic extract of roots of Carissa opaca and its fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, and the isolated compounds. Methods: The zones of inhibition of the samples against test microorganisms were determined by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the samples were determined by agar well dilution method. Test microorganisms included four standard bacteria [Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa), and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538], two standard fungi [Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (C. albicans)] and Aspergillus niger, and six clinical isolates (B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter cloacae). The most active fraction was investigated to isolate compounds. The chemical compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatographymass spectrometer. Results: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans were the most susceptible. Less polar fractions exhibited stronger efficacy than polar ones, and ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Zones of inhibition of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions, and amoxil against C. albicans were 19.96, 22.01, 23.10 and 19.20 mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate faction was the most toxic to all the test microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8.0, 7.8 and 7.78 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Isolated compounds, limonene, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, vanillin, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, β-sitosterol, vitamin E, rutin, quercetin, lupeol, epigallocatechin, showed considerable antimicrobial activities against test microorganisms. Conclusions: The roots of Carissa opaca contain compounds with significant antimicrobial potential.
    6  Nauclea latifolia aqueous leaf extract eliminates hepatic and cerebral Plasmodium berghei parasite in experimental mice
    Innocent Onyesom Ejovi Osioma Precious Chiamaka Okereke
    2015(7):546-551. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2014.11.001
    [Abstract](5) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.37 M](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To assess the effects of hot water leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia (N. latifolia) on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation values and parasite levels in hepatic and brain tissue of experimental mice (BALB/c) infected with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) malaria. Methods: Forty nine mice were divided into seven groups (n = 7) and used for the study. Group A (control) were given 0.2 mL/kg phosphate buffer saline; Group B mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with phosphate buffer saline. Groups C and D mice were also infected but treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of leaf extract respectively. Groups E and F mice were not infected, but received 200 and 300 mg/kg of leaf extract respectively. Group G mice were infected and treated with chloroquine (5 mg/ kg). Liver and brain tissues of mice were prepared for both biochemical assay and microscopic examination. Results: Results showed that P. berghei malaria infection induced oxidative stress in both liver and brain tissues as evidenced by the significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidants: superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. These reductions perhaps caused compromise in membrane integrity as indicated by the significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdhyde. Malaria parasites were also identified in these tissues. However, N. latifolia treatment eliminated the parasites in tissues and protected them from oxidative damage even better than chloroquine treatment did, whose anti-malarial potency also cleared tissue parasites. The measurement of protection by N. latifolia against damage was strengthened by the insignificant micro structural alterations. Conclusions: The bioactive phytochemical(s) in N. latifolia should be structured and the mechanism(s) of its antimalarial tendency should be further investigated.
    7  Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. (Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India
    Parvaiz Ahmad Lone Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj Kunwar Wajahat Shah
    2015(7):552-554. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2014.06.006
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 641.96 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods: Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called “Bhoeris” and tribals (Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results: During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L., (Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.
    8  Isolation and characterization of actinobacteria from Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China
    Jicheng Yu Liu Zhang Qiu Liu Xiaohui Qi Ying Ji Beom Seok Kim
    2015(7):555-560. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.007
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 655.05 K](71)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate various types of samples from the different marine environments as sources of actinomycetes from the Yalujiang coastal wetland, North China, and to screen their antimicrobial properties. Further, the identified actinomycetes were characterized based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. Methods: Eight different production media were used to isolate actinomycetes from different stations of marine soil sediments in Yalujiang coastal wetland and the genotypic positions were established by 16S rDNA. Results: A total of 172 actinomycetal isolates were obtained from 13 samples using five media. The most effective culture media in the isolation of actinobacteria were Gause's Synthetic agar and Starch-casein agar. Among 172 isolates, 46 isolates (26.74%) showed antibacterial activity, 70.93% belonged to the genus Streptomyces, others were Micromonospora spp. and Rhodococcus spp. Out of the 46 isolates, two cultures were further supported by morphological characterization analysis. Conclusions: This is the first report about actinomycetes isolated from Yalujiang coastal wetland and it seems that the promising isolates from the unusual/unexplored wetland may prove to be an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.
