Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 9,2015 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Leishmaniosis phytotherapy: Review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on leishmaniasis
    Mahmoud Bahmani Kourosh Saki Behrouz Ezatpour Somayeh Shahsavari Zohreh Eftekhari Mahyar Jelodari Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei Reza Sepahvand
    2015(9):695-701. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.018
    [Abstract](31) [HTML](0) [PDF 643.40 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Many native plants in traditional medicine have been used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the recent clinical trials have proven the efficacy of some of them. Researches conducted on these plants have shown that garlic, shallots, wormwood, yarrow, walnuts, thyme, henna plant, mimosa, aloe, wood betony, medlar, periwinkle, yeah, savory, black beans, etc. are effective on cutaneous leishmania. Synthetic agents in Iranian market have some disadvantages such as high cost and side effects and are painful in injections. Given the effectiveness of these plants, they can be a source of natural and safe compounds for the treatment of Leishmania. Therefore, more clinical researches should be done to determine the effectiveness and safety of these medicinal plants, their active ingredients and their possible toxic substances which can lead to the production of effective and safe drugs for leishmaniasis. It also might be an effective way to prepare herbal ointment on wound healing.
    2  Isolation, screening and identification of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbial candidates for aflatoxin B1 biodegradation
    Rosario Galarza-Seeber Juan David Latorre Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco Amanda Drake Wolfenden Lisa Renee Bielke Anita Menconi Billy Marshall Hargis Guillermo Tellez
    2015(9):702-706. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.014
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 304.14 K](82)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the ability of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbials (DFM) to biodegrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by using an in vitro digestive model simulating in vivo conditions. Methods: Sixty-nine Bacillus isolates were obtained from intestines, and soil samples were screened by using a selective media method against 0.25 and 1.00 μg/mL of AFB1 in modified Czapek-Dox medium. Plates were incubated at 37℃ and observed every two days for two weeks. Physiological properties of the three Bacillus spp. candidates were characterized biochemically and by 16S rRNA sequence analyzes for identification. Tolerance to acidic pH, osmotic concentrations of NaCl, bile salts were tested, and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles were also determined. Bacillus candidates were individually sporulated by using a solid fermentation method and combined. Spores were incorporated into 1 of 3 experimental feed groups: 1) Negative control group, with unmedicated starter broiler feed without AFB1; 2) Positive control group, with negative control feed contaminated with 0.01% AFB1; 3) DFM treated group, with positive control feed supplemented with 109 spores/g. After digestion time (3:15 h), supernatants and digesta were collected for highperformance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection analysis by triplicate. Results: Three out of those sixty-nine DFM candidates showed ability to biodegrade AFB1 in vitro based on growth as well as reduction of fluorescence and area of clearance around each colony in modified Czapek-Dox medium which was clearly visible under day light after 48 h of evaluation. Analysis of 16S-DNA identified the strains as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. The three Bacillus strains were tolerant to acidic conditions (pH 2.0), tolerant to a high osmotic pressure (NaCl at 6.5%), and were able to tolerate 0.037% bile salts after 24 h of incubation. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of AFB1 in neither the supernatants nor digesta samples evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection between positive control or DFM treated groups. Conclusions: In vitro digestion time was not enough to confirm biodegradation of AFB1. Further studies to evaluate the possible biodegradation effects of the Bacillus-DFM when continuously administered in experimentally contaminated feed with AFB1, are in progress.
    3  Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)
    Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid Zulaikha Zahran Abd Hafis Abd Rahim Nor Azliza Ismail Wardah Abdul Rahman Kartiekasari Syahidda Mohammad Zubairi Hamady Dieng Tomomitsu Satho
    2015(9):707-713. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.04.012
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.67 M](75)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus. Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from fieldcollected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCR-based genotyping test. Results: There were noticeable differences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/finely roughened, respectively. These morphological specificities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences. Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural field developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.
