Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 8,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systemic review
    Babar Ali Naser Ali Al-Wabel Saiba Shams Aftab Ahamad Shah Alam Khan Firoz Anwar
    2015(8):601-611. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.007
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.10 M](83)
    Nowadays, use of alternative and complementary therapies with mainstream medicine has gained the momentum. Aromatherapy is one of the complementary therapies which use essential oils as the major therapeutic agents to treat several diseases. The essential or volatile oils are extracted from the flowers, barks, stem, leaves, roots, fruits and other parts of the plant by various methods. It came into existence after the scientists deciphered the antiseptic and skin permeability properties of essential oils. Inhalation, local application and baths are the major methods used in aromatherapy that utilize these oils to penetrate the human skin surface with marked aura. Once the oils are in the system, they remodulate themselves and work in a friendly manner at the site of malfunction or at the affected area. This type of therapy utilizes various permutation and combinations to get relief from numerous ailments like depression, indigestion, headache, insomnia, muscular pain, respiratory problems, skin ailments, swollen joints, urine associated complications etc. The essential oils are found to be more beneficial when other aspects of life and diet are given due consideration. This review explores the information available in the literature regarding therapeutic, medical, cosmetic, psychological, olfactory, massage aromatherapy, safety issues and different plants used in aromatherapy. All the available information was compiled from electronic databases such as Academic Journals, Ethnobotany, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and library search.
    2  Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus
    Wan Fatma Zuharah Chan Jia Ling Nurfazlina Zulkifly Nik Fadzly
    2015(8):612-618. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.03.012
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 431.30 K](80)
    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora (M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas (G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. The sub-lethal concentrations used for oviposition deterrence was the value of LC25, LC50 and LC75 from above study which is 235 mg/L, 470 mg/L and 705 mg/L for M. fasciculiflora extract and 187.5 mg/L, 375 mg/L and 562.5 mg/L for G. renghas extract, respectively. Twenty gravid Ae. albopictus were allowed to oviposit in different treated concentrations. For oviciding procedure, a total of 300 eggs of Ae. albopictus were soaked in solution with each treated concentration as mentioned above for 24 h. After 24 h, eggs were sieved and soaked in seasoned water, and hatching rates were calculated. For comparison, only seasoned water was used in control experiment. Results: G. renghas demonstrated lower LC50 value of 372.80 mg/L compared to M. fasciculiflora (467.90 mg/L). The activity index of negative oviposition revealed the deterrent effect and thus, caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of fewer eggs compared with control (without plant extract). The acetone extract of M. fasciculiflora was more effective than G. renghas extract in displaying oviposition deterrence potential since the latter did not possess the deterring effect within the concentration range tested. However, both plant extracts exhibited excellent oviciding effect as 92.33% of eggs failed to be hatched when treated with 705.0 mg/L of M. fasciculiflora and 86.67% with 562.5 mg/L of G. renghas. The oviposition deterrence and percentage of egg mortality were directly proportional to the concentrations of extracts in both plants tested. Conclusions: These results clearly indicate that the acetone extract of G. renghas could be served as potential larvicide, whereas M. fasciculiflora has better sub-lethal effect for oviposition deterrence and against Ae. albopictus as an oviciding agent.
    3  Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice
    Mohamed Mahmoud Amin Mahmoud Soliman Arbid
    2015(8):619-623. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.009
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 318.91 K](81)
    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer's yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses (50 and 100 mg/ kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.
    4  Two new bioactive salsolanol and biphenylsalsinol from the aerial parts of Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul. (Chenopodiaceae) growing in Saudi Arabia
    Mohamed Habib Oueslati Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi Adel Noubigh
    2015(8):624-628. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.012
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 465.54 K](78)
    Objective: To isolate and characterize the bioactive secondary metabolites from aerial parts of widespread Chenopodiaceae taxa growing in Saudi Arabia: Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul. Methods: Antibacterial activities of chloroformic extract, fractions and isolate compounds was evaluated against five bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), using a paper disc diffusion method. The purification of compound(s) of chloroform extract was done by chromatographic column of silica gel. The structure elucidation was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1 H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy analysis. Results: Bioactivity guided fractionation of the chloroformic extract led to the isolation of two bioactive compounds: 4-(4’ -hydroxy-2’ -methylcyclopent-2’ -enyloxy)- 4-methylcyclopent-2-enol (1) named salsolanol and 4’ -[3-(hydroxymethyl)oxiran-2-yl]-3- [(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl]-6, 2’ -dimethoxy [1, 1’ -biphenyl]-2-ol (2) named biphenylsalsinol. The antibacterial effects of the chloroform extracts, fractions and isolated compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activities against four strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging between (9.33 ± 0.94) to (26.33 ± 0.94) mm. Conclusions: Based on data presented here, two new natural compounds secondary cyclic alcohol 1 and biphenylpropanoid 2 isolated from bioactive chloroformic extract from aerial parts of Salsola villosa can be responsible for its antibacterial activities.