    9  Isolation, serotype diversity and antibiogram of Salmonella enterica isolated from different species of poultry in India
    Irfan Ahmad Mir Sudhir Kumar Kashyap Sunil Maherchandani
    2015(7):561-567. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.03.010
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 801.00 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the occurrence and serotype diversity of Salmonella isolates in different species of poultry (chicken, emu and duck) and determine their resistance pattern against various antibiotics of different classes. Methods: About 507 samples comprising 202 caecal contents and 305 fecal samples from chicken, emu and duck were processed for isolation of Salmonella enterica. Salmonellae were isolated and detected by standard protocol of ISO 6579 Amendment 1: Annex D. Genetic confirmation was also made by using 16S rRNA genus specific PCR. Serotype specific PCR was also done to detect the most common serovars viz. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Gallinarum. All obtained isolates were subjected to a set of 25 antibiotics to study their antibiogram by using Baeur–Kirby disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 507 samples processed, 32 isolates of Salmonella enterica (18 from caecal contents and 14 from faecal samples) were obtained, of which 24 belonged to 6 different serovars, 6 were untypeable and 2 were rough strains. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most predominant serotype (9), followed by Salmonella Typhimurium (5), Salmonella Virchow (4), Salmonella Gallinarum (3), Salmonella Reading (2) and Salmonella Altona (1). Antibiotic resistance pattern was maximum (100%) to oxacillin, penicillin and clindamycin, followed by ampicillin (68.75%), tetracycline (65.62%), nalidixic acid (56.25%) and colistin (46.87%). High sensitivity of isolates was recorded for chloramphenicol (96.87%) followed by meropenem (84.37%). Conclusions: Occurrence of high proportion of serovars in our study which can cause serious gastroenteritis in humans is a matter of concern. Salmonella Altona has been detected for the first time in India from poultry. This serotype is known to cause serious outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans. Multidrug resistant isolates were recovered at high percentage which can be attributed to non-judicious use of antibiotics both in prophylaxis and treatment regimen. This observation draws serious attention as poultry serves as an important source of transmission of these multidrug resistant Salmonella serovars to humans.
    10  Effect of benzene on the cerebellar structure and behavioral characteristics in rats
    Ali Rafati Mahboobeh Erfanizadeh Ali Noorafshan Saied Karbalay-Doust
    2015(7):568-573. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.002
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.70 M](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effects of benzene on rat's cerebellum structure and behavioral characteristics, including anxiety and motor impairment. Methods: Twenty rats were randomly allocated into two groups orally receiving distilled water and benzene (200 mg/kg/day). A total of 10 rats were used at the beginning of benzene exposure. Two rats died during benzene treatment and 8 rats remained for evaluation of the behavioral test and finally 6 rats underwent histological assessment. At the end of the 4th week, motor function and anxiety were evaluated in rotarod test and elevated plus maze, respectively. Besides, the cerebellum was dissected for structural assessment using stereological methods. Results: Performance of the benzene-treated rats in fixed and accelerating speed rotarod was impaired and their riding time (endurance) was lower compared to the control group (P = 0.02). The benzene-treated rats also spent less time in the open arms and had fewer entrances to the open arms in comparison to the control group, indicating anxiety (P = 0.01). The total volume of the cerebellar hemisphere, its cortex, intracerebellar nuclei, total number of the Purkinje, Bergmann, Golgi, granule, neurons and glial cells of the molecular layer, and neurons and glial cells of the intracerebellar nuclei were reduced by 34%–76% in the benzene-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water group (P = 0.003). The most cell loss was seen in Bergmann glia. Conclusions: The structure of cerebellum altered after benzene treatment. In addition, motor impairment and anxiety could be seen in benzene-treated rats.
    11  Infestation and pathological lesions of some lymph nodes induced by Linguatula serrata nymphs in sheep slaughtered in Shahrekord Area (Southwest Iran)
    Hamidreza Azizi Hossein Nourani Abdollah Moradi
    2015(7):574-578. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.006
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.28 M](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the infection rates of mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in relation to Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) nymphs. Methods: In the present study, mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of 200 sheep with different sex and age that were slaughtered in a Shahrekord slaughterhouse were collected. The lymph nodes were examined macroscopically and for histopathological examination, tissue samples were taken from the gross lesions processed routinely by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Out of 200 examined sheep, the mesenteric lymph nodes in 18 sheep (9%) and the mediastinal lymph nodes of 9 sheep (4.5%) were infected by L. serrata nymphs. The infection rate increased with age, but no significant difference was observed between males and females or the two types of lymph nodes (P > 0.01). Different nonspecific gross and macroscopic lesions were seen in infected lymph nodes. L. serrata nymph sections were observed in some histopathological slides. Conclusions: It is concluded that the sheep may play an important role in linguatulosis of final hosts and human beings in this region.
