Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Issue 1,2016 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf improves metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet-induced obese mice
    Supaporn Wannasiri Pritsana Piyabhan Jarinyaporn Naowaboot
    2016(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.004
    [Abstract](27) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.22 M](91)
    Objective: To investigate the effect of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus) leaf extract on impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese ICR mice. Methods: Obesity was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. After the first six weeks of the diet, the obese mice were administered with the water extract of R. nasutus leaves at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day for the next six weeks. Subsequently, the blood glucose, lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were measured. The liver and adipose tissues were excised for histopathological examination and protein expression study. Results: After six weeks of the treatment, R. nasutus extract (at 250 and 500 mg/kg per day) was found to reduce the elevated blood glucose level, improve the insulin sensitivity, decrease the serum leptin, and increase the serum adiponectin levels. The obese mice treated with R. nasutus were found to have a reduction in the increased lipid concentrations in their serum and liver tissues. Moreover, treatment with R. nasutus reduced the fat accumulation in the liver and the large adipocyte size in the fat tissues. Interestingly, the administration with R. nasutus extract was marked by an increase in the hepatic peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, fat cell adiponectin, and glucose transporter 4 proteins. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report on the impact of R. nasutus extract in improving the impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via stimulating the insulin sensitivity in the liver and adipose tissues.
    2  Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action
    Meriem El Kolli Hocine Laouer Hayet El Kolli Salah Akkal Farida Sahli
    2016(1):8-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.08.004
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 899.05 K](83)
    Objective: To evaluate the essential oils (EO) composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant power of a local plant, Daucus gracilis (D. gracilis). Methods: The aerial parts of D. gracilis were subjected to hydro distillation by a Clevenger apparatus type to obtain the EO which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and screened for antimicrobial activity against five bacteria and three fungi by agar diffusion method. The mechanism of action of the EO was determined on the susceptible strains by both of time kill assay and lysis experience. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by agar macrodilution and micro-dilution methods. Anti-oxidative properties of the EO were also studied by free diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power techniques. Results: The EO yielded 0.68 (v/w). The chemical analysis presented two dominant constituents which were the elemicin (35.3%) and the geranyl acetate (26.8%). D. gracilis EO inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus and Proteus mirabilis significantly with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 17.15 μg/mL by the agar dilution method and 57.05 μg/mL and 114.1 μg/mL, respectively by liquid micro-dilution. A remarkable decrease in a survival rate as well as in the absorbance in 260 nm was recorded, which suggested that the cytoplasm membrane was one of the targets of the EO. The EO showed, also, important anti-oxidative effects with an IC50 of 0.002 mg/mL and a dosedependent reducing power. Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.
    3  The antibacterial activity of selected plants towards resistant bacteria isolated from clinical specimens
    Pratiwi Wikaningtyas Elin Yulinah Sukandar
    2016(1):16-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.08.003
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 435.45 K](87)
    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight plants against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which are the most prevalent causes of infections in inpatients. Methods: The antibacterial activity was calculated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration using Mueller–Hinton broth in a microdilution method. Results: The best antibacterial activity, calculated as minimum inhibitory concentration values, against MRSA was shown by the Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb) (K. pandurata) extract (256 μg/mL) and the Senna alata (S. alata) extract (512 μg/mL). Phytochemical screening of dried S. alata leaf and its extract showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, quinones, tannins and sterols, while dried K. pandurata and its extract only showed the presence of flavonoids and sterols/triterpenoids. Conclusions: K. pandurata and S. alata have the potential to be developed as antibacterial agents, especially against MRSA strain, but further in vivo research and discovery of the mode of its action are still needed to shed light on the effects.
    4  Influence of extraction solvents on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the pulp and seed of Anisophyllea laurina R. Br. ex Sabine fruits
    Gbago Onivogui Rebaone Letsididi Mohamed Diaby Liping Wang Yuanda Song
    2016(1):20-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.023
    [Abstract](7) [HTML](0) [PDF 738.21 K](82)
    Objective: To evaluate the influence of extraction solvents on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the pulp and seed of Anisophyllea laurina R. Br. ex Sabine fruits. Methods: The antibacterial activities of pulp and seed extracts were tested by using disk diffusion method against eight bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Total phenolic, flavonoid, monomeric anthocyanin and tannin contents, and antioxidant activities were determined by spectrometric methods. Results: The antioxidant analysis of pulp extract revealed the strong radical scavenging capacity and total phenolic content (4 329.66 mg of gallic acid/100 g), while seed extract showed the high antioxidant activity and total tannin content (5 326.78 mg catechin equivalent/100 g). Antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 125 to 250 μg/mL. However, seed extract had the strongest potential activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 500 μg/mL compared to pulp extract. Conclusions: Our results therefore demonstrated that ethanol and methanol extractions were more efficient in extracting antioxidants and bioactive compound in pulp and seed. These results support that these plant extracts can be used for the treatment of bacterial infections.