    5  Noble strain of Sparassis latifolia produces high content of β-glucan
    Dong Ju Lee Min Cheol Jang A Ra Jo Hyun Jun Choi Kwang-Sang Kim Youn-Tae Chi
    2015(8):629-635. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.008
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.73 M](82)
    Objective: To classify four new Sparassis strains (CLM1, CKM1, CKM2, and KJM1) using the internal transcribed spacer sequence and to elucidate their β-glucan content and mycelial growth. Methods: Two different microbiological media were used to determine growth rate. The β-glucan contents were analyzed using the Megazyme Mushroom and Yeast Beta-Glucan kit. To determine the genetic relationships, phylogenetic trees were constructed using ClustalX. Multiple sequence alignments were printed and shaded with the BOXSHADE 3.21 program. Results: In this study, four new Sparassis strains were isolated from the southern region of the Korea Peninsula. They were all classified into the Sparassis latifolia clade as a monophyletic group based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence. Mycelial growth rate of the CLM1 strain was highest in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose agar larch. The β-glucan content of the CLM1 strain was highest at 29.5% (w/w). A high degree of sequence divergence was detected in the RNA polymerase second largest subunit Ⅱ gene (RPB2) within Sparassis spp. tested. The putative amino acid sequences of the RPB2 had a distinct sequence. The nucleotide sequences of the RPB2's intron were also divergent among Sparassis spp., even though their nucleotide length was well conserved within Sparassis latifolia. Conclusions: These results indicate that the nucleotide sequences and the amino acid sequences of RPB2 can be used to identify individual Sparassis sp. The Sparassis strain CLM1 may be best for developing a remedy to prevent or treat cancer and other chronic diseases.
    6  Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties
    Tarik Khouya Mhamed Ramchoun Abdelbassat Hmidani Souliman Amrani Hicham Harnafi Mohamed Benlyas Younes Filali Zegzouti Chakib Alem
    2015(8):636-644. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.011
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 565.11 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of thyme varieties from Moroccan. Methods: The aqueous extracts of tree medicinal plants [Thymus atlanticus (T. atlanticus), Thymus satureioides and Thymus zygis (T. zygis)] were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, radical scavenging activity method, the inhibition of 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride that induces oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts was evaluated in vivo using croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats, respectively. This extracts were evaluated in vitro for their anticoagulant activity at the different concentrations by partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time activated. Results: All thyme varieties were found to possess considerable antioxidant activity and potent anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced edema. Administration of aqueous extracts of two varieties (50 mg/kg) (T. zygis and T. atlanticus) reduced significantly the carrageenan-induced paw edema similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin, 10 mg/kg). In partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time tests, T. atlanticus and T. zygis extracts showed the strongest anticoagulant activity. In contrast, Thymus satureioides did not show the anticoagulant activity in these tests. Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.
    7  Anti-diabetic potential of Urena lobata leaf extract through inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase Ⅳ activity
    Yudi Purnomo Djoko Wahono Soeatmadji Sutiman Bambang Sumitro Mochamad Aris Widodo
    2015(8):645-649. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.014
    [Abstract](28) [HTML](0) [PDF 320.48 K](84)
    Objective: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of leaf extract from Urena lobata (U. lobata) through dipeptidyl peptidase Ⅳ (DPP-Ⅳ) inhibitory activity. Methods: U. lobata leaf was extracted in hot water and ethanol. The activity of DPP-Ⅳ inhibitor was tested by in vitro study using gly-pro-p-nitroanilide as substrat of DPP-Ⅳ and vildagliptin, as standard reference. A product of the reactions between gly-pro-pnitroanilide and DPP-Ⅳ, was observed by microplate readers with λ = 405 nm. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and the IC50 value was determined by non linear regression curve fit. Active substances in leaf extract of U. lobata was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. DPP-Ⅳ inhibitory activity of active compounds was evaluated in silico using docking server. Results: The ethanolic extract of U. lobata showed stronger DPP-Ⅳ inhibitor activity than water extract with the IC50 values of 1 654.64 and 6 489.88 μg/mL, respectively. Vildagliptin, based on standard reference for DPP-Ⅳ inhibitor activity, has IC50 value of 57.44 μg/mL. Based on in silico analysis, mangiferin, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in U. lobata extract have a strong inhibitory activity on DPP-Ⅳ. Conclusions: The results showed that DPP-Ⅳ inhibitory activity of U. lobata is related to its active compounds such as mangiferin, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol.