    4  Effects of filaricidal drugs on longevity and enzyme activities of the microfilariae of Setaria cervi in white rats
    Haytham Ahmed Zakai Wajihullah Khan
    2015(9):714-719. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.05.019
    [Abstract](29) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.29 M](80)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyse the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), tetramisole and chlorpromazine on the longevity and activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase in the microfilariae recovered from the peripheral circulation of the rats before and after the treatment. Methods: Setaria cervi worms were implanted in white rats via laparotomy and microfilaraemic rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated with DEC, tetramisole and chlorpromazine respectively, while Group 4 served as infected control. Longevity of microfilariae and differential leucocyte counts were recorded till the disappearance of microfilariae from peripheral blood. Glucose-6-phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase enzymes were localized in the microfilariae recovered from normal and treated rats. Results: The microfilariae survived for 48 days in untreated rats while survival was reduced to 15, 21 and 27 days after treatment with DEC, tetramisole and chlorpromazine, respectively. Eosinophils and neutrophils increased during 2nd and 3rd weeks, whereas the lymphocytes increased during 4–7 weeks. DEC treatment resulted in slight decrease in the localization of succinate dehydrogenase but not in glucose-6-phosphatase. Tetramisole and chlorpromazine treatment did not show any appreciable change in the localization of both the above enzymes. Conclusions: DEC proved the most effective drug which cleared the microfilaraemia within 15 days and reduced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase to some extent followed by tetramisole and chlorpromazine which took more time for the clearance of microfilariae and had no effect on the localization of both glucose-6-phosphatase and succinate dehydrogenase.
    5  Dill tablet: A potential antioxidant and anti-diabetic medicine
    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi Heidar Tavilani Iraj Khodadadi Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi
    2015(9):720-727. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.012
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.43 M](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of the dill tablet, an herbal product used in Iran as a hypolipidemic medicine. Methods: In this descriptive study, the antioxidant and antiradical properties of dill tablet at different concentration (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) were measured. The total phenolic, flavonols and flavonoid, alkaloids, anthocyanin, tannin and saponin contents in dill tablet were determined. Furthermore, antiglycation properties of dill tablet were assayed. In the in vivo experiments, male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6): Group 1: normal rats; Group 2: diabetic rats; Group 3: diabetic rats + 300 mg/kg dill tablet, and Group 4: diabetic rats + 100 mg/kg dill tablet. After 2 months, the blood glucose was measured enzymatically and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation was determined using a fluorometric method. Results: Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill tablet had significant antioxidant activity. Dill tablet markedly declined AGEs formation and fructosamine levels (P < 0.001) compared with glycated sample. Oxidation of protein carbonyl and thiol group was significantly reduced by dill tablet in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.001). Formation of amyloid cross-β and fragmentation were markedly inhibited by dill tablet (P < 0.001) compared with glycated sample. After 2 months, fasting blood glucose levels (P < 0.001) and AGEs formation (P < 0.05) were significantly reduced by dill tablet in diabetic animals. Conclusions: Dill tablet exhibited significant antiglycation and antioxidant activities. This study provides a scientific basis for using dill in treatment of diabetic patients.
    6  Plantago major treatment enhanced innate antioxidant activity in experimental acetaminophen toxicity
    Farida Hussan Rina Haryani Osman Basah Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof Nur Aqilah Kamaruddin Faizah Othman
    2015(9):728-732. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.013
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 742.94 K](79)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To determine the effect of Plantago major (P. major) extract on the liver injury following acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Methods: The male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 38) were randomly divided into normal control (n = 6) and experiment (n = 32) groups. The latter was subdivided into four groups and induced with APAP (1 000 mg/kg) per oral, followed by P. major extract and N-acetylcysteine orally to the respective groups for six days. Results: On the seventh day, the serum bilirubin, liver enzymes and tissue malondialdehyde were increased in APAP groups whereas the total protein in serum, tissue superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were reduced. The plant extract treatment reduced the histological deteriorations such as aggregation of hepatocellular cords, formation of binucleated cells and vacuolisation of the cells with scanty cytoplasm. It also revealed significant reduction of malondialdehyde and increased level of superoxide dismutase and glutathione. The findings in the extract treated groups were comparable to the group treated with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusions: In conclusion, P. major can enhance innate antioxidant activity and ameliorate the APAP-induced liver injury.
    7  Role of secondary metabolites of wild marigold in suppression of Johnson grass and Sun spurge
    Sehrish Sadia Rahmatullah Qureshi Shahida Khalid Brian Gagosh Nayyar Jin-tun Zhang
    2015(9):733-737. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.06.014
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 314.85 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To analyze the wild marigold [(Tagetes minuta L.) (T. minuta)] leaf extract with respect to phytochemicals and allelopathic activity. Methods: The aqueous extracts of T. minuta leaves at concentrations of 50%, 75% and 100% were prepared. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was carried out and then allelopathic effect of T. minuta on root length, shoot length, germination, fresh and dry weight of Johnson grass and Sun spurge was tested on filter paper and in soil. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoides and terpenoids. The higher concentrations proved to be signifi- cantly effective in reducing almost all the parameters of Sun spurge and Johnson grass in filter paper bioassay. Supplemented with the soil, all concentrations of leaf extract showed reduction in germination, root and shoot growth, fresh and dry weight of Sun spurge; however, 100% concentration significantly reduced the germination of Johnson grass. Conclusions: This study suggests that marigold allelochemicals can be used as an integrated weed management for the production of better crop yield.