    5  Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple
    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales Helber Barcellos Costa Patrícia Machado Bueno Fernandes Jose Aires Ventura Debora Dummer Meira
    2016(1):26-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.026
    [Abstract](22) [HTML](0) [PDF 326.17 K](86)
    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts, resins, oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme (F. guttiforme) and Chalara paradoxa, and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures. Methods: The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method. To control pineapple fusariosis in situ, preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv. Perola (susceptible). Results: The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed, 46% were effective against F. guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa. The natural plant extracts, mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra (MTGG1), mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum (MTBT2), mother tincture of Aloe vera (MTAV3), mother tincture of Allium sativum (MTAS4), resin of Protium heptaphyllum (RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle (CEMV6), exhibited an antifungal activity against F. guttiforme. In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis, MTAV3, MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide. The curative treatments with MTAV3, MTAS4, MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.
    6  Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants
    Fadila Moussaoui Tajelmolk Alaoui
    2016(1):32-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.024
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 314.03 K](97)
    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.
    7  Potent water extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants against PTP1B
    Azis Saifudin Tepy Usia Subehan AbLallo Hiroyuki Morita Ken Tanaka Yasuhiro Tezuka
    2016(1):38-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.021
    [Abstract](26) [HTML](0) [PDF 754.11 K](97)
    Objective: To examine the potent of water as a solvent agent in the preparation of traditional herbal medicine. Methods: Water extracts of 18 plants were prepared through reflux and examined (25 μg/mL) to evaluate their possibility for inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). The determination of IC50 values was performed for the samples possessing more than 80% inhibition. Meanwhile, those exhibiting IC50 values more than 7.0 μg/mL were further profiled for their chemical constituents through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement. Results: About 44% (8) of the examined samples showed more than 80% inhibition against PTP1B. The water extracts of Elephantopus scaber, Helicteres isora aerial parts, Elaeocarpus grandiflorus (E. grandiflorus) fruits, Melaleuca leucadendron leaves, and Quercus infectoria gum had IC50 values ranging from 2.05 to 6.90 μg/mL. Meanwhile, Andropogon nardus and Centella asiatica were at the area of δ 3.0–4.0 ppm. Further, the 13C NMR observation of samples possessing the most intensive signals in their proton NMR Cinnamomum burmannii and E. grandiflorus showed the peaks at the area of δ 60– 90 ppm as the supportive evidence for sugar group signals. Intriguingly, a disaccharide from E. grandiflorus could be an active inhibitor towards PTB1B. Conclusions: In contrast to the mainstream solvents currently used in modern herbal manufactures especially Jamu medicine in Indonesia, pure-water-extracted materials should be reconsidered and could be reemerged for future studies and for the manufacture of herbal medicines. In addition, the activity of Jamu components should be confirmed that their antidiabetes and antiobesity activities could be through the inhibition of PTP1B.
    8  Pharmacological effects of ethanol extract of Egyptian Artemisia herba-alba in rats and mice
    Gehad Abdel Raheem Abdel Jaleel Heba Mohammed Ibrahim Abdallah Nawal E.L. Sayed Gomaa
    2016(1):44-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.005
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 616.03 K](91)
    Objective: To investigate some pharmacological effects including gastroprotective, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and in vitro antioxidant effects of Artemisia herbaalba extract in different experimental models. Methods: Inflammation was induced in rat paw by subcutaneous injection of 1% (v/v) carrageenan solution. Writhes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% (v/v) acetic acid solution. Pyrexia was induced using Brewer's yeast suspension. Gastric lesion was induced in rats by oral administration of 99% ethanol. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and gastroprotective activities of Artemisia herba-alba extract were investigated respectively. In vitro antioxidant effect was investigated using DPPH free radical. Results: The plant extract showed anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, analgesic effect against acetic acid-induced writhing, and antipyretic activity in Brewer's yeast model of pyrexia. Besides, it was shown to be a gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The plant also exhibited a free radical scavenging potential in an in vitro antioxidant study using DPPH. Conclusions: The results validate the use of the investigated plant in traditional medicine for different ailments.
    9  Comparative studies of elemental composition in leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus growing in Bangladesh
    Shahin Aziz Koushik Saha Nasim Sultana Husna Parvin Nur Md. Aminul Ahsan Shamim Ahmed Md. Kamal Hossain
    2016(1):50-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.003
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 312.36 K](86)
    Objective: To investigate the elemental composition of the leaves and flowers of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) due to the plant's wide application in the indigenous medicinal system and its chemical constituents' importance. Methods: The atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for quantitative analysis of various elements. Results: Total 13 important elements were analyzed in leaves and flowers of C. roseus. Results indicated the presence of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cr, Fe, Zn, Al, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Mn in both leaves and flowers. The most important finding of the work was that, leaves of C. roseus showed high concentration of all elements except K and Zn while flowers of C. roseus showed higher concentration of K and Zn. Conclusions: The elemental composition in both leaves and flowers of C. roseus were found to be different. Therefore, different parts of this medicinal plant are enriched in some micro and macro nutrients like Fe, Ca, Na, K, Zn, which are very important for biological metabolic system as well as human health.