    8  The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas
    Atamgba Agbor Asuk Margaret Akpana Agiang Kayode Dasofunjo Amonor James Willie
    2015(8):650-657. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.015
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 336.45 K](77)
    Objective: To analyse the phytochemical contents of leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas (J. curcas) in four solvent extracts and their proximate and mineral compositions. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used for the determination of phytochemicals, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of J. curcas. Results: Results of the analysis showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, triterpenoid saponins, carotenoids, phlobatannins and tannins in the leaf, stem bark and root of all the solvent extracts. Flavonoids were present in the highest amount in the ethyl acetate extracts of the leaf (7.35% ± 0.02%), stem bark (4.12% ± 0.01%) and root (3.35% ± 0.02%) followed by polyphenols in the methanol extracts of leaf (4.62% ± 0.02%), stem bark (2.77% ± 0.05%) and root (2.49% ± 0.02%). Poly-acetylated compounds were absent in all the solvent extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root. However, some anti-nutritional agents such as oxalates, phytates and cyanates were present in all the solvent extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root except the ethyl acetate. Phytates were high in the aqueous solvent of the leaf (6.12% ± 0.00%) but low in the stem bark (1.00% ± 0.05%) and root (0.89% ± 0.03%). Proximate composition showed appreciable amounts of total carbohydrate (36.33% ± 0.72%), crude protein (26.00% ± 0.47%) and reducing sugars (5.87% ± 0.14%) in the leaf, while crude fat was more in the stem bark (16.70% ± 0.30%). There was corresponding substantial energy in the leaf [(1514.77 ± 20.87) kJ/100 g] and stem bark [(907.00 ± 8.52) kJ/100 g]. Moisture and ash contents of the leaf, stem bark and root were within acceptable limits for the use in drugs formulation. The mineral composition showed substantial amounts of important elements such as Fe, Ca, Na, Mg and Zn. Others were P, K and Se. Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that the leaf, stem bark and root of J. curcas have very good medicinal potentials, meet the standard requirements for drug formulation and serve as good sources of energy and nutrients except for the presence of some anti-nutritional elements predominant in the leaf.
    9  Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers.
    Md. Saidur Rahman Rasheda Akter Santosh Mazumdar Faridul Islam Nusrat Jahan Mouri Nemai Chandra Nandi Abu Sayeed Mohammad Mahmud
    2015(8):658-662. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.011
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 305.25 K](88)
    Objective: To explore the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. aerial parts (EECA) in Wistar rats. Methods: To assess the antidiabetic activity of EECA, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) model and alloxan induced diabetic test (AIDT) model were performed. The EECA was used at the doses of 2 g/kg, 1 g/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight in OGTT model and 1.5 g/kg was used for AIDT model. Castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were performed for evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effects at doses of 1 g/kg, 750 mg/kg respectively. Results: The dose 2 g/kg in OGTT and 1.5 g/kg in AIDT model blood glucose levels decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in Wistar rats that showed antidiabetic effect of EECA. After administration of EECA at the dose of 1 g/kg, the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model. The results were also significant (P < 0.05) in barium sulphate milk model for the same dose by using above mentioned animals. Conclusions: It is concluded that EECA contains both antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal properties.
    10  Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris) in the Southern Province of Zambia
    King Shimumbo Nalubamba Eugene Chisela Bwalya Ntombi Basimbi Mudenda Hetron Mweemba Munangandu Musso Munyeme David Squarre
    2015(8):663-670. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.009
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 611.46 K](81)
    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia. Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls (148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval (CI) 98.9–128.6] and 108 (CI 76.6–139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9 (CI 128.4–177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6 (CI 66.8–94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2 (CI 3.91–4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4 (CI 2.92–3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species cooccurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls. Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
    11  Potential of Hemianax ephippiger (Odonata-Aeshnidae) nymph as predator of Fasciola intermediate host, Lymnaea natalensis
    Aly Younes Hanaa El-Sherif Fathia Gawish Marwa Mahmoud
    2015(8):671-675. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.008
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 420.77 K](80)
    Objective: To evaluate the predatory capacity of the Odonata, Hemianax ephippiger nymph as a biocontrol agent for the freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis, intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. Methods: Observations on the searching, attacking and devouring of the snails with a series of laboratory-based predation experiments, whose aims were to determine daily predation rate, differential predation on small-, medium- and large-sized snails were carried out. Results: Laboratory evaluation revealed that, the Odonata nymph could kill and consume all three sizes of snails. Searching and handling time of the predator differed depending on snail size and predator vulnerability. The predation rate varied also with respect to snail size and density. Conclusions: Our observations suggested that the predator Hemianax ephippiger may be a suitable bio-control agent of Lymnaea natalensis snail population.