    8  Tinospora crispa extract inhibits MMP-13 and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines
    Hataipan Phienwej Ih-si Swasdichira Surattana Amnuoypol Prasit Pavasant Piyamas Sumrejkanchanakij
    2015(9):738-743. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.001
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 978.54 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Tinospora crispa (T. crispa) extract on matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression and cell migration. Methods: The cytotoxicity of T. crispa extract was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The effect on expression of MMP-13 was analysed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The migration was assessed by wound healing assay. Results: MMP-13 mRNA was highly expressed in the metastatic human HNSCC cell lines, HN22 and HSC-3. T. crispa extract at a concentration of 100.0 μg/mL caused about 50% reduction of cell survival. T. crispa extract at a non-toxic concentration of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 μg/mL significantly suppressed MMP-13 mRNA expression and secreted MMP- 13 in both HN22 and HSC-3. The expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) by HSC-3 cells was attenuated by 25.0 and 50.0 μg/mL of T. crispa extract. Addition of the extract to cells in a wound healing assay showed inhibition of cell migration by HN22 cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that T. crispa could be considered as a potential therapeutic drug to prevent metastasis of HNSCC.
    9  Methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile action of acetylcholine on isolated rabbit jejunum
    Tavershima Dzenda Joseph Olusegun Ayo Alexander Babatunde Adelaiye Ambrose Osemattah Adaudi
    2015(9):744-747. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.002
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 511.61 K](77)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the modulating role of methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum. Methods: Rabbit jejunum segment was removed and placed in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution, and its contractions were recorded isometrically. Results: ACh (2.0 × 10−10 g/mL) and the extract (2.0 × 10−4 g/mL) individually increased the frequency of contraction (mean ± SEM) of the isolated smooth muscle tissue by 47.6% ± 9.5% and 77.8% ± 66.5%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the frequency of contraction of the tissue was increased by 222.2% ± 25.9%, representing a 366.7%-increase (P < 0.001) over the effect of ACh alone. Similarly, ACh (2.0 × 10−9 g/mL) and the extract individually increased signifi- cantly (P < 0.001) the amplitude of contraction of the tissue by 685.7% ± 61.1% and 455.2% ± 38.1%, respectively. When ACh and the extract were combined, the amplitude of contraction of the tissue rose by 1 263.8% ± 69.0%, representing 84.3% increase over the effect of ACh alone. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that methanol extract of Tephrosia vogelii leaves potentiates the contractile effect of ACh on intestinal smooth muscle, supporting the traditional claim that the plant is purgative.
    10  Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves
    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih Sanro Tachibana Rizna Triana Dewi Kazutaka Itoh
    2015(9):748-755. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.004
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 777.23 K](76)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.
    11  Effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) extract on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits
    Nadia Abdulkarim Salih
    2015(9):756-760. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.005
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.38 M](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant effect of an orally administered ethanol extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) and its protective role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative stress as a major factor in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rabbits. Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into 4 equal groups: (G1) control group, (G2) gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg), (G3) nettle treated group (100 mg/kg), (G4) combination treated group with both gentamicin (100 mg/kg) and nettle (100 mg/kg) for 10 days. The antioxidant properties of nettle were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, such as determination of glutathione and malondialdehyde levels and total phenolic content analysis. Results: Biochemical and histopathological study revealed that gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity observed clearly in the histopathological section of the kidney in the gentamicin treated group. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were biochemical indicators for nephrotoxicity which increased significantly in gentamicin treated group; other groups have no significant change in these two parameters. Nettle extract protected the rabbits from alteration in the level of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine when given after inducing of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. The nettle treated group showed a great effect as an antioxidant factor by increasing the glutathione level and reducing malondialdehyde level. No significant changes in biochemical parameters and no renal histopathological changes observed in the groups treated with nettle extract, which meant nettle had powerful antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be assumed that the nephroprotective effect shown by nettle in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity can reserve intracellular levels of biological pathways and supportively enhance excretion of toxic levels of gentamicin.
    12  Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice
    Hai Nguyen Thanh Hue Pham Thi Minh Tuan Anh Le Huong Duong Thi Ly Tung Nguyen Huu Loi Vu Duc Thu Dang Kim Tung Bui Thanh
    2015(9):761-767. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.007
    [Abstract](30) [HTML](0) [PDF 847.42 K](81)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS (5 mg/ kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and mRNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-ĸB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS significantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-ĸB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice. Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS induced liver injury in mice.