    10  Formulation and evaluation of semisolid jelly produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels
    Noor Azwani Mohd Rasidek Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin Kamyar Shameli
    2016(1):55-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.025
    [Abstract](23) [HTML](0) [PDF 542.25 K](84)
    Objective: To study the jelly formulation produced by Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) peels and evaluate its antioxidant properties which are related to the product quality. Methods: The formulations of peel jelly were established under two-level full factorial designs within two blocks and one center point. Regarding response optimizer, the amount of sugar and citric acid was obtained; hence, the peel jellies were produced. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was conducted by using total phenolic content (TPC) assay and 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. Results: The TPC of peel powder varied from 91.8 to 602.26 mg gallic acid equivalents/ 100 g dry weight, and 5%–7% peel jellies had phenolic content ranging from 29.38 to 48.31 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight. The results of DPPH test indicated that at 10 mg/mL, the peel powder showed 89% DPPH inhibition, while 7% peel jelly prominently exhibited 84% DPPH inhibition. The correlation between DPPH IC50 value and TPC of peel powder as well as peel jelly was quite reasonably high with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.843 7 to 0.995. Conclusions: TPC can be used as an indicator in assessing the antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. The present investigation reveals that TPC is mainly responsible for DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.
    11  Prevalence of multi-drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Potohar region of Pakistan
    Ihsan Ali Zara Rafaque Safia Ahmed Sajid Malik Javid Iqbal Dasti
    2016(1):60-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.022
    [Abstract](6) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](82)
    Objective: To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods: Bacterial samples (n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012). Genes, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing. Results: The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (82%) followed by cephalothin (80%), 2nd Gen, 3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins, respectively. Resistance against gentamicin, amikacin remained 29% and 4%. For other drugs including nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%. Altogether, 59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone. Overall, MICs for ciprofloxacin remained (MIC ≥ 256 μg/mL) and for levofloxacin (MIC ≥ 16 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL). No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and non-ESBL producers. For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 μg/mL. Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusions: Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with urinary tract infections. Moreover, the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.
    12  Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq
    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil Mohammad Mushgil Zenad
    2016(1):67-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.020
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 439.53 K](81)
    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and midgut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃ , to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coincided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.
    13  Antibiotic resistance profile and RAPD analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from vegetables farms and retail markets
    John Yew Huat Tang Mohd Ikhsan Khalid Syazana Aimi Che Abdullah Abu-Bakar Son Radu
    2016(1):71-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.002
    [Abstract](15) [HTML](0) [PDF 637.14 K](80)
    Objective: To investigate antibiotic resistance profile and characterize Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Methods: Ninety eight C. jejuni isolates from farms and retail outlets were screened against 10 antibiotics commonly used clinically and agriculturally by using disk diffusion method. RAPD analysis was done to characterize 98 C. jejuni isolates. Results: Fifty-one percent of the isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index 0.2 and below. This indicated that the isolates in the vegetables were not from the high risk environment or extensive farming practices. C. jejuni isolates found resistant towards penicillin G (93%), vancomycin (86%), ampicillin (35%), erythromycin (28%), gentamycin (4%), amikacin (3%), enrofloxacin (1%), norfloxacin (1%) and no resistance towards ciprofloxacin. RAPD clustering analysis showed that the contamination of C. jejuni in vegetables was likely due to cross contamination at retail markets. Conclusions: C. jejuni contamination in vegetables at retail markets was due to cross contamination. Current finding proved that C. jejuni in small scale vegetables production was less expose towards antibiotic abuse.
    14  Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity
    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk Vera Innokentievna Yankova Tatyana Isaakovna Vitkina Anna Vladimirovna Nazarenko Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast
    2016(1):76-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.10.001
    [Abstract](18) [HTML](0) [PDF 291.21 K](83)
    Objective: To study the mechanism of formation of air quality and to determine the impact of the studied factors on asthma morbidity in Vladivostok. Methods: The evaluation of air pollution in Vladivostok was done using long-term (2008–2012) monitoring data (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.). The levels of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde (mg/m3 ) in six stationary observation posts were assessed. We studied the aerosol suspensions of solid particles, which were collected during snowfall from precipitation (snow) and air in 14 districts with different levels of anthropogenic impact. Melted snow was analyzed on laser granulometry. The impact of air pollution on the distribution of asthma morbidity was evaluated in various age groups by data of federal statistical observation obtained from 8 adults and 7 children municipal clinics in Vladivostok (2008–2012). Results: The content of suspended particulate components of pollution remained more stable, due to the features of atmospheric circulation, rugged terrain and residential development. The nano- and micro-sized particles (0–50 μm), which can absorb highly toxic metals, prevail in dust aerosols. These respirable fractions of particles, even in small doses, can contribute to the increase in asthma morbidity in the city. Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%). It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.