    12  Anti-uropathogenic activity, drug likeness, physicochemical and molecular docking assessment of (E-)-N’ -(substituted-benzylidene)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) acetohydrazide
    Essa Ajmi Alodeani Mohammad Arshad Mohammad Asrar Izhari
    2015(8):676-683. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.010
    [Abstract](21) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.34 M](79)
    Objective: To deal with the anti-uropathogenic and in silico screening of (E-)-N’- (substituted-benzylidene)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetohydrazide analogues in order to search the potential anti-uropathogenic agents. Methods: Three (E-)-N’ -(substituted-benzylidene)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetohydrazide analogues were synthesized. Structure elucidation was done using various spectroscopic techniques including infrared radiation, 1hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon- 13 nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. Physicochemical score, bioactivity score and molecular docking studies were carried out using Lipinski's rule of five, Molinspiration (web based software), Autodock 4.2 tools. In vitro anti-uropathogenic activity was carried out against four pathogens named as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli by disc diffusion method and macrodilution test following their morphological and biochemical characterization. Results: The formation of (E-)-N’ -(substituted-benzylidene)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetohydrazide is confirmed from the spectroscopic results. All the compounds were found in compliance with Lipinski's rule of five and exhibited bioactivity score from −0.50 to 0.00. Docking results revealed that compound-1 is forming one hydrogen bond with TYR 576 and two hydrogen bond with GLU 569, while compound-2 is forming one hydrogen bond with ARG 599, and compound-3 forming 0 hydrogen bond. The anti-uropathogenic evaluation exhibited that compound one exhibited better activity against S. aureus, while it was found to possess moderate to good activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria excluding S. aureus. Conclusions: Our study revealed that compound one exhibited better activity than the standard in case of S. aureus and moderate to good activity against rest of the pathogens. Molecular docking, physicochemical and bioactivity studies strongly supported the experimental results. From the well obtained results it was concluded that compound-1 can lead as potential anti-uropathogenic agents.
    13  Study the effect of kidney stones on serum xanthine oxidase, ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2) in Malaysian individuals
    Faridah Yusof Atheer Awad Mehde Wesen Adel Mehdi Hamid Ghazali Azlina Abd Rahman
    2015(8):684-688. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.013
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 558.26 K](80)
    Objective: To verify possible relations between 5ʹ-nucleotidase, xanthine oxidase to E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier-protein ligase non structural maintenance of chromosomes elements 2 in sera patients with kidney stones and to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for the evaluation of kidney damage. Methods: A sixty patients with known kidney stones who appeared the government health clinics in Kuantan–Pahang and fifty apparently healthy were taken as control group. The 5ʹ- nucleotidase, xanthine oxidase and other biochemical parameters were measured by colorimetric tests. The serum NSMCE2 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean serum xanthine oxidase [(39.98 ± 19.70) IU/L] and ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase activity (40.03 ± 9.53 IU/L) were significantly higher than the controls' levels of (18.04 ± 6.26) and (16.06 ± 4.61) IU/L respectively. There were 85.00% and 83.33%, of patients with kidney stones who had abnormal ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase activity and uric acid respectively while xanthine oxidase activity was less sensitive 58.33%. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the increase in serum of xanthine oxidase,ecto- 5ʹ-nucleotidase activities E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier-protein ligase NSE2 concentration can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of kidney damage in patients with kidney stone, also in developments of change DNA damage and inflammation disorders in these patients.
    14  Decliners of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: Characteristics of participants who refused HIV testing in a population survey in Zambia
    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata William Ngosa Albertina Ngomah Moraes Nicole Maddox Nathan Kapata
    2015(8):689-693. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.010
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 283.50 K](87)
    Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV infection, to highlight HIV-testing refusal rates among participants in a population-based tuberculosis survey and to assess the implication for programme implementation. Methods: This cross-sectional study on the characteristics of participants who refused HIV testing was conducted in a national survey in Zambia. All eligible participants were aged above 15 years and included in the analysis. Results: Out of the 44 791 tuberculosis survey participants, 14 164 (31.6%) refused to participate in HIV testing. The unemployed, rural dwellers, married, and those aged 15– 24 years were associated with higher refusal rates. Conclusions: Strategies to improve HIV testing acceptance are necessary. Qualitative research is recommended to understand the reasons for testing refusals so that remedial interventions can be implemented.

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