    13  Characterisation of a novel, multifunctional, co-processed excipient and its effect on release profile of paracetamol from tablets prepared by direct compression
    Sylvester Okhuelegbe Eraga Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh Michael Uwumagbe Uhumwangho Magnus Amara Iwuagwu
    2015(9):768-772. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.008
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 504.24 K](84)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To characterise a novel multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient and investigate its effect on paracetamol release from tablets prepared by direct compression. Methods: The excipient was prepared by co-processing gelatinized maize starch with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose in a ratio of 2:1:1, dried and pulverized into powder. The excipient formulated was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The excipient was used to prepare batches of tablets by direct compression with drug-excipient ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4. Parameters evaluated on tablets include crushing strength, friability and in vitro dissolution studies. Results: Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed a crystalline excipient while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no interaction between the excipient and paracetamol. Tablets from all the batches gave average crushing strength values between 3.47 and 4.88 kp. The 1:1 and 1:2 tablet batches were comparable to each other while 1:3 and 1:4 were also comparable to one another in their dissolution profiles. The dissolution parameters of the 1:4 batch was faster with – m (90.5%), t50% (3.5 min), t70% (11.6 min) while that of ratio 1:1 was the least with – m (48.6%), m5min (23.8%). Their release kinetics followed a Korsmeyer–Peppas model with a super case-Ⅱ transport mechanism. Conclusions: The drug-excipient ratios of 1:3 and 1:4 gave pharmaceutically acceptable tablets that met the British Pharmacopoeia specifications. The t50% value of the 1:4 batch of tablets may find its usefulness in formulating drugs for which a fast onset of action is desired.
    14  Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey
    Mustafa Kemal ?elen Murat Sayan Tuba Dal Celal Ayaz Alicem Tekin Tuncer Ozekinci Suda Tekin Koruk Tunga Barcin Recep Tekin Mehmet Sinan Dal Sevgi Kalkanl?
    2015(9):773-777. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.009
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 760.68 K](78)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57 (88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantified by real-time PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed. Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B (48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs (12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE (9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG (3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C (1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1 (2/65, 3.1%) and F1 (2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9% (3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1% (8/61). Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.
    15  Toxaemia secondary to pyloric foreign body obstruction in two African lion (Panthera leo) cubs
    David Squarre John Yabe Chisoni Mumba Maxwel Mwase Katendi Changula Wizaso Mwasinga Musso Munyeme
    2015(9):778-780. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.010
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 838.38 K](89)
    Abstract:
    A case of toxaemia secondary to pyloric foreign body obstruction in two four-month-old African lion cubs were presented in this article. The lion cubs were presented to the school of veterinary medicine with a complaint of weight loss and stunted growth despite having a normal appetite and seizures. Definitive diagnosis was made based on gross pathology after attempting various symptomatic treatments. This article therefore is meant to discourage the use of blankets as bedding in holding enclosures for warmth and comfort post-weaning in captive lion cubs and indeed wild cats in general as they tend to eat bedding that has been soiled with food.
    16  Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients
    Debora Oro Andreia Heissler Eliandra Mirlei Rossi Diane Scapin Patr?cia da Silva Malheiros Everton Boff
    2015(9):781-784. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.011
    [Abstract](24) [HTML](0) [PDF 287.02 K](83)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis. Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined. Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey (0.0313–64 μg/mL) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.0313–64 μg/ mL) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (0.0313–64 μg/mL) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them. Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.
    17  In vitro antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract from marine alga Enteromorpha intestinalis
    Darah Ibrahim Sheh-Hong Lim
    2015(9):785-788. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.07.012
    [Abstract](19) [HTML](0) [PDF 701.08 K](115)
    Abstract:
    Objective: To extract the bioactive compound from Enteromorpha intestinalis (E. intestinalis) and determine its in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: E. intestinalis was extracted by methanol and subjected to antimicrobial screening. The antimicrobial activity was studied by using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. The effect of the extract on the growth profile of the bacterial was also examined via time-kill assay. Microscopy observations using SEM was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results: The results showed methanolic extract of E. intestinalis exhibited a favourable antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria with produced inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 19.0 mm. However, all the tested fungi and yeast were resistant to the extract treatment. Time kill assay suggested that methanolic extract of E. intestinalis had completely inhibited MRSA growth and also exhibited prolonged antibacterial activity. The main abnormalities noted from the microscopic observations were the structural deterioration in the normal morphology and complete collapsed of the bacteria cells after 36 h of treatment. Conclusions: The significant antibacterial activity shown by crude extract suggested its potential against MRSA infection. The extract may have potential to develop as antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical use.

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