    12  Treatment of patients with acromioclavicular joint injuries (Rockwood Ⅱ–Ⅵ) with modeled Kirschner wire and cortical screw
    Ivan Viktorovich Borozda Mikhail Anatolievich Danilov Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast
    2015(7):579-584. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.004
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 953.91 K](84)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To propose an original method of surgical treatment for the acromial extremity of the clavicle rupture (Rockwood Ⅱ–Ⅵ) with modeled Kirschner wire and cortical screw. Methods: Anatomical study and a test method were applied to 43 cadavers of both sexes. During the period between 2000 and 2013, 34 patients of both sexes were operated upon using the new method. In the comparison group (n = 120), the fixation of the acromial extremity of the clavicle rupture was performed with hamate plate, Lee hook and Kirschner wires. Results: Its application allows, according to the evaluation scale of Constant and Murley (1987), 10% more preservation of the function of the shoulder compared with traditional methods of surgical treatment, and shortens the required hospital treatment and temporary disability periods. Conclusions: It is shown that the proposed author's method combines low invasiveness, minimum dimensions of the construction and low-cost treatment.
    13  Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders
    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal Michael Ayodele Odeniyi Oludele Adelanwa Itiola
    2015(7):585-590. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.003
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 675.33 K](95)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability (Fr), crushing strength (Cs), disintegration time (Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.
    14  Growth retardation and severe anemia in children with Trichuris dysenteric syndrome
    Rina G. Kaminsky Renato Valenzuela Castillo Coralia Abrego Flores
    2015(7):591-597. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.005
    [Abstract](16) [HTML](0) [PDF 330.13 K](74)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To document epidemiologic data, clinical manifestations and treatment in hospitalized children with Trichuris dysenteric syndrome from Honduras during 2010– 2012. Methods: Severe trichuriasis cases were identified by routine stool examinations from hospitalized patients (12 years old or less). Relevant epidemiologic, clinical and management data were obtained from review of clinical histories in the ward. Results: Of 122 Trichuris infections diagnosed in 11 528 (1.0%) stool samples for all ages, 81 (66.4%) were identified in the age group 2–12 years old, 21 (25.9%) of which were severe (100 eggs in 2 mg of feces). Thirteen of those 21 patients collaborated in this study. Patients (9 males and 4 females) were of rural precedence, from large poor or very poor families, chronically parasitized, and between 2 and 12 years old. Dysentery of months duration, severe anemia and stunting were common complaints; clinical characteristics associated with heavy Trichuris infections included egg counts from 232 to 3520 eggs per direct smear, hemoglobin from 3.4 to 10.8 g/dL, eosinophilia up to 43%, severe malnutrition and growth stunting. Orally administered drugs mebendazole, albendazole, metronidazole, nitaxozanide, and piperazine were prescribed at different dosages and duration other than recommended; no cure or egg excretion control was exercised before patient release. A range of 340 to about 10 000 worms were recovered after treatment from 8 patients. Conclusions: This report underlines the need for detailed community studies in trichuriasis morbidity, effective treatment assessment and clinical response in severely malnourished parasitized children.
    15  Phosphorylation sites within Ebola virus nucleoprotein
    Sora Yasri Viroj Wiwanitkit
    2015(7):598-599. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.03.009
    [Abstract](14) [HTML](0) [PDF 897.92 K](78)
    Abstract:
    To understand the infection process, the viral multiplication and entry to the cell is widely studied. The Ebola virus nucleoprotein is the important problem for the pathological process. Focusing on the specific biological process, the post translational modification is needed. Here, the authors used the bioinformatics study to find the phosphorylation sites within the Ebola virus nucleoprotein and could identify many new sites.

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