    15  Association between TNF -308G/A polymorphism and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in the Lur population of Iran
    Farhad Shahsavar Ali Mohammad Varzi Alireza Azargoon
    2016(1):80-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.017
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 300.25 K](82)
    Objective: To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) -238G/A and -308G/ A polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the Lur ethnic population of Iran. Methods: TNF polymorphisms genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 100 pulmonary TB patients and 100 healthy controls from the Lur population. Results: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of TNFα -238G/A polymorphism were not significantly different between the pulmonary TB patients and the healthy controls. However, the TNFα -308G/A polymorphism showed a significantly higher frequency of genotype GG in TB subjects compared to healthy controls (94% in the patients vs. 62% in the controls, P = 0.000 1, odds ratio = 0.104, confidence interval = 0.028–0.382). Moreover, in the TNFα -308G/A polymorphism, a significantly higher frequency of G allele was measured in the patient group compared with the control group (97% in the patient group vs. 81% in the control group, P = 0.000 1, odds ratio = 0.132, confidence interval = 0.038–0.462). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TNFα -308G/A polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in the Lur population of Iran. Despite TNFα polymorphisms and susceptibility to pulmonary TB, we suggest that more studies with larger sample size are needed in the future. Increasing our understanding of susceptibility risk factors may help to improve current preventive measures and treatment for TB.
    16  Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria
    Angus Nnamdi Oli Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu David Ufuoma Adje Ifeanyi Ezeobi Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor Christian Chibuzo Ibeh Chika Flourence Ubajaka
    2016(1):84-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.019
    [Abstract](25) [HTML](0) [PDF 617.04 K](87)
    Objective: To assess healthcare workers' involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals. Methods: Validated questionnaires (n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013. Results: Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study, 187 (28.33%) were medical doctors, 44 (6.67%) were pharmacists, 77 (11.67%) were medical laboratory scientist, 35 (5.30%) were waste handlers and 317 (48.03%) were nurses. Generally, the number of workers that have heard about healthcare waste disposal system was above average 424 (69.5%). More health-workers in the government (81.5%) than in private (57.3%) hospitals were aware of healthcare waste disposal system and more in government hospitals attended training on it. The level of waste generated by the two hospitals differed significantly (P = 0.008 6) with the generation level higher in government than private hospitals. The materials for healthcare waste disposal were significantly more available (P = 0.001) in government than private hospitals. There was no significant difference (P = 0.285) in syringes and needles disposal practices in the two hospitals and they were exposed to equal risks (P = 0.851 0). Fifty-six (18.5%) and 140 (45.5%) of the study participants in private and government hospitals respectively were aware of the existence of healthcare waste management committee with 134 (44.4%) and 19 (6.2%) workers confirming that it did not exist in their institutions. The existence of the committee was very low in the private hospitals. Conclusions: The availability of material for waste segregation at point of generation, compliance of healthcare workers to healthcare waste management guidelines and the existence of infection control committee in both hospitals is generally low and unsatisfactory.
    17  Incidental findings of Cysticercus tenuicollis metacestodes in five oryx species
    Stephen Chege Arshad Toosy Ahmed Sakr Ahmed Shawki Sean O'Sullivan Ana Perez de Vargas Tatiana Cavero Amir Islam
    2016(1):90-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2015.09.018
    [Abstract](17) [HTML](0) [PDF 530.92 K](85)
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis) metacestodes in five oryx species kept in Al Ain Zoo animal collection. Methods: This study was based on a retrospective analysis of post-mortem records covering a four year period (July 2010 to July 2014). Results: A total of 213 individual animals were recorded dead during the four year period (July 2010 to July 2014). Out of this, 12 (5.6%) were recorded with C. tenuicollis. More females (8) than males (4) were recorded to have C. tenuicollis, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.373 7). Conclusions: This study shows that, Arabian oryx, beisa oryx, fringe-eared oryx, gemsbok and scimitar-horned oryx are susceptible to C. tenuicollis. Based on the epidemiology and the life cycle of this parasite, it is possible that these captive animals ingested the parasite through contaminated feed which could have happened in the pasture land or stray dogs and wild canidae (e.g. fox) visited the zoo contaminating the oryx feed. Stray dogs and wild canidae should be prevented from visiting pasture land and a captive animal facility.

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